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André Walker-Loud
Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
Leadership class computing for basic physics research
AI and OpenPOWER Meet up
25 March 2018
h20.AI HQ
Leadership Computing for basic physics research
My research does not use AI (so far)
The problem is very well formulated, but needs
Exascale computing to flourish
Motivate and describe our research and need for
computing
★I am a consumer of optimized software
Standard Model of Particle Physics
Formation of Matter
T ≃ 1 trillion K (1012 K)
t ≃ 30 micro seconds (3x10-5 s)
Formation of light nuclei
Nuclear physics to the rescue!
T ≃ 1 billion K (109 K)
t ≃ 3 minutes
Formation of Hydrogen (electrons captured by protons)
Photons are liberated and run free!
T ≃ 4,000 K
t ≃ 380,000 years
Formation of first stars
Formation of our solar system
T ≃ 20 K
t ≃ 200 Million years
Death of stars, creation of heavy nuclei and life,
creation of new, ultradense states of nuclear matter
Supernova
“We are all made of star stuff”
much coming from the ejecta of supernova
Standard Model
of particle physics
Everything we know…
Formation of light nuclei
Nuclear physics to the rescue!
T ≃ 1 billion K (109 K)
t ≃ 3 minutes
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
when systems cool, they settle into the lowest energy state
n p
mass/energy
⌧n ⇠ 15 min
Mn Mp = 1.29333217(42) MeV<latexit sha1_base64="dw/EZ6t3ppCIg1t3OV0qdJBD4TM=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="dw/EZ6t3ppCIg1t3OV0qdJBD4TM=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="dw/EZ6t3ppCIg1t3OV0qdJBD4TM=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="dw/EZ6t3ppCIg1t3OV0qdJBD4TM=">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</latexit>
Mn + Mp
2
= 938.9187473(58) MeV
<latexit sha1_base64="qI068kma2K5rgrRfO5kHYsxIwAM=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="qI068kma2K5rgrRfO5kHYsxIwAM=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="qI068kma2K5rgrRfO5kHYsxIwAM=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="qI068kma2K5rgrRfO5kHYsxIwAM=">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</latexit>
EHydrogen = 13.6 eV<latexit sha1_base64="B4dbSwHBC9q5tYEffdEE2pFaBas=">AAACHHicbZDLSgMxFIYz9VbrrerSTbAIClJmVLwshKIILhWsFtpSMpnTNpjJDMkZsQzzDD6CT+FWV67EreDCdzGtFbT6Q+Dj/Odwcn4/lsKg6747ubHxicmp/HRhZnZufqG4uHRpokRzqPJIRrrmMwNSKKiiQAm1WAMLfQlX/vVx37+6AW1EpC6wF0MzZB0l2oIztKVWceOklTYQblGH6Wkv0FEHVJbRQ+ptl3fpt0PhMmsVS27ZHYj+BW8IJTLUWav40QginoSgkEtmTN1zY2ymTKPgErJCIzEQM37NOlC3qFgIZjO4EbEZYDMdXJfRNWsGtB1p+xTSQfXncMpCY3qhbztDhl0z6vWL/3n1BNv7zVSoOEFQ/GtRO5EUI9qPigZCA0fZs8C4FvbblHeZZhxtoAWbhzd6/V+obpUPyt75TqlyNAwmT1bIKlknHtkjFXJKzkiVcHJHHsgjeXLunWfnxXn9as05w5ll8kvO2ydJPqHN</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="B4dbSwHBC9q5tYEffdEE2pFaBas=">AAACHHicbZDLSgMxFIYz9VbrrerSTbAIClJmVLwshKIILhWsFtpSMpnTNpjJDMkZsQzzDD6CT+FWV67EreDCdzGtFbT6Q+Dj/Odwcn4/lsKg6747ubHxicmp/HRhZnZufqG4uHRpokRzqPJIRrrmMwNSKKiiQAm1WAMLfQlX/vVx37+6AW1EpC6wF0MzZB0l2oIztKVWceOklTYQblGH6Wkv0FEHVJbRQ+ptl3fpt0PhMmsVS27ZHYj+BW8IJTLUWav40QginoSgkEtmTN1zY2ymTKPgErJCIzEQM37NOlC3qFgIZjO4EbEZYDMdXJfRNWsGtB1p+xTSQfXncMpCY3qhbztDhl0z6vWL/3n1BNv7zVSoOEFQ/GtRO5EUI9qPigZCA0fZs8C4FvbblHeZZhxtoAWbhzd6/V+obpUPyt75TqlyNAwmT1bIKlknHtkjFXJKzkiVcHJHHsgjeXLunWfnxXn9as05w5ll8kvO2ydJPqHN</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="B4dbSwHBC9q5tYEffdEE2pFaBas=">AAACHHicbZDLSgMxFIYz9VbrrerSTbAIClJmVLwshKIILhWsFtpSMpnTNpjJDMkZsQzzDD6CT+FWV67EreDCdzGtFbT6Q+Dj/Odwcn4/lsKg6747ubHxicmp/HRhZnZufqG4uHRpokRzqPJIRrrmMwNSKKiiQAm1WAMLfQlX/vVx37+6AW1EpC6wF0MzZB0l2oIztKVWceOklTYQblGH6Wkv0FEHVJbRQ+ptl3fpt0PhMmsVS27ZHYj+BW8IJTLUWav40QginoSgkEtmTN1zY2ymTKPgErJCIzEQM37NOlC3qFgIZjO4EbEZYDMdXJfRNWsGtB1p+xTSQfXncMpCY3qhbztDhl0z6vWL/3n1BNv7zVSoOEFQ/GtRO5EUI9qPigZCA0fZs8C4FvbblHeZZhxtoAWbhzd6/V+obpUPyt75TqlyNAwmT1bIKlknHtkjFXJKzkiVcHJHHsgjeXLunWfnxXn9as05w5ll8kvO2ydJPqHN</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="B4dbSwHBC9q5tYEffdEE2pFaBas=">AAACHHicbZDLSgMxFIYz9VbrrerSTbAIClJmVLwshKIILhWsFtpSMpnTNpjJDMkZsQzzDD6CT+FWV67EreDCdzGtFbT6Q+Dj/Odwcn4/lsKg6747ubHxicmp/HRhZnZufqG4uHRpokRzqPJIRrrmMwNSKKiiQAm1WAMLfQlX/vVx37+6AW1EpC6wF0MzZB0l2oIztKVWceOklTYQblGH6Wkv0FEHVJbRQ+ptl3fpt0PhMmsVS27ZHYj+BW8IJTLUWav40QginoSgkEtmTN1zY2ymTKPgErJCIzEQM37NOlC3qFgIZjO4EbEZYDMdXJfRNWsGtB1p+xTSQfXncMpCY3qhbztDhl0z6vWL/3n1BNv7zVSoOEFQ/GtRO5EUI9qPigZCA0fZs8C4FvbblHeZZhxtoAWbhzd6/V+obpUPyt75TqlyNAwmT1bIKlknHtkjFXJKzkiVcHJHHsgjeXLunWfnxXn9as05w5ll8kvO2ydJPqHN</latexit>
➥
n p
mass/energy
what prevented this from destroying all the neutrons?
when systems cool, they settle into the lowest energy state
if nothing else were to happen in the next few
minutes, our universe would be full of only Hydrogen
⌧n ⇠ 15 min
➥
deuteron: 2.2 MeV binding
a system with protons and neutrons can collapse to a compact
bound state, the deuteron: the attractive binding of a neutron
and proton allows neutrons to survive when embedded in nuclei
mass/energy
when systems cool, they settle into the lowest energy state
Answer: formation of nuclei
➥
(Hydrogen energy = 13.6 eV)
The deuterium “bottleneck”
➥
deuteron: 2.2 MeV binding
mass/energy
p
n until T ≃ 100 keV (1 billion K),
t ≃ 3 min
⌘B/ ⇠ 10 9
helium: -28.3 MeV
The deuterium “bottleneck” is broken, neutrons flow into He
➥ deuteron: -2.2 MeV
tritium: -8.5 MeV
➥
➥
He stability: ↑,↓ protons and ↑,↓ neutrons can be packed together
mass/energy
{
The early universe contains 75% H and 25% 4He by mass fraction
(“all” deuterium converted to 4He)
Helium
Hydrogen
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
t ⇠ 1 sec t ⇠ 3 min
T ⇠ 1 MeV T ⇠ 0.1 MeV
e
¯⌫e
t ⇠ 15min
T ⇠ 0.1 MeV
t ⇠ 3+
min
T ⇠ 0.01 MeV
This entire time, neutrons are decaying to
protons
e
¯⌫e
⌧n =
(5172.0 ± 1.1) seconds
1 + 3g2
A<latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit>
Czarnecki

Marciano

Sirlin
Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
t ⇠ 1 sec t ⇠ 3 min
T ⇠ 1 MeV T ⇠ 0.1 MeV
e
¯⌫e
t ⇠ 15min
T ⇠ 0.1 MeV
t ⇠ 3+
min
T ⇠ 0.01 MeV
This entire time, neutrons are decaying to
protons
e
¯⌫e
⌧n =
(5172.0 ± 1.1) seconds
1 + 3g2
A<latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit>
Important coupling
emergent from Nuclear
Physics

Can we predict this quantity?
Yes, with a big computer
Czarnecki

Marciano

Sirlin
⌧n =
(5172.0 ± 1.1) seconds
1 + 3g2
A<latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">AAACMHicbZDBShxBEIZ71ESziXE1x1wal4AhMkyvinoQ1FxyVMhGYWcz9PTU7DZ29wzdNeIyzNPkEfIUuerJg0iueQp71z0kmh8aPuqvorr+tFTSYRTdBnPzCy9eLi69ar1+s/x2pb269s0VlRXQE4Uq7HnKHShpoIcSFZyXFrhOFZylF58n/tklWCcL8xXHJQw0HxqZS8HRl5L2QYy8Sgw9oHFuuag3dthuN4ziUrOQfaQxwhVaXVMHojCZa5qa0U90iw6To+/dJml3ojCaij4HNoMOmekkad/FWSEqDQaF4s71WVTioOYWpVDQtOLKQcnFBR9C36PhGtxmdilLN8VBPb24oR+8mdG8sP4ZpNPq38M1186Ndeo7NceRe+pNiv/z+hXme4NamrJCMOJxUV4pigWdxEczaUGgGnvgwkr/bSpG3CeHPuSWz4M9vf459LrhfshOtzuHx7Nglsh7sk42CCO75JB8ISekRwT5QX6Ra3IT/Axug/vg92PrXDCbeUf+UfDnAbPyp1U=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit>
Czarnecki

Marciano

Sirlin
Why is understanding the neutron lifetime interesting?
877.5 880.0 882.5 885.0 887.5 890.0 892.5 895.0
⌧n/s
0.2460
0.2465
0.2470
0.2475
0.2480
0.2485
0.2490
0.2495
0.2500
4
HeMassfraction
Predicted primordial 4He mass
fraction of the universe as a function
of the neutron lifetime
Observed primordial 4He
mass fraction of the
universe
Two different methods of measuring the
neutron lifetime disagree at the 99% level
bottle and beam
Is one of the experiments
wrong? Or is there new
physics hiding here?
In order to compute gA, we need
massive computers
Neutrons and protons are made
out of quarks (lines) and gluons
(not drawn)
Quarks and gluons are described
by a theory called Quantum
Chromodynamics (QCD)
We simulate QCD with a
numerical method known as
lattice QCD (depicted by the
grid)
Simulating the
decay of the
neutron
In order to compute gA, we need
massive computers
Neutrons and protons are made
out of quarks (lines) and gluons
(not drawn)
Quarks and gluons are described
by a theory called Quantum
Chromodynamics (QCD)
We simulate QCD with a
numerical method known as
lattice QCD (depicted by the
grid)
The strength of this interaction is
given by 1+gA
Simulating the
decay of the
neutron
Introduction to LQCD
space
time
C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO†
(0)i =
1
Z
Z
DUdet(D + M)e
R
d4
xL[U(t,x,y,z)]
O[U](t)O[U]†
(0)
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Introduction to LQCD
space
time
Probability
C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO†
(0)i =
1
Z
Z
DUdet(D + M)e
R
d4
xL[U(t,x,y,z)]
O[U](t)O[U]†
(0)
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Introduction to LQCD
space
time
Probability
{U1, U2, U3, . . . , UN }
Markov Chain Monte Carlo
C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO†
(0)i =
1
Z
Z
DUdet(D + M)e
R
d4
xL[U(t,x,y,z)]
O[U](t)O[U]†
(0)
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Introduction to LQCD
space
time
Probability
{U1, U2, U3, . . . , UN }
Markov Chain Monte Carlo
⇡
1
N
NX
i=1
O(t)O†
(0)[Ui]
C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO†
(0)i =
1
Z
Z
DUdet(D + M)e
R
d4
xL[U(t,x,y,z)]
O[U](t)O[U]†
(0)
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Introduction to LQCD
+O
✓
1
p
N
◆
space
time
Probability
{U1, U2, U3, . . . , UN }
Markov Chain Monte Carlo
⇡
1
N
NX
i=1
O(t)O†
(0)[Ui]
C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO†
(0)i =
1
Z
Z
DUdet(D + M)e
R
d4
xL[U(t,x,y,z)]
O[U](t)O[U]†
(0)
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Introduction to LQCD
+O
✓
1
p
N
◆
space
time
Probability
{U1, U2, U3, . . . , UN }
Markov Chain Monte Carlo
⇡
1
N
NX
i=1
O(t)O†
(0)[Ui]
C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO†
(0)i =
1
Z
Z
DUdet(D + M)e
R
d4
xL[U(t,x,y,z)]
O[U](t)O[U]†
(0)
<latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit>
a ⇠ 10 16
meters ⇠
1
10
size proton
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Introduction to LQCD
+O
✓
1
p
N
◆
space
time
Probability
{U1, U2, U3, . . . , UN }
Markov Chain Monte Carlo
⇡
1
N
NX
i=1
O(t)O†
(0)[Ui]
C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO†
(0)i =
1
Z
Z
DUdet(D + M)e
R
d4
xL[U(t,x,y,z)]
O[U](t)O[U]†
(0)
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a ⇠ 10 16
meters ⇠
1
10
size proton
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L ⇠ 6 ⇥ 10 15
meters ⇠ 6 ⇥ size proton<latexit sha1_base64="uDVwCgC7OUPkE1Lpu7EAjiAXKtg=">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</latexit><latexit 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Introduction to LQCD
+O
✓
1
p
N
◆
space
time
Probability
{U1, U2, U3, . . . , UN }
Markov Chain Monte Carlo
⇡
1
N
NX
i=1
O(t)O†
(0)[Ui]
C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO†
(0)i =
1
Z
Z
DUdet(D + M)e
R
d4
xL[U(t,x,y,z)]
O[U](t)O[U]†
(0)
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a ⇠ 10 16
meters ⇠
1
10
size proton
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L ⇠ 6 ⇥ 10 15
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Can AI help us improve the
Monte Carlo Integral?
LQCD Systematics
continuum limit
infinite volume limit
physical
pion masses
exponentially bad signal-
to-noise problem
tcomp / V 5/4
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tcomp /
1
a6<latexit sha1_base64="HUn/5SqfgUXXRUQTSUPHKb6D6Bo=">AAACEXicdVDLSsNAFJ34rPUVdSnIYBFcSElEfOyKblxWMLbQ1DCZTNqhk8wwMymUkJ2f4Fe41ZUrcesXuPBfnD6E+jpw4XDOvdx7TygYVdpx3q2Z2bn5hcXSUnl5ZXVt3d7YvFE8k5h4mDMumyFShNGUeJpqRppCEpSEjDTC3sXQb/SJVJSn13ogSDtBnZTGFCNtpMDe0UGOeSIK6AvJhebQjyXCuVvk6Pa4COyKW3VGgM4v8mVVwAT1wP7wI46zhKQaM6RUy3WEbudIaooZKcp+pohAuIc6pGVoihKiDqI+FWpE2/nopQLuGTOCMZemUg1H6vRwjhKlBkloOhOku+qnNxT/8lqZjk/bOU1FpkmKx4vijEHz+TAfGFFJsGYDQxCW1JwNcReZSLRJsTydx//EO6yeVd2ro0rtfBJMCWyDXbAPXHACauAS1IEHMLgDD+ARPFn31rP1Yr2OW2esycwW+Abr7RMTMJ4c</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="HUn/5SqfgUXXRUQTSUPHKb6D6Bo=">AAACEXicdVDLSsNAFJ34rPUVdSnIYBFcSElEfOyKblxWMLbQ1DCZTNqhk8wwMymUkJ2f4Fe41ZUrcesXuPBfnD6E+jpw4XDOvdx7TygYVdpx3q2Z2bn5hcXSUnl5ZXVt3d7YvFE8k5h4mDMumyFShNGUeJpqRppCEpSEjDTC3sXQb/SJVJSn13ogSDtBnZTGFCNtpMDe0UGOeSIK6AvJhebQjyXCuVvk6Pa4COyKW3VGgM4v8mVVwAT1wP7wI46zhKQaM6RUy3WEbudIaooZKcp+pohAuIc6pGVoihKiDqI+FWpE2/nopQLuGTOCMZemUg1H6vRwjhKlBkloOhOku+qnNxT/8lqZjk/bOU1FpkmKx4vijEHz+TAfGFFJsGYDQxCW1JwNcReZSLRJsTydx//EO6yeVd2ro0rtfBJMCWyDXbAPXHACauAS1IEHMLgDD+ARPFn31rP1Yr2OW2esycwW+Abr7RMTMJ4c</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="HUn/5SqfgUXXRUQTSUPHKb6D6Bo=">AAACEXicdVDLSsNAFJ34rPUVdSnIYBFcSElEfOyKblxWMLbQ1DCZTNqhk8wwMymUkJ2f4Fe41ZUrcesXuPBfnD6E+jpw4XDOvdx7TygYVdpx3q2Z2bn5hcXSUnl5ZXVt3d7YvFE8k5h4mDMumyFShNGUeJpqRppCEpSEjDTC3sXQb/SJVJSn13ogSDtBnZTGFCNtpMDe0UGOeSIK6AvJhebQjyXCuVvk6Pa4COyKW3VGgM4v8mVVwAT1wP7wI46zhKQaM6RUy3WEbudIaooZKcp+pohAuIc6pGVoihKiDqI+FWpE2/nopQLuGTOCMZemUg1H6vRwjhKlBkloOhOku+qnNxT/8lqZjk/bOU1FpkmKx4vijEHz+TAfGFFJsGYDQxCW1JwNcReZSLRJsTydx//EO6yeVd2ro0rtfBJMCWyDXbAPXHACauAS1IEHMLgDD+ARPFn31rP1Yr2OW2esycwW+Abr7RMTMJ4c</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="HUn/5SqfgUXXRUQTSUPHKb6D6Bo=">AAACEXicdVDLSsNAFJ34rPUVdSnIYBFcSElEfOyKblxWMLbQ1DCZTNqhk8wwMymUkJ2f4Fe41ZUrcesXuPBfnD6E+jpw4XDOvdx7TygYVdpx3q2Z2bn5hcXSUnl5ZXVt3d7YvFE8k5h4mDMumyFShNGUeJpqRppCEpSEjDTC3sXQb/SJVJSn13ogSDtBnZTGFCNtpMDe0UGOeSIK6AvJhebQjyXCuVvk6Pa4COyKW3VGgM4v8mVVwAT1wP7wI46zhKQaM6RUy3WEbudIaooZKcp+pohAuIc6pGVoihKiDqI+FWpE2/nopQLuGTOCMZemUg1H6vRwjhKlBkloOhOku+qnNxT/8lqZjk/bOU1FpkmKx4vijEHz+TAfGFFJsGYDQxCW1JwNcReZSLRJsTydx//EO6yeVd2ro0rtfBJMCWyDXbAPXHACauAS1IEHMLgDD+ARPFn31rP1Yr2OW2esycwW+Abr7RMTMJ4c</latexit>
V = N3
L ⇥ NT<latexit sha1_base64="x8mfGtXy1NinVZFKLkyCJKkB0AE=">AAACB3icbVDLSsNAFJ34rPUVHzs3g0VwISVRQV0IRTcuRCo0baGNYTKZtkMnkzAzKdTQH/Ar3OrKlbj1M1z4L07TLLT1wMC559zLnXv8mFGpLOvLmJtfWFxaLqwUV9fWNzbNre26jBKBiYMjFommjyRhlBNHUcVIMxYEhT4jDb9/PfYbAyIkjXhNDWPihqjLaYdipLTkmbt1eAnvvNuHE9hWNCRSFzXPLFllKwOcJXZOSiBH1TO/20GEk5BwhRmSsmVbsXJTJBTFjIyK7USSGOE+6pKWphzpRUfBgMYyo26aHTKCB9oMYCcS+nEFM/X3cIpCKYehrztDpHpy2huL/3mtRHXO3ZTyOFGE48miTsKgiuA4FRhQQbBiQ00QFlR/G+IeEggrnV1R52FPXz9LnOPyRdm+Py1VrvJgCmAP7INDYIMzUAE3oAocgMEjeAYv4NV4Mt6Md+Nj0jpn5DM74A+Mzx9SyZgL</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="x8mfGtXy1NinVZFKLkyCJKkB0AE=">AAACB3icbVDLSsNAFJ34rPUVHzs3g0VwISVRQV0IRTcuRCo0baGNYTKZtkMnkzAzKdTQH/Ar3OrKlbj1M1z4L07TLLT1wMC559zLnXv8mFGpLOvLmJtfWFxaLqwUV9fWNzbNre26jBKBiYMjFommjyRhlBNHUcVIMxYEhT4jDb9/PfYbAyIkjXhNDWPihqjLaYdipLTkmbt1eAnvvNuHE9hWNCRSFzXPLFllKwOcJXZOSiBH1TO/20GEk5BwhRmSsmVbsXJTJBTFjIyK7USSGOE+6pKWphzpRUfBgMYyo26aHTKCB9oMYCcS+nEFM/X3cIpCKYehrztDpHpy2huL/3mtRHXO3ZTyOFGE48miTsKgiuA4FRhQQbBiQ00QFlR/G+IeEggrnV1R52FPXz9LnOPyRdm+Py1VrvJgCmAP7INDYIMzUAE3oAocgMEjeAYv4NV4Mt6Md+Nj0jpn5DM74A+Mzx9SyZgL</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="x8mfGtXy1NinVZFKLkyCJKkB0AE=">AAACB3icbVDLSsNAFJ34rPUVHzs3g0VwISVRQV0IRTcuRCo0baGNYTKZtkMnkzAzKdTQH/Ar3OrKlbj1M1z4L07TLLT1wMC559zLnXv8mFGpLOvLmJtfWFxaLqwUV9fWNzbNre26jBKBiYMjFommjyRhlBNHUcVIMxYEhT4jDb9/PfYbAyIkjXhNDWPihqjLaYdipLTkmbt1eAnvvNuHE9hWNCRSFzXPLFllKwOcJXZOSiBH1TO/20GEk5BwhRmSsmVbsXJTJBTFjIyK7USSGOE+6pKWphzpRUfBgMYyo26aHTKCB9oMYCcS+nEFM/X3cIpCKYehrztDpHpy2huL/3mtRHXO3ZTyOFGE48miTsKgiuA4FRhQQbBiQ00QFlR/G+IeEggrnV1R52FPXz9LnOPyRdm+Py1VrvJgCmAP7INDYIMzUAE3oAocgMEjeAYv4NV4Mt6Md+Nj0jpn5DM74A+Mzx9SyZgL</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="x8mfGtXy1NinVZFKLkyCJKkB0AE=">AAACB3icbVDLSsNAFJ34rPUVHzs3g0VwISVRQV0IRTcuRCo0baGNYTKZtkMnkzAzKdTQH/Ar3OrKlbj1M1z4L07TLLT1wMC559zLnXv8mFGpLOvLmJtfWFxaLqwUV9fWNzbNre26jBKBiYMjFommjyRhlBNHUcVIMxYEhT4jDb9/PfYbAyIkjXhNDWPihqjLaYdipLTkmbt1eAnvvNuHE9hWNCRSFzXPLFllKwOcJXZOSiBH1TO/20GEk5BwhRmSsmVbsXJTJBTFjIyK7USSGOE+6pKWphzpRUfBgMYyo26aHTKCB9oMYCcS+nEFM/X3cIpCKYehrztDpHpy2huL/3mtRHXO3ZTyOFGE48miTsKgiuA4FRhQQbBiQ00QFlR/G+IeEggrnV1R52FPXz9LnOPyRdm+Py1VrvJgCmAP7INDYIMzUAE3oAocgMEjeAYv4NV4Mt6Md+Nj0jpn5DM74A+Mzx9SyZgL</latexit>
n p
O(tO)<latexit sha1_base64="64Byp1A1+yuZv50WhtYtpJTV+3c=">AAACD3icbVDLSsNAFJ3UV62vqEtdBItQQUoigrorunFnBWMLbQiTyaQdOpmEmUmhhGz8BL/Cra5ciVs/wYX/4iTNorYeGDhzzr3ce48XUyKkaX5rlaXlldW16nptY3Nre0ff3XsUUcIRtlFEI971oMCUMGxLIinuxhzD0KO4441ucr8zxlyQiD3ISYydEA4YCQiCUkmuftgPoRwiSNO7rCHddOabnbh63WyaBYxFYpWkDkq0Xf2n70coCTGTiEIhepYZSyeFXBJEcVbrJwLHEI3gAPcUZTDE4tQfk1gU1EmLgzLjWJm+EURcPSaNQp1tTmEoxCT0VGW+r5j3cvE/r5fI4NJJCYsTiRmaDgoSasjIyNMxfMIxknSiCEScqLUNNIQcIqkyrKk8rPnrF4l91rxqWvfn9dZ1GUwVHIAj0AAWuAAtcAvawAYIPIEX8AretGftXfvQPqelFa3s2Qd/oH39AprWnVU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="64Byp1A1+yuZv50WhtYtpJTV+3c=">AAACD3icbVDLSsNAFJ3UV62vqEtdBItQQUoigrorunFnBWMLbQiTyaQdOpmEmUmhhGz8BL/Cra5ciVs/wYX/4iTNorYeGDhzzr3ce48XUyKkaX5rlaXlldW16nptY3Nre0ff3XsUUcIRtlFEI971oMCUMGxLIinuxhzD0KO4441ucr8zxlyQiD3ISYydEA4YCQiCUkmuftgPoRwiSNO7rCHddOabnbh63WyaBYxFYpWkDkq0Xf2n70coCTGTiEIhepYZSyeFXBJEcVbrJwLHEI3gAPcUZTDE4tQfk1gU1EmLgzLjWJm+EURcPSaNQp1tTmEoxCT0VGW+r5j3cvE/r5fI4NJJCYsTiRmaDgoSasjIyNMxfMIxknSiCEScqLUNNIQcIqkyrKk8rPnrF4l91rxqWvfn9dZ1GUwVHIAj0AAWuAAtcAvawAYIPIEX8AretGftXfvQPqelFa3s2Qd/oH39AprWnVU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="64Byp1A1+yuZv50WhtYtpJTV+3c=">AAACD3icbVDLSsNAFJ3UV62vqEtdBItQQUoigrorunFnBWMLbQiTyaQdOpmEmUmhhGz8BL/Cra5ciVs/wYX/4iTNorYeGDhzzr3ce48XUyKkaX5rlaXlldW16nptY3Nre0ff3XsUUcIRtlFEI971oMCUMGxLIinuxhzD0KO4441ucr8zxlyQiD3ISYydEA4YCQiCUkmuftgPoRwiSNO7rCHddOabnbh63WyaBYxFYpWkDkq0Xf2n70coCTGTiEIhepYZSyeFXBJEcVbrJwLHEI3gAPcUZTDE4tQfk1gU1EmLgzLjWJm+EURcPSaNQp1tTmEoxCT0VGW+r5j3cvE/r5fI4NJJCYsTiRmaDgoSasjIyNMxfMIxknSiCEScqLUNNIQcIqkyrKk8rPnrF4l91rxqWvfn9dZ1GUwVHIAj0AAWuAAtcAvawAYIPIEX8AretGftXfvQPqelFa3s2Qd/oH39AprWnVU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="64Byp1A1+yuZv50WhtYtpJTV+3c=">AAACD3icbVDLSsNAFJ3UV62vqEtdBItQQUoigrorunFnBWMLbQiTyaQdOpmEmUmhhGz8BL/Cra5ciVs/wYX/4iTNorYeGDhzzr3ce48XUyKkaX5rlaXlldW16nptY3Nre0ff3XsUUcIRtlFEI971oMCUMGxLIinuxhzD0KO4441ucr8zxlyQiD3ISYydEA4YCQiCUkmuftgPoRwiSNO7rCHddOabnbh63WyaBYxFYpWkDkq0Xf2n70coCTGTiEIhepYZSyeFXBJEcVbrJwLHEI3gAPcUZTDE4tQfk1gU1EmLgzLjWJm+EURcPSaNQp1tTmEoxCT0VGW+r5j3cvE/r5fI4NJJCYsTiRmaDgoSasjIyNMxfMIxknSiCEScqLUNNIQcIqkyrKk8rPnrF4l91rxqWvfn9dZ1GUwVHIAj0AAWuAAtcAvawAYIPIEX8AretGftXfvQPqelFa3s2Qd/oH39AprWnVU=</latexit>
“SQ(t,0) = Quark Propagator”
Solve the Quark Propagators
with Conjugate Gradient -
Matrix Multiplication
Video-game hardware (GPUs)
are what allow us to do the
calculations very efficiently
Simulating the
decay of the
neutron
[D + M]y,z Sz,x = y,x<latexit sha1_base64="8qgP4thuzNQa3hWmDkoLbs/kuhI=">AAACInicbZDLSsNAFIYn3o23qks3wSIIlpqIoC4EURduBEWrQhPCZHLSDp1cmDkRa8hj+Ag+hVtduRJXgr6L09qFtwMDH/9/DmfOH2SCK7TtN2NoeGR0bHxi0pyanpmdq8wvXKg0lwwaLBWpvAqoAsETaCBHAVeZBBoHAi6DzkHPv7wGqXianGM3Ay+mrYRHnFHUkl9ZdwVE2DQP145NV/JWGz2/6NZuS/PML25rN6W5a7ohCKQ9+ab0K1W7bvfL+gvOAKpkUCd+5cMNU5bHkCATVKmmY2foFVQiZwJK080VZJR1aAuaGhMag6qF1zxTffSK/o2ltaLN0IpSqV+CVl/9PlzQWKluHOjOmGJb/fZ64n9eM8do2yt4kuUICftaFOXCwtTqBWaFXAJD0dVAmeT62xZrU0kZ6lhNnYfz+/q/0Nio79Sd083q3v4gmAmyRJbJKnHIFtkjR+SENAgjd+SBPJIn4954Nl6M16/WIWMws0h+lPH+CZ+jo3k=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="8qgP4thuzNQa3hWmDkoLbs/kuhI=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="8qgP4thuzNQa3hWmDkoLbs/kuhI=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="8qgP4thuzNQa3hWmDkoLbs/kuhI=">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</latexit>
Sparse, Large :
~400,000,000
=
⇢
if x = y 1
else 0<latexit sha1_base64="NrHh2j82nD8uRdxLjz4D1/jV0CY=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="NrHh2j82nD8uRdxLjz4D1/jV0CY=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="NrHh2j82nD8uRdxLjz4D1/jV0CY=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="NrHh2j82nD8uRdxLjz4D1/jV0CY=">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</latexit>
We had to perform ~500,000 independent calculations with various
parameters to control all the systematic uncertainties
The calculations cost ~184,000,000 Titan-hours
+ ~65,000,000 Titan-hour-equivalent at LLNL
These calculations would have taken a typical laptop computer (with
LOTS of RAM) about 800,000 years to finish…
A percent-level determination of the nucleon axial coupling from QCD
experiment factor of 6 more precise
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
✏⇡ = m⇡/(4⇡F⇡)
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
gA
model average gLQCD
A (✏⇡, a = 0)
gPDG
A = 1.2723(23)
gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.15 fm)
gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.12 fm)
gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.09 fm)
a ' 0.15 fm
a ' 0.12 fm
a ' 0.09 fm
Lattice QCD Team
Glasgow: Chris Bouchard
INT: Chris Monahan
JLab: Balint Jóo
Jülich: Evan Berkowitz
LBL/UCB: David Brantley, Chia Cheng (Jason) Chang, T. Kurth (NERSC), Henry Monge-Camacho, AWL
LLNL: Pavlos Vranas
Liverpool: Nicolas Garron
NVIDIA: Kate Clark
RIKEN/BNL: Enrico Rinaldi
UNC: Amy Nicholson
William and Mary: Kostas Orginos
plus a few
others
gQCD
A = 1.2711(103)s
(39) (15)a
(19)V
(04)I
(55)M
= 1.2711(126)<latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit>
gUCNA
A = 1.2772(020)<latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit>
A percent-level determination of the nucleon axial coupling from QCD
experiment factor of 6 more precise
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
✏⇡ = m⇡/(4⇡F⇡)
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
gA
model average gLQCD
A (✏⇡, a = 0)
gPDG
A = 1.2723(23)
gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.15 fm)
gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.12 fm)
gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.09 fm)
a ' 0.15 fm
a ' 0.12 fm
a ' 0.09 fm
Lattice QCD Team
Glasgow: Chris Bouchard
INT: Chris Monahan
JLab: Balint Jóo
Jülich: Evan Berkowitz
LBL/UCB: David Brantley, Chia Cheng (Jason) Chang, T. Kurth (NERSC), Henry Monge-Camacho, AWL
LLNL: Pavlos Vranas
Liverpool: Nicolas Garron
NVIDIA: Kate Clark
RIKEN/BNL: Enrico Rinaldi
UNC: Amy Nicholson
William and Mary: Kostas Orginos
plus a few
others
gQCD
A = 1.2711(103)s
(39) (15)a
(19)V
(04)I
(55)M
= 1.2711(126)<latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit>
gUCNA
A = 1.2772(020)<latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit>
877.5 880.0 882.5 885.0 887.5 890.0 892.5 895.0
⌧n/s
0.2460
0.2465
0.2470
0.2475
0.2480
0.2485
0.2490
0.2495
0.2500
4
HeMassfraction
A percent-level determination of the nucleon axial coupling from QCD
experiment factor of 6 more precise
0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30
✏⇡ = m⇡/(4⇡F⇡)
1.10
1.15
1.20
1.25
1.30
1.35
gA
model average gLQCD
A (✏⇡, a = 0)
gPDG
A = 1.2723(23)
gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.15 fm)
gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.12 fm)
gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.09 fm)
a ' 0.15 fm
a ' 0.12 fm
a ' 0.09 fm
Lattice QCD Team
Glasgow: Chris Bouchard
INT: Chris Monahan
JLab: Balint Jóo
Jülich: Evan Berkowitz
LBL/UCB: David Brantley, Chia Cheng (Jason) Chang, T. Kurth (NERSC), Henry Monge-Camacho, AWL
LLNL: Pavlos Vranas
Liverpool: Nicolas Garron
NVIDIA: Kate Clark
RIKEN/BNL: Enrico Rinaldi
UNC: Amy Nicholson
William and Mary: Kostas Orginos
plus a few
others
gQCD
A = 1.2711(103)s
(39) (15)a
(19)V
(04)I
(55)M
= 1.2711(126)<latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit>
gUCNA
A = 1.2772(020)<latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit>
877.5 880.0 882.5 885.0 887.5 890.0 892.5 895.0
⌧n/s
0.2460
0.2465
0.2470
0.2475
0.2480
0.2485
0.2490
0.2495
0.2500
4
HeMassfraction
Looking to the future
The next generation of computers is being installed at Oak Ridge and
Livermore National Laboratories now
These computers will allow us to compete with the experimental precision
on key parameters that help us explore the universe for new physics
We are exploring how/if AI can help with our problems
Thank You

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Walker loud ibm-open_power

  • 1. André Walker-Loud Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Leadership class computing for basic physics research AI and OpenPOWER Meet up 25 March 2018 h20.AI HQ
  • 2. Leadership Computing for basic physics research My research does not use AI (so far) The problem is very well formulated, but needs Exascale computing to flourish Motivate and describe our research and need for computing ★I am a consumer of optimized software
  • 3.
  • 4. Standard Model of Particle Physics
  • 5. Formation of Matter T ≃ 1 trillion K (1012 K) t ≃ 30 micro seconds (3x10-5 s)
  • 6. Formation of light nuclei Nuclear physics to the rescue! T ≃ 1 billion K (109 K) t ≃ 3 minutes
  • 7. Formation of Hydrogen (electrons captured by protons) Photons are liberated and run free! T ≃ 4,000 K t ≃ 380,000 years
  • 8. Formation of first stars Formation of our solar system T ≃ 20 K t ≃ 200 Million years
  • 9. Death of stars, creation of heavy nuclei and life, creation of new, ultradense states of nuclear matter
  • 11. “We are all made of star stuff” much coming from the ejecta of supernova
  • 12.
  • 13. Standard Model of particle physics Everything we know…
  • 14. Formation of light nuclei Nuclear physics to the rescue! T ≃ 1 billion K (109 K) t ≃ 3 minutes
  • 16. when systems cool, they settle into the lowest energy state n p mass/energy ⌧n ⇠ 15 min Mn Mp = 1.29333217(42) MeV<latexit sha1_base64="dw/EZ6t3ppCIg1t3OV0qdJBD4TM=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="dw/EZ6t3ppCIg1t3OV0qdJBD4TM=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="dw/EZ6t3ppCIg1t3OV0qdJBD4TM=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="dw/EZ6t3ppCIg1t3OV0qdJBD4TM=">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</latexit> Mn + Mp 2 = 938.9187473(58) MeV <latexit sha1_base64="qI068kma2K5rgrRfO5kHYsxIwAM=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="qI068kma2K5rgrRfO5kHYsxIwAM=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="qI068kma2K5rgrRfO5kHYsxIwAM=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="qI068kma2K5rgrRfO5kHYsxIwAM=">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</latexit> EHydrogen = 13.6 eV<latexit sha1_base64="B4dbSwHBC9q5tYEffdEE2pFaBas=">AAACHHicbZDLSgMxFIYz9VbrrerSTbAIClJmVLwshKIILhWsFtpSMpnTNpjJDMkZsQzzDD6CT+FWV67EreDCdzGtFbT6Q+Dj/Odwcn4/lsKg6747ubHxicmp/HRhZnZufqG4uHRpokRzqPJIRrrmMwNSKKiiQAm1WAMLfQlX/vVx37+6AW1EpC6wF0MzZB0l2oIztKVWceOklTYQblGH6Wkv0FEHVJbRQ+ptl3fpt0PhMmsVS27ZHYj+BW8IJTLUWav40QginoSgkEtmTN1zY2ymTKPgErJCIzEQM37NOlC3qFgIZjO4EbEZYDMdXJfRNWsGtB1p+xTSQfXncMpCY3qhbztDhl0z6vWL/3n1BNv7zVSoOEFQ/GtRO5EUI9qPigZCA0fZs8C4FvbblHeZZhxtoAWbhzd6/V+obpUPyt75TqlyNAwmT1bIKlknHtkjFXJKzkiVcHJHHsgjeXLunWfnxXn9as05w5ll8kvO2ydJPqHN</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="B4dbSwHBC9q5tYEffdEE2pFaBas=">AAACHHicbZDLSgMxFIYz9VbrrerSTbAIClJmVLwshKIILhWsFtpSMpnTNpjJDMkZsQzzDD6CT+FWV67EreDCdzGtFbT6Q+Dj/Odwcn4/lsKg6747ubHxicmp/HRhZnZufqG4uHRpokRzqPJIRrrmMwNSKKiiQAm1WAMLfQlX/vVx37+6AW1EpC6wF0MzZB0l2oIztKVWceOklTYQblGH6Wkv0FEHVJbRQ+ptl3fpt0PhMmsVS27ZHYj+BW8IJTLUWav40QginoSgkEtmTN1zY2ymTKPgErJCIzEQM37NOlC3qFgIZjO4EbEZYDMdXJfRNWsGtB1p+xTSQfXncMpCY3qhbztDhl0z6vWL/3n1BNv7zVSoOEFQ/GtRO5EUI9qPigZCA0fZs8C4FvbblHeZZhxtoAWbhzd6/V+obpUPyt75TqlyNAwmT1bIKlknHtkjFXJKzkiVcHJHHsgjeXLunWfnxXn9as05w5ll8kvO2ydJPqHN</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="B4dbSwHBC9q5tYEffdEE2pFaBas=">AAACHHicbZDLSgMxFIYz9VbrrerSTbAIClJmVLwshKIILhWsFtpSMpnTNpjJDMkZsQzzDD6CT+FWV67EreDCdzGtFbT6Q+Dj/Odwcn4/lsKg6747ubHxicmp/HRhZnZufqG4uHRpokRzqPJIRrrmMwNSKKiiQAm1WAMLfQlX/vVx37+6AW1EpC6wF0MzZB0l2oIztKVWceOklTYQblGH6Wkv0FEHVJbRQ+ptl3fpt0PhMmsVS27ZHYj+BW8IJTLUWav40QginoSgkEtmTN1zY2ymTKPgErJCIzEQM37NOlC3qFgIZjO4EbEZYDMdXJfRNWsGtB1p+xTSQfXncMpCY3qhbztDhl0z6vWL/3n1BNv7zVSoOEFQ/GtRO5EUI9qPigZCA0fZs8C4FvbblHeZZhxtoAWbhzd6/V+obpUPyt75TqlyNAwmT1bIKlknHtkjFXJKzkiVcHJHHsgjeXLunWfnxXn9as05w5ll8kvO2ydJPqHN</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="B4dbSwHBC9q5tYEffdEE2pFaBas=">AAACHHicbZDLSgMxFIYz9VbrrerSTbAIClJmVLwshKIILhWsFtpSMpnTNpjJDMkZsQzzDD6CT+FWV67EreDCdzGtFbT6Q+Dj/Odwcn4/lsKg6747ubHxicmp/HRhZnZufqG4uHRpokRzqPJIRrrmMwNSKKiiQAm1WAMLfQlX/vVx37+6AW1EpC6wF0MzZB0l2oIztKVWceOklTYQblGH6Wkv0FEHVJbRQ+ptl3fpt0PhMmsVS27ZHYj+BW8IJTLUWav40QginoSgkEtmTN1zY2ymTKPgErJCIzEQM37NOlC3qFgIZjO4EbEZYDMdXJfRNWsGtB1p+xTSQfXncMpCY3qhbztDhl0z6vWL/3n1BNv7zVSoOEFQ/GtRO5EUI9qPigZCA0fZs8C4FvbblHeZZhxtoAWbhzd6/V+obpUPyt75TqlyNAwmT1bIKlknHtkjFXJKzkiVcHJHHsgjeXLunWfnxXn9as05w5ll8kvO2ydJPqHN</latexit>
  • 17. ➥ n p mass/energy what prevented this from destroying all the neutrons? when systems cool, they settle into the lowest energy state if nothing else were to happen in the next few minutes, our universe would be full of only Hydrogen ⌧n ⇠ 15 min
  • 18. ➥ deuteron: 2.2 MeV binding a system with protons and neutrons can collapse to a compact bound state, the deuteron: the attractive binding of a neutron and proton allows neutrons to survive when embedded in nuclei mass/energy when systems cool, they settle into the lowest energy state Answer: formation of nuclei ➥ (Hydrogen energy = 13.6 eV)
  • 19. The deuterium “bottleneck” ➥ deuteron: 2.2 MeV binding mass/energy p n until T ≃ 100 keV (1 billion K), t ≃ 3 min ⌘B/ ⇠ 10 9
  • 20. helium: -28.3 MeV The deuterium “bottleneck” is broken, neutrons flow into He ➥ deuteron: -2.2 MeV tritium: -8.5 MeV ➥ ➥ He stability: ↑,↓ protons and ↑,↓ neutrons can be packed together mass/energy
  • 21. { The early universe contains 75% H and 25% 4He by mass fraction (“all” deuterium converted to 4He) Helium Hydrogen
  • 22. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis t ⇠ 1 sec t ⇠ 3 min T ⇠ 1 MeV T ⇠ 0.1 MeV e ¯⌫e t ⇠ 15min T ⇠ 0.1 MeV t ⇠ 3+ min T ⇠ 0.01 MeV This entire time, neutrons are decaying to protons e ¯⌫e ⌧n = (5172.0 ± 1.1) seconds 1 + 3g2 A<latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit> Czarnecki
 Marciano
 Sirlin
  • 23. Big Bang Nucleosynthesis t ⇠ 1 sec t ⇠ 3 min T ⇠ 1 MeV T ⇠ 0.1 MeV e ¯⌫e t ⇠ 15min T ⇠ 0.1 MeV t ⇠ 3+ min T ⇠ 0.01 MeV This entire time, neutrons are decaying to protons e ¯⌫e ⌧n = (5172.0 ± 1.1) seconds 1 + 3g2 A<latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">AAACMHicbZDBShxBEIZ71ESziXE1x1wal4AhMkyvinoQ1FxyVMhGYWcz9PTU7DZ29wzdNeIyzNPkEfIUuerJg0iueQp71z0kmh8aPuqvorr+tFTSYRTdBnPzCy9eLi69ar1+s/x2pb269s0VlRXQE4Uq7HnKHShpoIcSFZyXFrhOFZylF58n/tklWCcL8xXHJQw0HxqZS8HRl5L2QYy8Sgw9oHFuuag3dthuN4ziUrOQfaQxwhVaXVMHojCZa5qa0U90iw6To+/dJml3ojCaij4HNoMOmekkad/FWSEqDQaF4s71WVTioOYWpVDQtOLKQcnFBR9C36PhGtxmdilLN8VBPb24oR+8mdG8sP4ZpNPq38M1186Ndeo7NceRe+pNiv/z+hXme4NamrJCMOJxUV4pigWdxEczaUGgGnvgwkr/bSpG3CeHPuSWz4M9vf459LrhfshOtzuHx7Nglsh7sk42CCO75JB8ISekRwT5QX6Ra3IT/Axug/vg92PrXDCbeUf+UfDnAbPyp1U=</latexit> Important coupling emergent from Nuclear Physics
 Can we predict this quantity? Yes, with a big computer Czarnecki
 Marciano
 Sirlin
  • 24. ⌧n = (5172.0 ± 1.1) seconds 1 + 3g2 A<latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="pXXjVYWcSkbLE+NQmjt27d8lDms=">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</latexit> Czarnecki
 Marciano
 Sirlin Why is understanding the neutron lifetime interesting? 877.5 880.0 882.5 885.0 887.5 890.0 892.5 895.0 ⌧n/s 0.2460 0.2465 0.2470 0.2475 0.2480 0.2485 0.2490 0.2495 0.2500 4 HeMassfraction Predicted primordial 4He mass fraction of the universe as a function of the neutron lifetime Observed primordial 4He mass fraction of the universe Two different methods of measuring the neutron lifetime disagree at the 99% level bottle and beam Is one of the experiments wrong? Or is there new physics hiding here?
  • 25. In order to compute gA, we need massive computers Neutrons and protons are made out of quarks (lines) and gluons (not drawn) Quarks and gluons are described by a theory called Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) We simulate QCD with a numerical method known as lattice QCD (depicted by the grid) Simulating the decay of the neutron
  • 26. In order to compute gA, we need massive computers Neutrons and protons are made out of quarks (lines) and gluons (not drawn) Quarks and gluons are described by a theory called Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) We simulate QCD with a numerical method known as lattice QCD (depicted by the grid) The strength of this interaction is given by 1+gA Simulating the decay of the neutron
  • 27. Introduction to LQCD space time C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO† (0)i = 1 Z Z DUdet(D + M)e R d4 xL[U(t,x,y,z)] O[U](t)O[U]† (0) <latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">AAAConicbVFra9RAFJ3EV42Proqf/DK4FLK4LokUbJFCsSsIKm3R2OImu0wmk+zQyYOZm7LrkN/k7/GD/8VJGrS2XhjmcM65zLl34kpwBZ7307Jv3Lx1+87GXefe/QcPNwePHn9VZS0pC2gpSnkaE8UEL1gAHAQ7rSQjeSzYSXx20Oon50wqXhZfYF2xKCdZwVNOCRhqMfhx4MII7+FQkCITDIdLAvqwackezsOEZBmTrmco2bmcPSdMJaHab3SYE1hSIvS3pnFCXgD+w0ybwAmBrUDmOmHQuNMXn0YOm+uXnS+Zb+PVX/fHZha4MF6N1+Pvo6hxDmdBZGK016UIi8HQm3hd4evA78EQ9XW0GPwKk5LWOSuACqLUzPcqiDSRwKlgJnKtWEXoGcnYzMCC5EyNk3NeqQ5Guttxg7eMmOC0lOaY8B17uVmTXKl1HhtnO5G6qrXk/7RZDelOpHlR1cAKevFQWgsMJW4/DCdcMgpibQChkpvYmC6J2T6Yb3XMPvyr018HwavJ7sQ/3h7uv+0Xs4GeoefIRT56jfbRe3SEAkStp9Yba2q9s7fsD/ax/fnCalt9zxP0T9nhb7cEy10=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit>
  • 28. Introduction to LQCD space time Probability C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO† (0)i = 1 Z Z DUdet(D + M)e R d4 xL[U(t,x,y,z)] O[U](t)O[U]† (0) <latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">AAAConicbVFra9RAFJ3EV42Proqf/DK4FLK4LokUbJFCsSsIKm3R2OImu0wmk+zQyYOZm7LrkN/k7/GD/8VJGrS2XhjmcM65zLl34kpwBZ7307Jv3Lx1+87GXefe/QcPNwePHn9VZS0pC2gpSnkaE8UEL1gAHAQ7rSQjeSzYSXx20Oon50wqXhZfYF2xKCdZwVNOCRhqMfhx4MII7+FQkCITDIdLAvqwackezsOEZBmTrmco2bmcPSdMJaHab3SYE1hSIvS3pnFCXgD+w0ybwAmBrUDmOmHQuNMXn0YOm+uXnS+Zb+PVX/fHZha4MF6N1+Pvo6hxDmdBZGK016UIi8HQm3hd4evA78EQ9XW0GPwKk5LWOSuACqLUzPcqiDSRwKlgJnKtWEXoGcnYzMCC5EyNk3NeqQ5Guttxg7eMmOC0lOaY8B17uVmTXKl1HhtnO5G6qrXk/7RZDelOpHlR1cAKevFQWgsMJW4/DCdcMgpibQChkpvYmC6J2T6Yb3XMPvyr018HwavJ7sQ/3h7uv+0Xs4GeoefIRT56jfbRe3SEAkStp9Yba2q9s7fsD/ax/fnCalt9zxP0T9nhb7cEy10=</latexit>
  • 29. Introduction to LQCD space time Probability {U1, U2, U3, . . . , UN } Markov Chain Monte Carlo C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO† (0)i = 1 Z Z DUdet(D + M)e R d4 xL[U(t,x,y,z)] O[U](t)O[U]† (0) <latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit>
  • 30. Introduction to LQCD space time Probability {U1, U2, U3, . . . , UN } Markov Chain Monte Carlo ⇡ 1 N NX i=1 O(t)O† (0)[Ui] C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO† (0)i = 1 Z Z DUdet(D + M)e R d4 xL[U(t,x,y,z)] O[U](t)O[U]† (0) <latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit>
  • 31. Introduction to LQCD +O ✓ 1 p N ◆ space time Probability {U1, U2, U3, . . . , UN } Markov Chain Monte Carlo ⇡ 1 N NX i=1 O(t)O† (0)[Ui] C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO† (0)i = 1 Z Z DUdet(D + M)e R d4 xL[U(t,x,y,z)] O[U](t)O[U]† (0) <latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit>
  • 32. Introduction to LQCD +O ✓ 1 p N ◆ space time Probability {U1, U2, U3, . . . , UN } Markov Chain Monte Carlo ⇡ 1 N NX i=1 O(t)O† (0)[Ui] C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO† (0)i = 1 Z Z DUdet(D + M)e R d4 xL[U(t,x,y,z)] O[U](t)O[U]† (0) <latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit> a ⇠ 10 16 meters ⇠ 1 10 size proton <latexit sha1_base64="Rb1AnWSgIZCqhss/EtrFZfiMCfo=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="Rb1AnWSgIZCqhss/EtrFZfiMCfo=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="Rb1AnWSgIZCqhss/EtrFZfiMCfo=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="Rb1AnWSgIZCqhss/EtrFZfiMCfo=">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</latexit>
  • 33. Introduction to LQCD +O ✓ 1 p N ◆ space time Probability {U1, U2, U3, . . . , UN } Markov Chain Monte Carlo ⇡ 1 N NX i=1 O(t)O† (0)[Ui] C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO† (0)i = 1 Z Z DUdet(D + M)e R d4 xL[U(t,x,y,z)] O[U](t)O[U]† (0) <latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit 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  • 34. Introduction to LQCD +O ✓ 1 p N ◆ space time Probability {U1, U2, U3, . . . , UN } Markov Chain Monte Carlo ⇡ 1 N NX i=1 O(t)O† (0)[Ui] C(t) = h ˆO(t) ˆO† (0)i = 1 Z Z DUdet(D + M)e R d4 xL[U(t,x,y,z)] O[U](t)O[U]† (0) <latexit sha1_base64="kehcxe3RRTp5S0G77YpyDskXTRc=">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</latexit><latexit 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sha1_base64="uDVwCgC7OUPkE1Lpu7EAjiAXKtg=">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</latexit> Can AI help us improve the Monte Carlo Integral?
  • 35. LQCD Systematics continuum limit infinite volume limit physical pion masses exponentially bad signal- to-noise problem tcomp / V 5/4 <latexit sha1_base64="uB6DidbgLIV5qDb/53qQklNHq9Y=">AAACC3icdVDLSgMxFM3UV62vqhvBTbAILqTOSEXdFd24rOC0hbYOmUzahiaTkGQKZaif4Fe41ZUrcetHuPBfTB9CfR24cDjnXu69J5SMauO6705mbn5hcSm7nFtZXVvfyG9uVbVIFCY+Fkyoeog0YTQmvqGGkbpUBPGQkVrYuxz5tT5Rmor4xgwkaXHUiWmbYmSsFOR3TJBiweUQNqUS0ghYvU1PjkrDIF/wiu4Y0P1FvqwCmKIS5D+akcAJJ7HBDGnd8FxpWilShmJGhrlmoolEuIc6pGFpjDjRh1GfSj2mrXT8zBDuWzOCbaFsxQaO1dnhFHGtBzy0nRyZrv7pjcS/vEZi2metlMYyMSTGk0XthEH78ygZGFFFsGEDSxBW1J4NcRcphI3NLzebx//EPy6eF73rUqF8MQ0mC3bBHjgAHjgFZXAFKsAHGNyBB/AInpx759l5cV4nrRlnOrMNvsF5+wSdSZsW</latexit><latexit 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  • 36. n p O(tO)<latexit sha1_base64="64Byp1A1+yuZv50WhtYtpJTV+3c=">AAACD3icbVDLSsNAFJ3UV62vqEtdBItQQUoigrorunFnBWMLbQiTyaQdOpmEmUmhhGz8BL/Cra5ciVs/wYX/4iTNorYeGDhzzr3ce48XUyKkaX5rlaXlldW16nptY3Nre0ff3XsUUcIRtlFEI971oMCUMGxLIinuxhzD0KO4441ucr8zxlyQiD3ISYydEA4YCQiCUkmuftgPoRwiSNO7rCHddOabnbh63WyaBYxFYpWkDkq0Xf2n70coCTGTiEIhepYZSyeFXBJEcVbrJwLHEI3gAPcUZTDE4tQfk1gU1EmLgzLjWJm+EURcPSaNQp1tTmEoxCT0VGW+r5j3cvE/r5fI4NJJCYsTiRmaDgoSasjIyNMxfMIxknSiCEScqLUNNIQcIqkyrKk8rPnrF4l91rxqWvfn9dZ1GUwVHIAj0AAWuAAtcAvawAYIPIEX8AretGftXfvQPqelFa3s2Qd/oH39AprWnVU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="64Byp1A1+yuZv50WhtYtpJTV+3c=">AAACD3icbVDLSsNAFJ3UV62vqEtdBItQQUoigrorunFnBWMLbQiTyaQdOpmEmUmhhGz8BL/Cra5ciVs/wYX/4iTNorYeGDhzzr3ce48XUyKkaX5rlaXlldW16nptY3Nre0ff3XsUUcIRtlFEI971oMCUMGxLIinuxhzD0KO4441ucr8zxlyQiD3ISYydEA4YCQiCUkmuftgPoRwiSNO7rCHddOabnbh63WyaBYxFYpWkDkq0Xf2n70coCTGTiEIhepYZSyeFXBJEcVbrJwLHEI3gAPcUZTDE4tQfk1gU1EmLgzLjWJm+EURcPSaNQp1tTmEoxCT0VGW+r5j3cvE/r5fI4NJJCYsTiRmaDgoSasjIyNMxfMIxknSiCEScqLUNNIQcIqkyrKk8rPnrF4l91rxqWvfn9dZ1GUwVHIAj0AAWuAAtcAvawAYIPIEX8AretGftXfvQPqelFa3s2Qd/oH39AprWnVU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="64Byp1A1+yuZv50WhtYtpJTV+3c=">AAACD3icbVDLSsNAFJ3UV62vqEtdBItQQUoigrorunFnBWMLbQiTyaQdOpmEmUmhhGz8BL/Cra5ciVs/wYX/4iTNorYeGDhzzr3ce48XUyKkaX5rlaXlldW16nptY3Nre0ff3XsUUcIRtlFEI971oMCUMGxLIinuxhzD0KO4441ucr8zxlyQiD3ISYydEA4YCQiCUkmuftgPoRwiSNO7rCHddOabnbh63WyaBYxFYpWkDkq0Xf2n70coCTGTiEIhepYZSyeFXBJEcVbrJwLHEI3gAPcUZTDE4tQfk1gU1EmLgzLjWJm+EURcPSaNQp1tTmEoxCT0VGW+r5j3cvE/r5fI4NJJCYsTiRmaDgoSasjIyNMxfMIxknSiCEScqLUNNIQcIqkyrKk8rPnrF4l91rxqWvfn9dZ1GUwVHIAj0AAWuAAtcAvawAYIPIEX8AretGftXfvQPqelFa3s2Qd/oH39AprWnVU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="64Byp1A1+yuZv50WhtYtpJTV+3c=">AAACD3icbVDLSsNAFJ3UV62vqEtdBItQQUoigrorunFnBWMLbQiTyaQdOpmEmUmhhGz8BL/Cra5ciVs/wYX/4iTNorYeGDhzzr3ce48XUyKkaX5rlaXlldW16nptY3Nre0ff3XsUUcIRtlFEI971oMCUMGxLIinuxhzD0KO4441ucr8zxlyQiD3ISYydEA4YCQiCUkmuftgPoRwiSNO7rCHddOabnbh63WyaBYxFYpWkDkq0Xf2n70coCTGTiEIhepYZSyeFXBJEcVbrJwLHEI3gAPcUZTDE4tQfk1gU1EmLgzLjWJm+EURcPSaNQp1tTmEoxCT0VGW+r5j3cvE/r5fI4NJJCYsTiRmaDgoSasjIyNMxfMIxknSiCEScqLUNNIQcIqkyrKk8rPnrF4l91rxqWvfn9dZ1GUwVHIAj0AAWuAAtcAvawAYIPIEX8AretGftXfvQPqelFa3s2Qd/oH39AprWnVU=</latexit> “SQ(t,0) = Quark Propagator” Solve the Quark Propagators with Conjugate Gradient - Matrix Multiplication Video-game hardware (GPUs) are what allow us to do the calculations very efficiently Simulating the decay of the neutron [D + M]y,z Sz,x = y,x<latexit sha1_base64="8qgP4thuzNQa3hWmDkoLbs/kuhI=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="8qgP4thuzNQa3hWmDkoLbs/kuhI=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="8qgP4thuzNQa3hWmDkoLbs/kuhI=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="8qgP4thuzNQa3hWmDkoLbs/kuhI=">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</latexit> Sparse, Large : ~400,000,000 = ⇢ if x = y 1 else 0<latexit sha1_base64="NrHh2j82nD8uRdxLjz4D1/jV0CY=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="NrHh2j82nD8uRdxLjz4D1/jV0CY=">AAACP3icbVDLSsQwFE19W1+jLt0EB8WFDK0I6kIQ3bhwoeCoMB2GNL2twTQtya3MUOan/AS/QhcudOVK3LozM47i60LI4Zx7yMkJcykMet69MzQ8Mjo2PjHpTk3PzM5V5hfOTFZoDnWeyUxfhMyAFArqKFDCRa6BpaGE8/DqoKefX4M2IlOn2MmhmbJEiVhwhpZqVY523SAUSRKU9oZEqDJlqEW76wYIbdRpKWLape3dzir1g+CLBWmgu0o9NwAVfXpalapX8/pD/wJ/AKpkMMetykMQZbxIQSGXzJiG7+XYLJlGwSXYDIWBnPErlkDDQsVSMOvRtchNHzbLfgFdumLFiMaZtkch7bPfzSVLjemkod20US/Nb61H/qc1Coy3m6VQeYGg+MdDcSEpZrTXJo2EBo6yYwHjWtjYlF8yzTjazl3bh//7939BfaO2U/NPNqt7+4NiJsgSWSZrxCdbZI8ckmNSJ5zckDvySJ6cW+fZeXFeP1aHnIFnkfwY5+0d/lyv4w==</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="NrHh2j82nD8uRdxLjz4D1/jV0CY=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="NrHh2j82nD8uRdxLjz4D1/jV0CY=">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</latexit>
  • 37. We had to perform ~500,000 independent calculations with various parameters to control all the systematic uncertainties The calculations cost ~184,000,000 Titan-hours + ~65,000,000 Titan-hour-equivalent at LLNL These calculations would have taken a typical laptop computer (with LOTS of RAM) about 800,000 years to finish…
  • 38. A percent-level determination of the nucleon axial coupling from QCD experiment factor of 6 more precise 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 ✏⇡ = m⇡/(4⇡F⇡) 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 gA model average gLQCD A (✏⇡, a = 0) gPDG A = 1.2723(23) gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.15 fm) gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.12 fm) gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.09 fm) a ' 0.15 fm a ' 0.12 fm a ' 0.09 fm Lattice QCD Team Glasgow: Chris Bouchard INT: Chris Monahan JLab: Balint Jóo Jülich: Evan Berkowitz LBL/UCB: David Brantley, Chia Cheng (Jason) Chang, T. Kurth (NERSC), Henry Monge-Camacho, AWL LLNL: Pavlos Vranas Liverpool: Nicolas Garron NVIDIA: Kate Clark RIKEN/BNL: Enrico Rinaldi UNC: Amy Nicholson William and Mary: Kostas Orginos plus a few others gQCD A = 1.2711(103)s (39) (15)a (19)V (04)I (55)M = 1.2711(126)<latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">AAACSXicbVBJSwMxGM20rnGrevQSLMoMSJnUpXoQFD3oQVCwVeh0SiZN22BmIckIZeg/8yf4Bzx48aonT+LJdDm4PQh5vPc9vuQFieBKu+6TlctPTE5Nz8zCufmFxaXC8kpNxamkrEpjEcvbgCgmeMSqmmvBbhPJSBgIdhPcnQz8m3smFY+ja91LWCMknYi3OSXaSM1CrdM89jNPhujq5LQPNw8hLpUrGEMbu9uOr6C9feD4Hu1yo+w6PjGXEWrQdncc/xzau0a8gJ5noqOkjct7TrNQdEvuEOgvwWNSBGNcNgvPXiumacgiTQVRqo7dRDcyIjWngvWhlyqWEHpHOqxuaERCprZa9zxRQ9rIhlX00YYxW6gdS3MijYbq93BGQqV6YWAmQ6K76rc3EP/z6qlu7zcyHiWpZhEdLWqnAukYDXpFLS4Z1aJnCKGSm2cj2iWSUG3ah6YP/Pv3f0m1XDoo4aud4tH+uJgZsAbWgQ0wqIAjcAYuQRVQ8ABewCt4sx6td+vD+hyN5qxxZhX8QC7/BXB+pzI=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit> gUCNA A = 1.2772(020)<latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit>
  • 39. A percent-level determination of the nucleon axial coupling from QCD experiment factor of 6 more precise 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 ✏⇡ = m⇡/(4⇡F⇡) 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 gA model average gLQCD A (✏⇡, a = 0) gPDG A = 1.2723(23) gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.15 fm) gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.12 fm) gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.09 fm) a ' 0.15 fm a ' 0.12 fm a ' 0.09 fm Lattice QCD Team Glasgow: Chris Bouchard INT: Chris Monahan JLab: Balint Jóo Jülich: Evan Berkowitz LBL/UCB: David Brantley, Chia Cheng (Jason) Chang, T. Kurth (NERSC), Henry Monge-Camacho, AWL LLNL: Pavlos Vranas Liverpool: Nicolas Garron NVIDIA: Kate Clark RIKEN/BNL: Enrico Rinaldi UNC: Amy Nicholson William and Mary: Kostas Orginos plus a few others gQCD A = 1.2711(103)s (39) (15)a (19)V (04)I (55)M = 1.2711(126)<latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit> gUCNA A = 1.2772(020)<latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit> 877.5 880.0 882.5 885.0 887.5 890.0 892.5 895.0 ⌧n/s 0.2460 0.2465 0.2470 0.2475 0.2480 0.2485 0.2490 0.2495 0.2500 4 HeMassfraction
  • 40. A percent-level determination of the nucleon axial coupling from QCD experiment factor of 6 more precise 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 ✏⇡ = m⇡/(4⇡F⇡) 1.10 1.15 1.20 1.25 1.30 1.35 gA model average gLQCD A (✏⇡, a = 0) gPDG A = 1.2723(23) gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.15 fm) gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.12 fm) gA(✏⇡, a ' 0.09 fm) a ' 0.15 fm a ' 0.12 fm a ' 0.09 fm Lattice QCD Team Glasgow: Chris Bouchard INT: Chris Monahan JLab: Balint Jóo Jülich: Evan Berkowitz LBL/UCB: David Brantley, Chia Cheng (Jason) Chang, T. Kurth (NERSC), Henry Monge-Camacho, AWL LLNL: Pavlos Vranas Liverpool: Nicolas Garron NVIDIA: Kate Clark RIKEN/BNL: Enrico Rinaldi UNC: Amy Nicholson William and Mary: Kostas Orginos plus a few others gQCD A = 1.2711(103)s (39) (15)a (19)V (04)I (55)M = 1.2711(126)<latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="srmAtz53gTWCn+YAYONuxn2Qd+8=">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</latexit> gUCNA A = 1.2772(020)<latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit><latexit sha1_base64="4J6IRmq62l0n5dPSyAjNNBV11zE=">AAACD3icbZBPSwJBGMZn7Z/ZP6tjHYYkMAjZlUA7BIqXTmHQpqDbMjuOOjizu8zMCrJ46SP0KbrWqVN07SN06Ls0rnso7YGBH+/zvrzzPl7IqFSm+WVkVlbX1jeym7mt7Z3dvfz+wb0MIoGJjQMWiLaHJGHUJ7aiipF2KAjiHiMtb9SY+a0xEZIG/p2ahMThaODTPsVI6ZKbPx649Ye4Kzi0Gzf1KbyCVqlcqZSLZtk8c/MFs2QmgstgpVAAqZpu/rvbC3DEia8wQ1J2LDNUToyEopiRaa4bSRIiPEID0tHoI07keW9MQ5mgEycHTeGpNnuwHwj9fAWT6u/hGHEpJ9zTnRypoVz0ZsX/vE6k+lUnpn4YKeLj+aJ+xKAK4Cwd2KOCYMUmGhAWVH8b4iESCCudYU7nYS1evwx2uXRZsm4vCrVqGkwWHIETUAQWqIAauAZNYAMMHsEzeAGvxpPxZrwbH/PWjJHOHII/Mj5/AMoZmaU=</latexit> 877.5 880.0 882.5 885.0 887.5 890.0 892.5 895.0 ⌧n/s 0.2460 0.2465 0.2470 0.2475 0.2480 0.2485 0.2490 0.2495 0.2500 4 HeMassfraction
  • 41. Looking to the future The next generation of computers is being installed at Oak Ridge and Livermore National Laboratories now These computers will allow us to compete with the experimental precision on key parameters that help us explore the universe for new physics We are exploring how/if AI can help with our problems