SlideShare a Scribd company logo
WAR AND PEACE: THE WEAK STATES
                         By Austen Uwosomah
Introduction
Weak states are predominantly found in some least developed states of the Middle East
like Afghanistan; in Eastern Europe like Yugoslavia and many more among Sub-Saharan
Africa states like the Republic of Congo, Somalia, Angola, Liberia, Chad, Sierra Leone,
etc. A seemingly glaring characteristic of weak states in Africa is the consistency of civil
and political conflicts that more often than not culminate into wars. The consequence of
this is the continual sought by external political and economic interventionists to restore
peace to such states. In this write-up, I shall examine problems that confront weak states
in Africa and put forward some basic ways that may be used to confront the problems.
Additionally, I shall also suggest in my opinion a most convincing response to solving
the problems of weak states.

Problems of Weak States
“State strength or weakness is relatively measured by the state’s ability and effectiveness
to provide the fundamental political goods associated with statehood viz: physical
security, legitimate political institutions, economic management, and social welfare”.
(Stewart Patrick, 2006). When these are absent, a state may thus be referred to as weak,
failed, collapsed or dysfunctional.

There are a number of reasons why problems occur in weak states. The causes of these
problems are not farfetched. Sørensen (2004:132) summarily ascribes “personal rule, the
system which replaced the colonial administration after independence” came to the states
as the major cause. According to Sørensen (Ibid.), “the new rulers were by no means
insulated from society: they were closely connected to it via ties of clan, kingship and
ethnic affiliation…which paved way for clientelism, patronage and nepotism” as well as
corruption.

The self-rule administration by African states after independence, “lack legitimate
governing and maintained a monopoly on the use of force to control borders, territory,
public order and crime. In the political sphere, institutions that provide effective
administration and checks on abuse of power; protect basic rights and freedoms and hold
leaders accountable, are absent. In the economic arena, the states fail to carry out basic
policies conducive for private enterprise, open trade, natural resource management and
foreign investment that are necessary for economic growth. Finally, in the social domain,
they fail to meet the basic needs of their populations by making little efforts to
eradicating extreme poverty and hunger and minimal investments in health, education
and other social services” (Stewart Patrick, Ibid.).

Confronting the Problems of Weak States
The seemingly glaring outcome of the aforementioned problems in weak states is the
upsurge of civil and political turbulence by the factions of citizens who feel aggravated
by the poor governance from their leaders. Thus wars or revolution break out that
subsequently create enabling ground for security threats to Western countries as the
warring state could become base for anti-Western terrorist sects. Perhaps this is why
political and economic interventionists from the West go to extreme to restoring peace in
belligerent states. However, not all weak states have same problems. Different problems
abound for different states. It is with recourse to the type of problem that is inherent in a
given state that should determine the interventional strategy to be meted out therein.

Civil war is mostly the resultant problem of dysfunctional states which in turn leads to
destabilization of their economies. Past experiences have shown that the warring factions
have often failed to heed to peace brokerage from external interventionists. With regards
to that, as a solution, pertinent that I propose the assertions of Luttwak, (1999); Herbst,
(1989/96/97) and Tilly, (1985) in Sørensen (2004:137), which aver that civil embattled
states should be left to fight till they naturally get tired and fed up with the act; or till
there emerges victors and vanquished. Only at this juncture will the states be ready to
embrace peace brokerage from external interventionists.

Another suggestion to confronting problems of weak states will be for the international
interventionists to accept secession that is creation of new states with regards to
expanding borders (Sørensen, 2004:138). For this to be successful, Stephen Ellis, (2005)
says “peacemaking efforts and rebuilding strategies must take into account … economic
issues such as facilitating cross-border trade… travel, work…” that would integrate
affected states elites or governments to resolve ethnic related crisis that could dovetail
into wars.

Conclusively, suffice to say that a most convincing response to tackling problems of
embattled states is for the external interventionists to embark on international trusteeship
via providing security for the affected territories. External peacekeeping force should be
deployed to join force with the side that has benign national interest of the troubled state
and not with the self- motivated interest of the intervening party or parties.

Word count: 780

References

Ellis, Stephen (2005) “How to Rebuild Africa” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 84 Issue 5 Sept-Oct 2005.

Patrick, Stewart (2006), “ States and Global Threats: Fact or Fiction?” The Washington
                         Weak




Quarterly-Spring: www.twq.com/06spring/docs/06spring_patrick.pdf

Sørensen, G. (2004) ‘The Transformation of the States Beyond the Myth of Globalization’, New
York: Palgrave Macmillan.

More Related Content

What's hot

Unit #1 & 2 Student Version
Unit #1 & 2 Student VersionUnit #1 & 2 Student Version
Unit #1 & 2 Student Version
Nick Allgyer
 
Fortune mlilo presentation early warning signals
Fortune mlilo presentation   early warning signalsFortune mlilo presentation   early warning signals
Fortune mlilo presentation early warning signals
Fortune Mlilo
 
A seldon plan for the philippines
A seldon plan for the philippinesA seldon plan for the philippines
A seldon plan for the philippines
Martijn Sinninghe Damsté
 
The World Mind Vol 2 No 2
The World Mind Vol 2 No 2The World Mind Vol 2 No 2
The World Mind Vol 2 No 2
Emily Dalgo
 
Political Economy
Political EconomyPolitical Economy
Political Economy
PurnavSoundankar
 
Cj5n1 4
Cj5n1 4Cj5n1 4
Political Economy
Political EconomyPolitical Economy
Political Economy
Chen Wei Jiang
 
Hamilton and Jefferson Notes
Hamilton and Jefferson NotesHamilton and Jefferson Notes
Hamilton and Jefferson Notes
lnettels
 
Lesson #3: The Political Economy
Lesson #3:  The Political EconomyLesson #3:  The Political Economy
Lesson #3: The Political Economy
gravy503
 
Confession of an economict hitman
Confession of an economict hitmanConfession of an economict hitman
Confession of an economict hitman
Mashriqi
 
The effects of war and peace on foreign
The effects of war and peace on foreignThe effects of war and peace on foreign
The effects of war and peace on foreign
Academic Research Paper Writing Services
 
Wolf
WolfWolf
Wolf
Peter Ho
 
WORLD ORDER AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE
WORLD ORDER AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCEWORLD ORDER AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE
WORLD ORDER AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE
FaHaD .H. NooR
 
The process and challenges of nation building
The process and challenges of nation buildingThe process and challenges of nation building
The process and challenges of nation building
Alexander Decker
 
Ap Gov Ch1
Ap Gov Ch1Ap Gov Ch1
Ap Gov Ch1
Matt Baier
 
Globalisation & Law Final Assignment (Distinction)
Globalisation & Law Final Assignment (Distinction)Globalisation & Law Final Assignment (Distinction)
Globalisation & Law Final Assignment (Distinction)
Sue Stone
 
Political economy lec 3
Political economy lec 3Political economy lec 3
Political economy lec 3
University of Balochistan
 
Equality, risks and certainty
Equality, risks and certaintyEquality, risks and certainty
Equality, risks and certainty
teppoeskelinen
 
Monetary Treason
Monetary TreasonMonetary Treason
Monetary Treason
saveamericafoundation
 
国際政治基礎a 2015 class 13 lect 11
国際政治基礎a 2015 class 13 lect 11国際政治基礎a 2015 class 13 lect 11
国際政治基礎a 2015 class 13 lect 11
HStevenGreen
 

What's hot (20)

Unit #1 & 2 Student Version
Unit #1 & 2 Student VersionUnit #1 & 2 Student Version
Unit #1 & 2 Student Version
 
Fortune mlilo presentation early warning signals
Fortune mlilo presentation   early warning signalsFortune mlilo presentation   early warning signals
Fortune mlilo presentation early warning signals
 
A seldon plan for the philippines
A seldon plan for the philippinesA seldon plan for the philippines
A seldon plan for the philippines
 
The World Mind Vol 2 No 2
The World Mind Vol 2 No 2The World Mind Vol 2 No 2
The World Mind Vol 2 No 2
 
Political Economy
Political EconomyPolitical Economy
Political Economy
 
Cj5n1 4
Cj5n1 4Cj5n1 4
Cj5n1 4
 
Political Economy
Political EconomyPolitical Economy
Political Economy
 
Hamilton and Jefferson Notes
Hamilton and Jefferson NotesHamilton and Jefferson Notes
Hamilton and Jefferson Notes
 
Lesson #3: The Political Economy
Lesson #3:  The Political EconomyLesson #3:  The Political Economy
Lesson #3: The Political Economy
 
Confession of an economict hitman
Confession of an economict hitmanConfession of an economict hitman
Confession of an economict hitman
 
The effects of war and peace on foreign
The effects of war and peace on foreignThe effects of war and peace on foreign
The effects of war and peace on foreign
 
Wolf
WolfWolf
Wolf
 
WORLD ORDER AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE
WORLD ORDER AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCEWORLD ORDER AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE
WORLD ORDER AND GLOBAL GOVERNANCE
 
The process and challenges of nation building
The process and challenges of nation buildingThe process and challenges of nation building
The process and challenges of nation building
 
Ap Gov Ch1
Ap Gov Ch1Ap Gov Ch1
Ap Gov Ch1
 
Globalisation & Law Final Assignment (Distinction)
Globalisation & Law Final Assignment (Distinction)Globalisation & Law Final Assignment (Distinction)
Globalisation & Law Final Assignment (Distinction)
 
Political economy lec 3
Political economy lec 3Political economy lec 3
Political economy lec 3
 
Equality, risks and certainty
Equality, risks and certaintyEquality, risks and certainty
Equality, risks and certainty
 
Monetary Treason
Monetary TreasonMonetary Treason
Monetary Treason
 
国際政治基礎a 2015 class 13 lect 11
国際政治基礎a 2015 class 13 lect 11国際政治基礎a 2015 class 13 lect 11
国際政治基礎a 2015 class 13 lect 11
 

Viewers also liked

Layouts
LayoutsLayouts
Layouts
Zakmichael94
 
The wall 1.3.10
The wall   1.3.10The wall   1.3.10
The wall 1.3.10
Dave P Lloyd
 
κακοποίηση παιδιών
κακοποίηση παιδιώνκακοποίηση παιδιών
κακοποίηση παιδιώνgdo
 
5. Simpsons En South Park
5. Simpsons En South Park5. Simpsons En South Park
5. Simpsons En South Park
Jeroen_Bourgonjon
 
Health News & Articles | Healthy Living
Health News & Articles | Healthy LivingHealth News & Articles | Healthy Living
Health News & Articles | Healthy Living
abortivecatcall84
 
αρχαϊκή τέχνη
αρχαϊκή τέχνηαρχαϊκή τέχνη
αρχαϊκή τέχνη
Κατερίνα Προκοπίου
 
The Role Of The Media In Rise And Fall Of The Nation State
The Role Of The Media In Rise And Fall Of The Nation StateThe Role Of The Media In Rise And Fall Of The Nation State
The Role Of The Media In Rise And Fall Of The Nation State
Austen Uche Uwosomah
 
Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 2, Complete Document)
Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 2, Complete Document)Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 2, Complete Document)
Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 2, Complete Document)
Austen Uche Uwosomah
 

Viewers also liked (8)

Layouts
LayoutsLayouts
Layouts
 
The wall 1.3.10
The wall   1.3.10The wall   1.3.10
The wall 1.3.10
 
κακοποίηση παιδιών
κακοποίηση παιδιώνκακοποίηση παιδιών
κακοποίηση παιδιών
 
5. Simpsons En South Park
5. Simpsons En South Park5. Simpsons En South Park
5. Simpsons En South Park
 
Health News & Articles | Healthy Living
Health News & Articles | Healthy LivingHealth News & Articles | Healthy Living
Health News & Articles | Healthy Living
 
αρχαϊκή τέχνη
αρχαϊκή τέχνηαρχαϊκή τέχνη
αρχαϊκή τέχνη
 
The Role Of The Media In Rise And Fall Of The Nation State
The Role Of The Media In Rise And Fall Of The Nation StateThe Role Of The Media In Rise And Fall Of The Nation State
The Role Of The Media In Rise And Fall Of The Nation State
 
Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 2, Complete Document)
Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 2, Complete Document)Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 2, Complete Document)
Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 2, Complete Document)
 

Similar to War And Peace

Chapter 5 Introductin to Civics and Ethics LART 1001 (1).pptx
Chapter 5  Introductin to Civics and Ethics  LART 1001 (1).pptxChapter 5  Introductin to Civics and Ethics  LART 1001 (1).pptx
Chapter 5 Introductin to Civics and Ethics LART 1001 (1).pptx
daryhero42
 
POLITICAL SETTLEMENTS AND RESISTANCE TO INCLUSIVE PEACE IN AFRICA
POLITICAL SETTLEMENTS AND RESISTANCE TO INCLUSIVE PEACE IN AFRICAPOLITICAL SETTLEMENTS AND RESISTANCE TO INCLUSIVE PEACE IN AFRICA
POLITICAL SETTLEMENTS AND RESISTANCE TO INCLUSIVE PEACE IN AFRICA
Professor Alain Aimé Ndedi
 
The Contemporary Global Governance of the
The Contemporary Global Governance of theThe Contemporary Global Governance of the
The Contemporary Global Governance of the
JaysonAtigaLimLampan
 
Ej890656
Ej890656Ej890656
Ej890656
Ej890656Ej890656
Leadership dynamics in nigeria by prof nwaneri BEECHES SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
Leadership dynamics in nigeria by prof nwaneri BEECHES SCHOOL OF BUSINESSLeadership dynamics in nigeria by prof nwaneri BEECHES SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
Leadership dynamics in nigeria by prof nwaneri BEECHES SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
Nnamdi Anazia
 
(It is for Persuasive Speech) My topic is America and Middle East .docx
(It is for Persuasive Speech) My topic is America and Middle East .docx(It is for Persuasive Speech) My topic is America and Middle East .docx
(It is for Persuasive Speech) My topic is America and Middle East .docx
marilynnhoare
 
Presentation science politic
Presentation science politicPresentation science politic
Presentation science politic
Roslan Amran
 
Political science part xi
Political science part xiPolitical science part xi
Political science part xi
Alona Salva
 
global trend Chapter 1.presentation power point
global trend Chapter 1.presentation power pointglobal trend Chapter 1.presentation power point
global trend Chapter 1.presentation power point
yohannisyohannis54
 
World War One Instability
World War One InstabilityWorld War One Instability
World War One Instability
Carla Jardine
 
Betselot liberalism and Neo liberalism.ppt
Betselot liberalism and Neo liberalism.pptBetselot liberalism and Neo liberalism.ppt
Betselot liberalism and Neo liberalism.ppt
YoomifTube
 
Poverty, Exclusion, and Dissent - Support for Regimes in Developing Countries
Poverty, Exclusion, and Dissent - Support for Regimes in Developing CountriesPoverty, Exclusion, and Dissent - Support for Regimes in Developing Countries
Poverty, Exclusion, and Dissent - Support for Regimes in Developing Countries
Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics
 
The World Peace Plan
The World Peace PlanThe World Peace Plan
The World Peace Plan
suzeranda
 
Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat4 5
Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat4 5Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat4 5
Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat4 5
Carter F. Smith, J.D., Ph.D.
 
midtermcontemp2.docx
midtermcontemp2.docxmidtermcontemp2.docx
midtermcontemp2.docx
MiyoGigi
 
Tabakian Pols 7 Fall/Spring 2014 Power 10
Tabakian Pols 7 Fall/Spring 2014 Power 10Tabakian Pols 7 Fall/Spring 2014 Power 10
Tabakian Pols 7 Fall/Spring 2014 Power 10
John Paul Tabakian
 
IR CONCEPTS.pptx
IR CONCEPTS.pptxIR CONCEPTS.pptx
IR CONCEPTS.pptx
NuwanGunawardena3
 
Did the War on Terror Deter Ungoverned Spaces? Not in Africa
Did the War on Terror Deter Ungoverned Spaces? Not in AfricaDid the War on Terror Deter Ungoverned Spaces? Not in Africa
Did the War on Terror Deter Ungoverned Spaces? Not in Africa
Stockholm Institute of Transition Economics
 
Non
NonNon

Similar to War And Peace (20)

Chapter 5 Introductin to Civics and Ethics LART 1001 (1).pptx
Chapter 5  Introductin to Civics and Ethics  LART 1001 (1).pptxChapter 5  Introductin to Civics and Ethics  LART 1001 (1).pptx
Chapter 5 Introductin to Civics and Ethics LART 1001 (1).pptx
 
POLITICAL SETTLEMENTS AND RESISTANCE TO INCLUSIVE PEACE IN AFRICA
POLITICAL SETTLEMENTS AND RESISTANCE TO INCLUSIVE PEACE IN AFRICAPOLITICAL SETTLEMENTS AND RESISTANCE TO INCLUSIVE PEACE IN AFRICA
POLITICAL SETTLEMENTS AND RESISTANCE TO INCLUSIVE PEACE IN AFRICA
 
The Contemporary Global Governance of the
The Contemporary Global Governance of theThe Contemporary Global Governance of the
The Contemporary Global Governance of the
 
Ej890656
Ej890656Ej890656
Ej890656
 
Ej890656
Ej890656Ej890656
Ej890656
 
Leadership dynamics in nigeria by prof nwaneri BEECHES SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
Leadership dynamics in nigeria by prof nwaneri BEECHES SCHOOL OF BUSINESSLeadership dynamics in nigeria by prof nwaneri BEECHES SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
Leadership dynamics in nigeria by prof nwaneri BEECHES SCHOOL OF BUSINESS
 
(It is for Persuasive Speech) My topic is America and Middle East .docx
(It is for Persuasive Speech) My topic is America and Middle East .docx(It is for Persuasive Speech) My topic is America and Middle East .docx
(It is for Persuasive Speech) My topic is America and Middle East .docx
 
Presentation science politic
Presentation science politicPresentation science politic
Presentation science politic
 
Political science part xi
Political science part xiPolitical science part xi
Political science part xi
 
global trend Chapter 1.presentation power point
global trend Chapter 1.presentation power pointglobal trend Chapter 1.presentation power point
global trend Chapter 1.presentation power point
 
World War One Instability
World War One InstabilityWorld War One Instability
World War One Instability
 
Betselot liberalism and Neo liberalism.ppt
Betselot liberalism and Neo liberalism.pptBetselot liberalism and Neo liberalism.ppt
Betselot liberalism and Neo liberalism.ppt
 
Poverty, Exclusion, and Dissent - Support for Regimes in Developing Countries
Poverty, Exclusion, and Dissent - Support for Regimes in Developing CountriesPoverty, Exclusion, and Dissent - Support for Regimes in Developing Countries
Poverty, Exclusion, and Dissent - Support for Regimes in Developing Countries
 
The World Peace Plan
The World Peace PlanThe World Peace Plan
The World Peace Plan
 
Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat4 5
Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat4 5Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat4 5
Crj3400 Terrorism Understanding The Threat4 5
 
midtermcontemp2.docx
midtermcontemp2.docxmidtermcontemp2.docx
midtermcontemp2.docx
 
Tabakian Pols 7 Fall/Spring 2014 Power 10
Tabakian Pols 7 Fall/Spring 2014 Power 10Tabakian Pols 7 Fall/Spring 2014 Power 10
Tabakian Pols 7 Fall/Spring 2014 Power 10
 
IR CONCEPTS.pptx
IR CONCEPTS.pptxIR CONCEPTS.pptx
IR CONCEPTS.pptx
 
Did the War on Terror Deter Ungoverned Spaces? Not in Africa
Did the War on Terror Deter Ungoverned Spaces? Not in AfricaDid the War on Terror Deter Ungoverned Spaces? Not in Africa
Did the War on Terror Deter Ungoverned Spaces? Not in Africa
 
Non
NonNon
Non
 

More from Austen Uche Uwosomah

Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 1, Preliminary pages)
Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 1, Preliminary pages)Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 1, Preliminary pages)
Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 1, Preliminary pages)
Austen Uche Uwosomah
 
Occupational hazards of journalists in nigeria
Occupational hazards of journalists in nigeriaOccupational hazards of journalists in nigeria
Occupational hazards of journalists in nigeria
Austen Uche Uwosomah
 
The emergence of a europe wide public sphere slow but surely
The emergence of a europe wide public sphere slow but surelyThe emergence of a europe wide public sphere slow but surely
The emergence of a europe wide public sphere slow but surely
Austen Uche Uwosomah
 
European identity over national identity
European identity over national identityEuropean identity over national identity
European identity over national identity
Austen Uche Uwosomah
 
Transformation Of Media System
Transformation Of Media SystemTransformation Of Media System
Transformation Of Media System
Austen Uche Uwosomah
 
Multilevel Governance
Multilevel GovernanceMultilevel Governance
Multilevel Governance
Austen Uche Uwosomah
 
Television Without Frontiers
Television Without FrontiersTelevision Without Frontiers
Television Without Frontiers
Austen Uche Uwosomah
 
Effects Of Market Liberalization On European Broadcasting Media Systems
Effects Of Market Liberalization On European Broadcasting Media Systems Effects Of Market Liberalization On European Broadcasting Media Systems
Effects Of Market Liberalization On European Broadcasting Media Systems
Austen Uche Uwosomah
 
REPORTING AFRICA IN THE GLOBAL AGE: THE DIFFERENCE GLOBALISATION MAKES
 REPORTING AFRICA IN THE GLOBAL AGE: THE DIFFERENCE GLOBALISATION MAKES REPORTING AFRICA IN THE GLOBAL AGE: THE DIFFERENCE GLOBALISATION MAKES
REPORTING AFRICA IN THE GLOBAL AGE: THE DIFFERENCE GLOBALISATION MAKES
Austen Uche Uwosomah
 

More from Austen Uche Uwosomah (9)

Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 1, Preliminary pages)
Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 1, Preliminary pages)Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 1, Preliminary pages)
Making sense of nollywood Movies (Part 1, Preliminary pages)
 
Occupational hazards of journalists in nigeria
Occupational hazards of journalists in nigeriaOccupational hazards of journalists in nigeria
Occupational hazards of journalists in nigeria
 
The emergence of a europe wide public sphere slow but surely
The emergence of a europe wide public sphere slow but surelyThe emergence of a europe wide public sphere slow but surely
The emergence of a europe wide public sphere slow but surely
 
European identity over national identity
European identity over national identityEuropean identity over national identity
European identity over national identity
 
Transformation Of Media System
Transformation Of Media SystemTransformation Of Media System
Transformation Of Media System
 
Multilevel Governance
Multilevel GovernanceMultilevel Governance
Multilevel Governance
 
Television Without Frontiers
Television Without FrontiersTelevision Without Frontiers
Television Without Frontiers
 
Effects Of Market Liberalization On European Broadcasting Media Systems
Effects Of Market Liberalization On European Broadcasting Media Systems Effects Of Market Liberalization On European Broadcasting Media Systems
Effects Of Market Liberalization On European Broadcasting Media Systems
 
REPORTING AFRICA IN THE GLOBAL AGE: THE DIFFERENCE GLOBALISATION MAKES
 REPORTING AFRICA IN THE GLOBAL AGE: THE DIFFERENCE GLOBALISATION MAKES REPORTING AFRICA IN THE GLOBAL AGE: THE DIFFERENCE GLOBALISATION MAKES
REPORTING AFRICA IN THE GLOBAL AGE: THE DIFFERENCE GLOBALISATION MAKES
 

Recently uploaded

Prescriptive analytics BA4206 Anna University PPT
Prescriptive analytics BA4206 Anna University PPTPrescriptive analytics BA4206 Anna University PPT
Prescriptive analytics BA4206 Anna University PPT
Freelance
 
The Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac Sign
The Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac SignThe Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac Sign
The Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac Sign
my Pandit
 
2024.06 CPMN Cambridge - Beyond Now-Next-Later.pdf
2024.06 CPMN Cambridge - Beyond Now-Next-Later.pdf2024.06 CPMN Cambridge - Beyond Now-Next-Later.pdf
2024.06 CPMN Cambridge - Beyond Now-Next-Later.pdf
Cambridge Product Management Network
 
Science Around Us Module 2 Matter Around Us
Science Around Us Module 2 Matter Around UsScience Around Us Module 2 Matter Around Us
Science Around Us Module 2 Matter Around Us
PennapaKeavsiri
 
Kirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Lithium Presentation
Kirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Lithium PresentationKirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Lithium Presentation
Kirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Lithium Presentation
Kirill Klip
 
Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta Matta Matka Kalyan panel Chart Indian Matka Dpbos...
Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta Matta Matka Kalyan panel Chart Indian Matka Dpbos...Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta Matta Matka Kalyan panel Chart Indian Matka Dpbos...
Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta Matta Matka Kalyan panel Chart Indian Matka Dpbos...
➒➌➎➏➑➐➋➑➐➐Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta Matka Kalyan Chart Indian Matka
 
Ellen Burstyn: From Detroit Dreamer to Hollywood Legend | CIO Women Magazine
Ellen Burstyn: From Detroit Dreamer to Hollywood Legend | CIO Women MagazineEllen Burstyn: From Detroit Dreamer to Hollywood Legend | CIO Women Magazine
Ellen Burstyn: From Detroit Dreamer to Hollywood Legend | CIO Women Magazine
CIOWomenMagazine
 
High-Quality IPTV Monthly Subscription for $15
High-Quality IPTV Monthly Subscription for $15High-Quality IPTV Monthly Subscription for $15
High-Quality IPTV Monthly Subscription for $15
advik4387
 
Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...
Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...
Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...
IPLTech Electric
 
1Q24_HYUNDAI CAPITAL SERVICES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
1Q24_HYUNDAI CAPITAL SERVICES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES1Q24_HYUNDAI CAPITAL SERVICES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
1Q24_HYUNDAI CAPITAL SERVICES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
irhcs
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results
 
The latest Heat Pump Manual from Newentide
The latest Heat Pump Manual from NewentideThe latest Heat Pump Manual from Newentide
The latest Heat Pump Manual from Newentide
JoeYangGreatMachiner
 
Efficient PHP Development Solutions for Dynamic Web Applications
Efficient PHP Development Solutions for Dynamic Web ApplicationsEfficient PHP Development Solutions for Dynamic Web Applications
Efficient PHP Development Solutions for Dynamic Web Applications
Harwinder Singh
 
Lukas Rycek - GreenChemForCE - project structure.pptx
Lukas Rycek - GreenChemForCE - project structure.pptxLukas Rycek - GreenChemForCE - project structure.pptx
Lukas Rycek - GreenChemForCE - project structure.pptx
pavelborek
 
list of states and organizations .pdf
list of  states  and  organizations .pdflist of  states  and  organizations .pdf
list of states and organizations .pdf
Rbc Rbcua
 
Pro Tips for Effortless Contract Management
Pro Tips for Effortless Contract ManagementPro Tips for Effortless Contract Management
Pro Tips for Effortless Contract Management
Eternity Paralegal Services
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results
 
1 Circular 003_2023 ISO 27001_2022 Transition Arrangments v3.pdf
1 Circular 003_2023 ISO 27001_2022 Transition Arrangments v3.pdf1 Circular 003_2023 ISO 27001_2022 Transition Arrangments v3.pdf
1 Circular 003_2023 ISO 27001_2022 Transition Arrangments v3.pdf
ISONIKELtd
 
Kirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Copper Presentation
Kirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Copper PresentationKirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Copper Presentation
Kirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Copper Presentation
Kirill Klip
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Prescriptive analytics BA4206 Anna University PPT
Prescriptive analytics BA4206 Anna University PPTPrescriptive analytics BA4206 Anna University PPT
Prescriptive analytics BA4206 Anna University PPT
 
The Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac Sign
The Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac SignThe Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac Sign
The Steadfast and Reliable Bull: Taurus Zodiac Sign
 
2024.06 CPMN Cambridge - Beyond Now-Next-Later.pdf
2024.06 CPMN Cambridge - Beyond Now-Next-Later.pdf2024.06 CPMN Cambridge - Beyond Now-Next-Later.pdf
2024.06 CPMN Cambridge - Beyond Now-Next-Later.pdf
 
Science Around Us Module 2 Matter Around Us
Science Around Us Module 2 Matter Around UsScience Around Us Module 2 Matter Around Us
Science Around Us Module 2 Matter Around Us
 
Kirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Lithium Presentation
Kirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Lithium PresentationKirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Lithium Presentation
Kirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Lithium Presentation
 
Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta Matta Matka Kalyan panel Chart Indian Matka Dpbos...
Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta Matta Matka Kalyan panel Chart Indian Matka Dpbos...Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta Matta Matka Kalyan panel Chart Indian Matka Dpbos...
Dpboss Matka Guessing Satta Matta Matka Kalyan panel Chart Indian Matka Dpbos...
 
Ellen Burstyn: From Detroit Dreamer to Hollywood Legend | CIO Women Magazine
Ellen Burstyn: From Detroit Dreamer to Hollywood Legend | CIO Women MagazineEllen Burstyn: From Detroit Dreamer to Hollywood Legend | CIO Women Magazine
Ellen Burstyn: From Detroit Dreamer to Hollywood Legend | CIO Women Magazine
 
High-Quality IPTV Monthly Subscription for $15
High-Quality IPTV Monthly Subscription for $15High-Quality IPTV Monthly Subscription for $15
High-Quality IPTV Monthly Subscription for $15
 
Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...
Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...
Sustainable Logistics for Cost Reduction_ IPLTech Electric's Eco-Friendly Tra...
 
1Q24_HYUNDAI CAPITAL SERVICES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
1Q24_HYUNDAI CAPITAL SERVICES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES1Q24_HYUNDAI CAPITAL SERVICES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
1Q24_HYUNDAI CAPITAL SERVICES INC. AND SUBSIDIARIES
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
 
The latest Heat Pump Manual from Newentide
The latest Heat Pump Manual from NewentideThe latest Heat Pump Manual from Newentide
The latest Heat Pump Manual from Newentide
 
Efficient PHP Development Solutions for Dynamic Web Applications
Efficient PHP Development Solutions for Dynamic Web ApplicationsEfficient PHP Development Solutions for Dynamic Web Applications
Efficient PHP Development Solutions for Dynamic Web Applications
 
Lukas Rycek - GreenChemForCE - project structure.pptx
Lukas Rycek - GreenChemForCE - project structure.pptxLukas Rycek - GreenChemForCE - project structure.pptx
Lukas Rycek - GreenChemForCE - project structure.pptx
 
list of states and organizations .pdf
list of  states  and  organizations .pdflist of  states  and  organizations .pdf
list of states and organizations .pdf
 
Pro Tips for Effortless Contract Management
Pro Tips for Effortless Contract ManagementPro Tips for Effortless Contract Management
Pro Tips for Effortless Contract Management
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
 
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan ChartSatta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
Satta Matka Dpboss Kalyan Matka Results Kalyan Chart
 
1 Circular 003_2023 ISO 27001_2022 Transition Arrangments v3.pdf
1 Circular 003_2023 ISO 27001_2022 Transition Arrangments v3.pdf1 Circular 003_2023 ISO 27001_2022 Transition Arrangments v3.pdf
1 Circular 003_2023 ISO 27001_2022 Transition Arrangments v3.pdf
 
Kirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Copper Presentation
Kirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Copper PresentationKirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Copper Presentation
Kirill Klip GEM Royalty TNR Gold Copper Presentation
 

War And Peace

  • 1. WAR AND PEACE: THE WEAK STATES By Austen Uwosomah Introduction Weak states are predominantly found in some least developed states of the Middle East like Afghanistan; in Eastern Europe like Yugoslavia and many more among Sub-Saharan Africa states like the Republic of Congo, Somalia, Angola, Liberia, Chad, Sierra Leone, etc. A seemingly glaring characteristic of weak states in Africa is the consistency of civil and political conflicts that more often than not culminate into wars. The consequence of this is the continual sought by external political and economic interventionists to restore peace to such states. In this write-up, I shall examine problems that confront weak states in Africa and put forward some basic ways that may be used to confront the problems. Additionally, I shall also suggest in my opinion a most convincing response to solving the problems of weak states. Problems of Weak States “State strength or weakness is relatively measured by the state’s ability and effectiveness to provide the fundamental political goods associated with statehood viz: physical security, legitimate political institutions, economic management, and social welfare”. (Stewart Patrick, 2006). When these are absent, a state may thus be referred to as weak, failed, collapsed or dysfunctional. There are a number of reasons why problems occur in weak states. The causes of these problems are not farfetched. Sørensen (2004:132) summarily ascribes “personal rule, the system which replaced the colonial administration after independence” came to the states as the major cause. According to Sørensen (Ibid.), “the new rulers were by no means insulated from society: they were closely connected to it via ties of clan, kingship and ethnic affiliation…which paved way for clientelism, patronage and nepotism” as well as corruption. The self-rule administration by African states after independence, “lack legitimate governing and maintained a monopoly on the use of force to control borders, territory, public order and crime. In the political sphere, institutions that provide effective administration and checks on abuse of power; protect basic rights and freedoms and hold leaders accountable, are absent. In the economic arena, the states fail to carry out basic policies conducive for private enterprise, open trade, natural resource management and foreign investment that are necessary for economic growth. Finally, in the social domain, they fail to meet the basic needs of their populations by making little efforts to eradicating extreme poverty and hunger and minimal investments in health, education and other social services” (Stewart Patrick, Ibid.). Confronting the Problems of Weak States The seemingly glaring outcome of the aforementioned problems in weak states is the upsurge of civil and political turbulence by the factions of citizens who feel aggravated by the poor governance from their leaders. Thus wars or revolution break out that subsequently create enabling ground for security threats to Western countries as the warring state could become base for anti-Western terrorist sects. Perhaps this is why
  • 2. political and economic interventionists from the West go to extreme to restoring peace in belligerent states. However, not all weak states have same problems. Different problems abound for different states. It is with recourse to the type of problem that is inherent in a given state that should determine the interventional strategy to be meted out therein. Civil war is mostly the resultant problem of dysfunctional states which in turn leads to destabilization of their economies. Past experiences have shown that the warring factions have often failed to heed to peace brokerage from external interventionists. With regards to that, as a solution, pertinent that I propose the assertions of Luttwak, (1999); Herbst, (1989/96/97) and Tilly, (1985) in Sørensen (2004:137), which aver that civil embattled states should be left to fight till they naturally get tired and fed up with the act; or till there emerges victors and vanquished. Only at this juncture will the states be ready to embrace peace brokerage from external interventionists. Another suggestion to confronting problems of weak states will be for the international interventionists to accept secession that is creation of new states with regards to expanding borders (Sørensen, 2004:138). For this to be successful, Stephen Ellis, (2005) says “peacemaking efforts and rebuilding strategies must take into account … economic issues such as facilitating cross-border trade… travel, work…” that would integrate affected states elites or governments to resolve ethnic related crisis that could dovetail into wars. Conclusively, suffice to say that a most convincing response to tackling problems of embattled states is for the external interventionists to embark on international trusteeship via providing security for the affected territories. External peacekeeping force should be deployed to join force with the side that has benign national interest of the troubled state and not with the self- motivated interest of the intervening party or parties. Word count: 780 References Ellis, Stephen (2005) “How to Rebuild Africa” Foreign Affairs, Vol. 84 Issue 5 Sept-Oct 2005. Patrick, Stewart (2006), “ States and Global Threats: Fact or Fiction?” The Washington Weak Quarterly-Spring: www.twq.com/06spring/docs/06spring_patrick.pdf Sørensen, G. (2004) ‘The Transformation of the States Beyond the Myth of Globalization’, New York: Palgrave Macmillan.