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How have
streaming services
evolved on the
web?
Can we find their contents,
metadata, and graphical user
interfaces in the web archives?
Andreas Lenander Aegidius, PhD, project researcher
WARCnet2022
Aarhus
Introduction
―My background: PhD in Media Studies, -> Digital cultural heritage (2 years),
web archiving (1 year)
―Part of a research project at The Royal Danish Library, the dept. for Digital
Cultural Heritage:
– The collection of streaming (2021-2023).
―Funded by a grant from the Ministry of Culture Denmark: FPK-2021-0004.
21-Oct-22
Introduction
―Mandate: the Legal Deposit Legislation in Denmark (1697- )
―Streaming is part of our digital cultural heritage – we need to map
streaming services in Denmark, their content, metadata, and their
graphical user interfaces (GUIs).
―Need to document access points and collect
various types of published digital cultural
content.
―Need to document ‘the streaming experience’
(incl. what the users interact with) as part of our
contemporary (media) culture.
21-Oct-22
Open explorative approach
―Proposed by A. Fage-Butler, L. Ledderer & N. Brügger (2022)
―mHealth  stream, streamingtjeneste, and streaming service
―Aims:
―1) to verify method,
―2) in-house test of skills (@Danish Webarchive)
―3) extract similar findings about evolution of terms and actors online
―Biggest differences: semantic variants and number of websites.
21-Oct-22
Proposing methods to explore the evolution of the term ‘mHealth’ on the Danish Web archive
by Antoinette Fage-Butler, Loni Ledderer, and Niels Brügger. First Monday, Volume 27, Number 1 - 3 January 2022
doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v27i1.11675
mHealth
―2006-2018
―Search words
– mHealth content_language:"da" -
domain:"twitter.com" -domain:"youtube.com“
- Total No. of documents found: 54,131
– mHealth content_language:"en" -
domain:"twitter.com" -domain:"youtube.com“
- Total No. of documents found: 104,856
– mobil* sundhedsteknologi*
content_language:"da" -domain:"twitter.com"
-domain:"youtube.com
- Total No. of documents found: 478,631
– Extracted formats: Metadata, Text Content,
and Links
21-Oct-22
Stream*
―2003-2021
―Search words
– (text:stream* OR url_search:stream*) AND
content_language:da / :en
- da: 166,168,313 = 1.6Tb
- en: 118,908,489 = 2.9Tb
– text:streamingservice* OR text:streaming?service* OR
url_search:streamingservice* OR
url_search:streaming?service*
- Total No. of documents found: 61,644 = 4.7Gb
– text:streamingtjeneste* OR text:streaming?tjeneste* OR
url_search:streamingtjeneste* OR
url_search:streaming?tjeneste*
- Total No. of documents found: 9,496,920 = 131Gb
– Extracted formats: Metadata, Text Content, and Links
Notebooks (.rmd)
21-Oct-22
Findings:
how often did the terms ‘stream*’,
‘streamingtjeneste*’, and
‘streaming service*’ occur on the
Danish Web?
21-Oct-22
21-Oct-22
Mymusic.dk
(Similar to Myspace.com)
Facebook.com
(ref=stream in URLs)
‘Proposed Method’:
data treatment and
analysis with
notebook.rmd and
Excel:
Web pages where the
words ‘streamingtjeneste’
and streaming service
appeared at least once
21-Oct-22
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
10000000
2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022
Count
(log10)
Year
Streaming service
Streamingtjeneste
1
10
100
1000
10000
Count(log10)
Year
Streaming service
A more granular look – distribution by month
21-Oct-22
1
10
100
1000
10000
100000
1000000
Count
(log10)
Year
Streamingtjeneste
1 2 3
oktober 2022
2006-2012 2013-2015 2016-2021
Actors Categories Occurences Actors Categories Occurences Actors Categories Occurences
capac.dk Private blog 13 twitter.com Social media 32 mediawatch.dk News 72
dr.dk News 12 politiken.dk News 31 politiken.dk News 60
ifpi.dk
Music trade
org. 9 b.dk News 26 twitter.com Social media 57
politiken.dk News 8 beep.tv2.dk News 24 finans.dk News 54
comon.dk News 8 dr.dk
Public service
media 23 soundvenue.com News 54
beep.tv2.dk News 8 mediawatch.dk News 23 dr.dk
Public service
media 46
koda.dk
Music rights
org. 6 computerworld.dk News 20 sondagsavisen.dkNews 44
b.dk News 6 bt.dk News 19 itwatch.dk News 40
gearnyt.dk News 5 flatpanels.dk News 18 jyllands-posten.dkNews 32
online.musik
eren.dk
Musicians’
magazine 5 jyllands-posten.dk News 18 folketidende.dk News 31
overskrift.dk News 5 capac.dk Private blog 17 finanswatch.dk News 31
How the term ‘streamingtjeneste’ emerged and was
propagated in the Danish online setting
Occurrences = per month during each phase
Proposed method not
directly applicable on
larger dataset?
―Error in `mutate()`:
―! Problem while computing `domain2 = paste(...)`.
―Caused by error in `tolower()`:
―! invalid input 'detbenhã¥rde.dk' in 'utf8towcs'
―Backtrace:
― 1. ... %>% filter(source != target)
― 15. urltools::suffix_extract(domain)
― 17. base::tolower(domains)
21-Oct-22
2
The 50 most prominent
streaming services in Denmark
― Can we find year on
year-captures of the 50
most prominent
streaming services in
Denmark: their
presentation websites,
web players’ GUI, apps?
% of the Danish population who use the video
streaming service min. weekly, Q1 2021
Source: Kantar Gallup Digital Life 2021 – Deep Dive Streaming. Data set up by
the Ministry of Culture. Universe: Danish Internet users, age 15-75
Manual search (SolrWayBack index) in the
webarchive for the 50 most prominent
streaming services in Denmark
Web
―Example international URL:
domain:netflix.com AND status_code:200
AND content_language:"da"
―Example Danish URL: domain:dplay.dk
AND status_code:200
―Copy metadata to spreadsheet
―Screenshot w. hyperlinks of ‘best result’
per year
―Copy the PWID.xml
21-Oct-22
Apps
―Identify App store-IDs, often consistent
across the years
―Copy metadata to spreadsheet
―Screenshot w. hyperlinks of ‘best result’ per
year
―Copy the PWID.xml
―Official presentational screenshots from the
archived web pages from Android Market,
Google Play and Apple's App Store, (see
Helmond & van der Vlist 2019)
Simple count: Web sites 40 of 50
No webplayers (GUIs mostly behind pay walls)
Device-specific apps: 26 of 50 (webpage and app store official screenshots)
App name crawl_year(android) crawl_year(itunes)
Spotify 2012,2013,2014,2015, 2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
DR LYD 2011,2012,2013,2014,2016
Netflix 2014,2015,2016 2011,2012,2014,2015,2016
Discovery+ 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
TV2 Play 2013,2014,2015,2016 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
ViaPlay 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
YouSee Tv og Film 2014 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
Youtube 2012,2013,2014,2015 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016
MinBio 2014,2015 2013,2014,2015,2016
Telmore Musik 2014,2015,2016
HBO Nordic 2014,2015,2016 2015,2016,2017
Web
Examples
―YouTube (2011)
―TV2 PLAY (2014)
―DRTV (2018)
21-Oct-22
21-Oct-22
Netflix iOS 2016 DRTV Android 2014 Spotify iOS 2011
Concluding remarks
―Method seems applicaple to search terms with more semantic variants that produce larger
datasets.
―News web sites dominate phases 1 (music), 2 (tech news), 3 (news mixed)
―Initial (broken) hyperlink network analyses suggest very few links between actors across the
three phases
– Pre-clean data extraced from the webarchive or adjust Notebook.rmd to change special
characters?
―Mapped the gaps in the collection of the online materials of 50 streaming services in DK.
―Analyse networks that include the web sites of the 50 most prominent streaming services?
―Validates the library’s strategic goal:
– to collect content via intermediary aggregators (books, music, podcasts)
– to update harvesting tools and pursue deals w. individual publishers (DR, TV2, Google
(YouTube)) see Aegidius (2021).
21-Oct-22
Thank you!
References
oktober 2022
― Fage-Butler, A., Ledderer, L., & Brügger, N. (2022).
Proposing methods to explore the evolution of the term
‘mHealth’ on the Danish Web archive. First Monday, 27(1).
― Helmond, A. & Vlist, F (2019) Platform and App Histories:
Assessing Source Availability in Web Archives and App
Repositories. In The Past Web. Springer
― Aegidius, A. L. (2021). How streamification challenges the
Danish Royal Library’s collection of cultural heritage.
Mediekultur - Journal of media and communication
research, 37(70).
filmstriben

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Warcnet 2022_final.pptx

  • 1. How have streaming services evolved on the web? Can we find their contents, metadata, and graphical user interfaces in the web archives? Andreas Lenander Aegidius, PhD, project researcher WARCnet2022 Aarhus
  • 2. Introduction ―My background: PhD in Media Studies, -> Digital cultural heritage (2 years), web archiving (1 year) ―Part of a research project at The Royal Danish Library, the dept. for Digital Cultural Heritage: – The collection of streaming (2021-2023). ―Funded by a grant from the Ministry of Culture Denmark: FPK-2021-0004. 21-Oct-22
  • 3. Introduction ―Mandate: the Legal Deposit Legislation in Denmark (1697- ) ―Streaming is part of our digital cultural heritage – we need to map streaming services in Denmark, their content, metadata, and their graphical user interfaces (GUIs). ―Need to document access points and collect various types of published digital cultural content. ―Need to document ‘the streaming experience’ (incl. what the users interact with) as part of our contemporary (media) culture. 21-Oct-22
  • 4. Open explorative approach ―Proposed by A. Fage-Butler, L. Ledderer & N. Brügger (2022) ―mHealth  stream, streamingtjeneste, and streaming service ―Aims: ―1) to verify method, ―2) in-house test of skills (@Danish Webarchive) ―3) extract similar findings about evolution of terms and actors online ―Biggest differences: semantic variants and number of websites. 21-Oct-22 Proposing methods to explore the evolution of the term ‘mHealth’ on the Danish Web archive by Antoinette Fage-Butler, Loni Ledderer, and Niels Brügger. First Monday, Volume 27, Number 1 - 3 January 2022 doi: https://dx.doi.org/10.5210/fm.v27i1.11675
  • 5. mHealth ―2006-2018 ―Search words – mHealth content_language:"da" - domain:"twitter.com" -domain:"youtube.com“ - Total No. of documents found: 54,131 – mHealth content_language:"en" - domain:"twitter.com" -domain:"youtube.com“ - Total No. of documents found: 104,856 – mobil* sundhedsteknologi* content_language:"da" -domain:"twitter.com" -domain:"youtube.com - Total No. of documents found: 478,631 – Extracted formats: Metadata, Text Content, and Links 21-Oct-22 Stream* ―2003-2021 ―Search words – (text:stream* OR url_search:stream*) AND content_language:da / :en - da: 166,168,313 = 1.6Tb - en: 118,908,489 = 2.9Tb – text:streamingservice* OR text:streaming?service* OR url_search:streamingservice* OR url_search:streaming?service* - Total No. of documents found: 61,644 = 4.7Gb – text:streamingtjeneste* OR text:streaming?tjeneste* OR url_search:streamingtjeneste* OR url_search:streaming?tjeneste* - Total No. of documents found: 9,496,920 = 131Gb – Extracted formats: Metadata, Text Content, and Links
  • 7. Findings: how often did the terms ‘stream*’, ‘streamingtjeneste*’, and ‘streaming service*’ occur on the Danish Web? 21-Oct-22
  • 9. ‘Proposed Method’: data treatment and analysis with notebook.rmd and Excel: Web pages where the words ‘streamingtjeneste’ and streaming service appeared at least once 21-Oct-22 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 10000000 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 Count (log10) Year Streaming service Streamingtjeneste
  • 10. 1 10 100 1000 10000 Count(log10) Year Streaming service A more granular look – distribution by month 21-Oct-22 1 10 100 1000 10000 100000 1000000 Count (log10) Year Streamingtjeneste 1 2 3
  • 11. oktober 2022 2006-2012 2013-2015 2016-2021 Actors Categories Occurences Actors Categories Occurences Actors Categories Occurences capac.dk Private blog 13 twitter.com Social media 32 mediawatch.dk News 72 dr.dk News 12 politiken.dk News 31 politiken.dk News 60 ifpi.dk Music trade org. 9 b.dk News 26 twitter.com Social media 57 politiken.dk News 8 beep.tv2.dk News 24 finans.dk News 54 comon.dk News 8 dr.dk Public service media 23 soundvenue.com News 54 beep.tv2.dk News 8 mediawatch.dk News 23 dr.dk Public service media 46 koda.dk Music rights org. 6 computerworld.dk News 20 sondagsavisen.dkNews 44 b.dk News 6 bt.dk News 19 itwatch.dk News 40 gearnyt.dk News 5 flatpanels.dk News 18 jyllands-posten.dkNews 32 online.musik eren.dk Musicians’ magazine 5 jyllands-posten.dk News 18 folketidende.dk News 31 overskrift.dk News 5 capac.dk Private blog 17 finanswatch.dk News 31 How the term ‘streamingtjeneste’ emerged and was propagated in the Danish online setting Occurrences = per month during each phase
  • 12. Proposed method not directly applicable on larger dataset? ―Error in `mutate()`: ―! Problem while computing `domain2 = paste(...)`. ―Caused by error in `tolower()`: ―! invalid input 'detbenhã¥rde.dk' in 'utf8towcs' ―Backtrace: ― 1. ... %>% filter(source != target) ― 15. urltools::suffix_extract(domain) ― 17. base::tolower(domains) 21-Oct-22
  • 13. 2 The 50 most prominent streaming services in Denmark ― Can we find year on year-captures of the 50 most prominent streaming services in Denmark: their presentation websites, web players’ GUI, apps? % of the Danish population who use the video streaming service min. weekly, Q1 2021 Source: Kantar Gallup Digital Life 2021 – Deep Dive Streaming. Data set up by the Ministry of Culture. Universe: Danish Internet users, age 15-75
  • 14. Manual search (SolrWayBack index) in the webarchive for the 50 most prominent streaming services in Denmark Web ―Example international URL: domain:netflix.com AND status_code:200 AND content_language:"da" ―Example Danish URL: domain:dplay.dk AND status_code:200 ―Copy metadata to spreadsheet ―Screenshot w. hyperlinks of ‘best result’ per year ―Copy the PWID.xml 21-Oct-22 Apps ―Identify App store-IDs, often consistent across the years ―Copy metadata to spreadsheet ―Screenshot w. hyperlinks of ‘best result’ per year ―Copy the PWID.xml ―Official presentational screenshots from the archived web pages from Android Market, Google Play and Apple's App Store, (see Helmond & van der Vlist 2019)
  • 15. Simple count: Web sites 40 of 50 No webplayers (GUIs mostly behind pay walls) Device-specific apps: 26 of 50 (webpage and app store official screenshots) App name crawl_year(android) crawl_year(itunes) Spotify 2012,2013,2014,2015, 2011,2012,2013,2014,2015,2016 DR LYD 2011,2012,2013,2014,2016 Netflix 2014,2015,2016 2011,2012,2014,2015,2016 Discovery+ 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016 TV2 Play 2013,2014,2015,2016 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016 ViaPlay 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016 YouSee Tv og Film 2014 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016 Youtube 2012,2013,2014,2015 2012,2013,2014,2015,2016 MinBio 2014,2015 2013,2014,2015,2016 Telmore Musik 2014,2015,2016 HBO Nordic 2014,2015,2016 2015,2016,2017
  • 16. Web Examples ―YouTube (2011) ―TV2 PLAY (2014) ―DRTV (2018) 21-Oct-22
  • 17. 21-Oct-22 Netflix iOS 2016 DRTV Android 2014 Spotify iOS 2011
  • 18. Concluding remarks ―Method seems applicaple to search terms with more semantic variants that produce larger datasets. ―News web sites dominate phases 1 (music), 2 (tech news), 3 (news mixed) ―Initial (broken) hyperlink network analyses suggest very few links between actors across the three phases – Pre-clean data extraced from the webarchive or adjust Notebook.rmd to change special characters? ―Mapped the gaps in the collection of the online materials of 50 streaming services in DK. ―Analyse networks that include the web sites of the 50 most prominent streaming services? ―Validates the library’s strategic goal: – to collect content via intermediary aggregators (books, music, podcasts) – to update harvesting tools and pursue deals w. individual publishers (DR, TV2, Google (YouTube)) see Aegidius (2021). 21-Oct-22
  • 19. Thank you! References oktober 2022 ― Fage-Butler, A., Ledderer, L., & Brügger, N. (2022). Proposing methods to explore the evolution of the term ‘mHealth’ on the Danish Web archive. First Monday, 27(1). ― Helmond, A. & Vlist, F (2019) Platform and App Histories: Assessing Source Availability in Web Archives and App Repositories. In The Past Web. Springer ― Aegidius, A. L. (2021). How streamification challenges the Danish Royal Library’s collection of cultural heritage. Mediekultur - Journal of media and communication research, 37(70). filmstriben

Editor's Notes

  1. Was search the Danish webarchive – opportunity arose
  2. Sml mhealth data og streaming data We extracted Terabytes of text content only to find that the method only relies on metadata and links. 15Gb metadata.csv for stream* da and 2,7Gb for streamingtjeneste – csv w. 9mio rows
  3. Supplementary files – simple rewrite and perhaps a Notable change: removing special characters from large datafile w. R Studio
  4. Briefly stream* then focus on streamingtjeneste
  5. 15Gb metadata.csv for stream* da with notebook.rmd-> Web Archive own tools- NGRAM (1998-2022). Too many semantic variants stretching back to adverting stickers (streamers) and fly-fishing equipment.
  6. Duplicates removed (912751 ~10%) and first archived version of a web page chosen TDC PLAY (music) 2008, Spotify 2011, Netflix 2012
  7. Actors for streamingtjeneste (not for streaming service atm) 50 or more web pages Interpret a higher occurrence of the term ‘ST’ per Web site as an indication that the actors (Web sites) were important and had influence in the area. Actors prevalence: Phase 1 Music (Spotify) phase 2 tech news, phase 3 tech and financial news broad mix. Predominately news web sites assume articles about streaming services. DR, Pol, and mediawatch re-occuring across phases. no streaming service web sites
  8. Predominately news web sites assume articles about streaming services. Three blue no streaming service web sites
  9. A matter of proper data cleaning. Method extracts hyperlinks for network analysis – only link count for phase 1: Streamingtjeneste 2006-2011 and Streaming service 2006-2013
  10. Outside the proposed method. We already know that content like sound-files and video files are better collected via intermediary aggregators or via direct agreements with publishers.
  11. No .apk or .ipa files in the webarchive! Nor any embedded playback/webplayer GUIs
  12. SolrWayback Playback Note: search results from itunes no playback after 2016
  13. Eksempel web og app fund. Contextual data / metadata missing from captures
  14. Examples apps collected from captured app store pages: Netflix iOS 2016 DRTV android 2014 spotify iOS 2011
  15. The analysis so far…