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Maltose
Maltose (/ˈmɔˈltoʊs/
or also known
asmaltobiose or malt
sugar, is
a disaccharide formed
from two units
of glucose joined
with an α(1→4) bond,
formed from
a condensation
reaction.
The isomerisomaltose has two glucose molecules
linked
through an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the second member of an
important biochemical series of glucose chains. Maltose is the
disaccharide produced when amylase breaks downstarch. It is
found in germinating seeds such as barley as they break down
their starch stores to use for food. It is also produced when
glucose is caramelized. Maltose was discovered by
Ireland's Cornelius O’Sullivanin 1872[5] and its name comes from
malt, from Old English mealt, of Germanic origin, and the suffix
–ose, a suffix forming names of sugars and other carbohydrates.
Maltose
α-Maltose
Maltose is a biomolecule that belongs to the group of
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carbohydrates within the division into three groups, which are
divided into essential elements: carbohydrates, lipids
and proteins. Carbohydrates are composed by O, H, C, and are
defined as polyhydroxyaldehydes or polyhydroxyketones.
It is generally divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides
and polysaccharides depending on the number of residues.
Maltose is a disaccharide formed by the union of
two glucose units (monosaccharide). The two are classified
as hexoses because each one is composed of six carbons. The two
glucoses which compose maltose are cyclized in piran form and
are joined by an O-glycosidic bond through one of the
firstglucose carbon and fourth carbon of the second glucose,
indicated as (1 → 4). The link is characterized as α due to the
-OH position of the anomeric carbon in the opposite plane of
CH2OH radical (the carbon is the number 6).Due to O-glycosidic
link, maltose is a disaccharide that can reduce Fehling's
reagent. Furthermore, maltose can be obtained
by hydrolysis of glycogen or starch, polymers of linked maltoses
in position α (1 → 4) and branching in position α (1 → 6). These
are very abundant and form a large number of branches.
Amylase enzymes produce maltose and limit dextrin. These can be
further degraded by maltase enzyme to hydrolyze maltoses as
glucoses and they are ready to be degrade and obtain energy in
form of ATP.
Maltose has the ability to reduce the Fehling’s solution, due to
its free aldehyde. The aldehyde group is oxidized giving a
positive result, which means that the maltose is a reducing
sugar. Maltose in aqueous solution exhibit mutarotation, due to
its anomeric carbon which can form α and β isomers. In aqueous
solution, it is shown a balanced way between α and β forms. It
has a sweet taste. Lu and Sharkey – in 2006 – said that maltose
was the main carbon form exported from chloroplasts at night.
MANTLE
The mantle is a part of a terrestrial planet or other rocky body
large enough to have differentiation by density. The interior of
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the Earth, similar to the other terrestrial planets, is
chemically divided into layers. The mantle is a layer between
the crust and the outer core. Earth's mantle is a silicate rocky
shell about 2,900 km (1,800 mi) thick that constitutes about 84%
of Earth's volume. It is predominantly solid but in geological
time it behaves like very viscous liquid. The mantle encloses
the hot core rich in iron and nickel, which occupies about 15%
of Earth's volume.
Past episodes of melting and volcanism at the shallower levels
of the mantle have produced a thin crust of crystallized melt
products near the surface, upon which we live.[4]
Information
about structure and composition of the mantle either result from
geophysical investigation or from direct geoscientific analyses
on Earth mantle derived xenoliths and on mantle exposed by mid-
oceanic ridge spreading.
The Structure of the Earth
Two main zones are distinguished in the upper mantle: the
inner asthenosphere composed of plastic flowing rock about 200 km
thick,and the lowermost part of the lithosphere composed of
rigid rock about 50 to 120 km thick. A thin crust, the upper
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part of the lithosphere, surrounds the mantle and is about 5 to
75 km thick.
In some places under the ocean the mantle is actually exposed on
the surface of the Earth. There are also a few places on land
where mantle rock has been pushed to the surface by tectonic
activity, most notably the Tablelands region of Gros Morne
National Park in the Canadian province of Newfoundland.
The mantle is divided into sections which are based upon results
from seismology. These layers (and their thicknesses/depths) are
the following: the upper mantle (starting at the Moho, or base
of the crust around 7 to 35 km downward to 410 km),the
transition zone (410–660 km), the lower mantle (660–2891 km),
and anomalous core–mantle boundary with a variable thickness (on
average ~200 km thick).
The top of the mantle is defined by a sudden increase in seismic
velocity, which was first noted by Andrija Mohorovičić in 1909;
this boundary is now referred to as the "Mohorovičić
discontinuity" or "Moho". The uppermost mantle plus overlying
crust are relatively rigid and form the lithosphere, an
irregular layer with a maximum thickness of perhaps 200 km,
below the lithosphere the upper mantle becomes notably more
plastic. In some regions below the lithosphere, the seismic
velocity is reduced; this so-called low-velocity zone (LVZ)
extends down to a depth of several hundred km.
Inge Lehmann discovered a seismic discontinuity at about 220 km
depth; although this discontinuity has been found in other
studies, it is not known whether the discontinuity is
ubiquitous. The transition zone is an area of great complexity;
it physically separates the upper and lower mantle. Very little
is known about the lower mantle apart from that it appears to be
relatively seismically homogeneous. The D" layers at the core–
mantle boundary separates the mantle from the core.
MOMENTUM
In classical
mechanics, line
ar momentum or
translational
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momentum (pl. m
omenta; SI unit
kg m/s, or
equivalently, N
s) is the
product of the
mass and veloci
ty of an
object. For
example, a
heavy truck moving fast has a large momentum—it takes a large
and prolonged force to get the truck up to this speed, and
it takes a large and prolonged force to bring it to a stop
afterwards. If the truck were lighter or moving more slowly,
then it would
have less
momentum.
Like velocity, linear momentum is a vector quantity, possessing
a direction as well as a magnitude: Linear momentum is
also a conserved quantity, meaning that if a closed system is
not affected by external forces, its total linear momentum
cannot change. In classical mechanics, conservation of linear
momentum is implied by Newton's laws; but it also holds
in special relativity (with a modified formula) and, with
appropriate definitions, a (generalized) linear momentum
conservation law holds in electrodynamics, mechanics, quantum,
and general relativity.
Momentum has a direction as well as magnitude. Quantities that
have both a magnitude and a direction are known as vector
quantities. Because momentum has a direction, it can be used to
predict the resulting direction of objects after they collide,
as well as their speeds. Below, the basic properties of momentum
are described in one dimension. The vector equations are almost
identical to the scalar equations (see multiple dimensions).
Billiard balls possesses momentum.
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MUDSLIDE
A mudslide is the most rapid (up to 80 km/h, or 50 mph) and
fluid type of downhill mass wasting. It is a rapid movement of a
large mass of mud formed from loose dirt and water. Similar
phenomena include mudflow, mud stream, debris flow (e.g. in
high mountains), jökulhlaup, and lahar (from volcanoes). These
terms cover a broad variety in water content (from loamy mud, to
almost liquid, and even steam); material (wet
soil, sandy sediments and/or silt, dirt, rock, debris, volcanic
ash, small plants, and even trees); length; total mass;
and velocity.
Heavy rainfall, snowmelt, or high levels of water flowing
through cracked bedrock may trigger a movement of soil or
sediments. Floods, debris- and mud flows may also occur when
strong rains on hill or mountain slopes cause
extensive erosion and/or what is known as "channel scour". The
2006 Sidoarjo mud flow may have been caused by rogue drilling.
Some broad mudflows are rather viscous and therefore slow;
others begin very quickly and continue like an avalanche. If
Mailbox caught in a mudslide
large enough they can devastate villages and country sides. They
are composed of at least 50% silt and clay-sized materials and
up to 30% water. Mudflows are common even in
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the hills around Los Angeles where they have destroyed many
homes built on hillsides without sufficient support.
The point where a muddy material begins to flow depends on
its grain and the water content. Fine grainy material or soil
has a smaller friction angle than a coarse sediment or
a debris flow, but falling rock pieces can trigger a material
flow, too. On December 14, 1999 in Vargas, Venezuela, a mudslide
known as The Vargas tragedy, which significantly altered more
than 60 kilometers (37 mi) of its coastline, was triggered due
to heavy rainfall and caused estimated damages of USD $1.79 to
$3.5 billion, a death toll considered to be between 10,000 and
30,000, 85,000 people evacuated and led to the complete collapse
of the state's infrastructure.
When a mudslide occurs it is given four named areas, the 'main
scarp', in bigger mudslides the 'upper and lower shelves' and
the 'toe'. The main scarp will be the original area of
incidence; the toe is the last affected area(s). The upper and
lower shelves are located wherever a large dip (due to mountain
or natural drop) in the mudslides path. Due to this a mudslide
can have many shelves.
Myelin
Myelin is a dielectric(electrically insulating) material that
forms a layer, the myelin sheath, usually around only
the axon of a neuron. It is essential for the proper functioning
of the nervous system. It is an outgrowth of a type of glial
cell. The production of the myelin sheath is called myelination.
In humans, the production of myelin begins in the 14th week of
fetal development, although little myelin exists in the brain at
the time of birth. During infancy, myelination occurs quickly
and continues through the adolescent stages of life.
Schwann cells supply the myelin for peripheral neurons,
whereas oligodendrocytes, specifically of the inter fascicular
type, myelinate the axons of have also arisen by parallel
evolution in some invertebrates, although they are quite
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different from vertebrate myelin at the molecular level. Myelin
was discovered in 1854 by Rudolf Virchow.
Myelin is made up by different cell types, and varies in
chemical composition and configuration, but performs the same
insulating function. Myelinated axons are white in appearance,
hence the "white matter" of the brain. The fat helps to insulate
the axons from electrically charged atoms and molecules. These
charged particles (ions) are found in the fluid surrounding the
entire nervous system. Under a microscope, myelin looks like
strings of sausages. Myelin is also a part of the maturation
process leading to a child's fast development, including
crawling and walking in the first year.
Myelin is about 40% water; the dry mass is about 70–
85% lipids and about 15–30% proteins. Some of the proteins
are myelin basic protein, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein,
and proteolipid protein. The primary lipid of myelin is
a glycolipid called galactocerebroside. The intertwining
hydrocarbon chains of sphingomyelin serve to strengthen the
myelin sheath.
Myelin Sheath Formation
The main purpose of a myelin layer (or sheath) is to increase
the speed at which impulses propagate along the myelinated
fiber.
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N
Appearance and Properties of Neon
cColorless gas exhibiting an orange-red glow
when placed in a high voltage electric field
Spectral lines of neon in the visible region
General properties
Name, symbol, number neon, Ne, 10
Pronunciation /ˈniˈɒn/
Element category noble gases
Group, period, block
18 (noble gases), 2,
p
Standard atomic weight 20.1797(6)
Electron configuration
[He] 2s2
2p6
2, 8
Atomic properties
Oxidation states 1[6]
, 0
Ionization energies
(more)
1st: 2080.7 kJ·mol−1
2nd: 3952.3 kJ·mol−1
Neon
Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10.
It is in group 18 (noble gases) of the periodic table. Neon is a
colorless, odorless, inert monatomic gas under standard
conditions, with about two-thirds the density of air.
It was discovered (along with krypton and xenon) in 1898 as one
of the three residual rare inert elements remaining in dry air,
after nitrogen, oxygen, argon and
carbon dioxide are removed.
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Neon was the second of these three
rare gases to be discovered, and was
immediately recognized as a new
element from its bright red emission
spectrum. The name neon is derived
from the Greek word, νέον, neuter
singular form of νέος [neos], meaning new. Neon is chemically
inert and forms no uncharged chemical compounds.
Neon is a very common element in the universe and solar system
(it is fifth in cosmic abundance after hydrogen, helium, oxygen
and carbon), but, it is very rare on Earth.
Neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow when used in either
low-voltage neon glow lamps or in high-voltage discharge tubes
or neon advertising signs. Neon is used in a few plasma tube and
refrigerant applications but has few other commercial uses.
Newton, Isaac
Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20
March 1727) was an English physicist and
mathematician who is widely regarded as
one of the most influential scientists
3rd: 6122 kJ·mol−1
Covalent radius 58 pm
Van der Waals radius 154 pm
Chemical Symbol of Neon
of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution.
His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica
("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first
published in 1687, laid the foundations for most of classical
mechanics.
Newton also made seminal contributions to optics and shares
credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of
the infinitesimal calculus.
Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion
and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the
physical universe for the next three centuries. It also
demonstrated that the motion of objects on the Earth and that of
celestial bodies
99
could be described by the same principles.
Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and
developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a
prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the
visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling
and studied the speed of sound.
Appearance and Properties of
Neptunium
Silvery-metallic
General properties
Name, symbol,
number
neptunium, Np, 93
Element
category
actinide
Godfrey Kneller's 1689
portrait of Isaac Newton
(age 46)
Neptunium
Neptunium is a chemical
element with the symbol Np
and atomic number 93. A
radioactive actinide metal,
neptunium is the first
transuranic element. Its
position in the periodic
table just after uranium,
named after the planet
Uranus, led to its being
named after Neptune, the next
planet beyond Uranus. A neptunium atom has 93 protons and 93
electrons, of which seven are valence electrons. Neptunium metal
is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. The element
normally exhibits five oxidation states, ranging from +3 to +7.
In the 1870s, Dmitri Mendeleev first predicted the existence of
neptunium, and many false claims of its discovery were made over
the years. Most neptunium is produced by bombarding uranium with
neutrons in
100
nuclear reactors; neptunium is also generated as a by-product in
conventional nuclear reactors.
Group, period,
block
n/a, 7, f
Standard atomic
weight
(237)
Electron
configuration
[Rn] 5f4
6d1
7s2
2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2
Discovery
Edwin McMillan and
Philip H. Abelson (1940)
Physical
properties
Density (near
r.t.)
(alpha) 20.45[1]
g·cm−3
Density (near
r.t.)
(accepted standard
value) 19.38 g·cm−3
Melting point 912 K1182 °F 639 °C, ,
Boiling point
7545 4174 °C, 4447 K,
(extrapolated) °F
Appearance and Properties of
Neodymiun
Silvery-white
Neodymium
Neodymium is a chemical element
with the symbol Nd and atomic
number 60. It is a soft silvery
metal that tarnishes in air.
Neodymium was discovered in 1885
by the Austrian chemist Carl Auer
von Welsbach. It is present in
significant quantities in the ore
minerals monazite and bastnäsite.
Neodymium is not found naturally
in metallic form or unmixed with
other lanthanides, and it is
usually refined for general use.
Although neodymium is classed as
a "rare earth", it is a fairly
common element, no rarer than
cobalt, nickel, and copper, and
is widely distributed in the
Earth's crust.
Neodymium compounds were first
commercially used as glass dyes
in 1927, and they remain a
popular additive in glasses. The
color of neodymium compounds—due
to the Nd3+
ion—is often a
reddish-purple but it changes
with the type of lighting, with
the type of lighting,
duefluorescent effects.
Some neodymium-doped glasses are also used in lasers that emit
infrared light with wavelengths between 1047 and 1062
nanometers.
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These have been used in extremely high power applications, such
as experiments in inertial confinement fusion.Neodymium is also
used with various other substrate crystals, such as yttrium
General properties
Name, symbol,
number
neodymium, Nd, 60
Element category lanthanide
Group, period,
block
n/a, 6, f
Standard atomic
weight
144.242
Electron
configuration
[Xe] 4f4
6s2
2, 8, 18, 22, 8,
2
Discovery
Carl Auer von
Welsbach (1885)
Physical properties
Phase solid
Liquid density
at m.p.
6.89 g·cm−3
Melting point
1297 K1875 °F
1024 °C, ,
Boiling point
5565 °F 3074 °C,
3347 K,
Heat of fusion 7.14 kJ·mol−1
aluminum garnet in the Nd:YAG laser. This laser usually emits
infrared waves at a wavelength of about 1064 nanometers.
Niobium
Niobium,formerly columbium, is
a chemical element with the
symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and
atomic number 41. It is a
soft, grey, ductile transition
metal, which is often found in
the pyrochlore mineral, the
main commercial source for
niobium, and columbite. The
name comes from Greek
mythology: Niobe, daughter of
Tantalus.
The English chemist Charles
Hatchett reported a new
element similar to tantalum in
1801 and named it columbium.
In 1809, the English chemist
William Hyde Wollaston wrongly
concluded that tantalum and
columbium were identical. The
German chemist Heinrich Rose
determined in 1846 that
tantalum ores contain a second
element, which he named
niobium. In 1864 and 1865, a
series of scientific findings
clarified that niobium and
columbium were the same
102
element (as distinguished from tantalum), and for a century both
names were used interchangeably. Niobium was officially adopted
Appearance and Properties of
Niobium
gray metallic, bluish when
oxidized
General properties
Name, symbol, number niobium, Nb, 41
Element category transition metal
Group, period, block 5, 5, d
Standard atomic
weight
92.90637(2)
Electron
configuration
[Kr] 4d4
5s1
2, 8, 18, 12, 1
Physical properties
Phase solid
Density (near r.t.) 8.57 g·cm−3
Melting point
2750 K4491 °F
2477 °C, ,
Boiling point
8571 °F 4744 °C,
5017 K,
Heat of fusion 30 kJ·mol−1
Heat of vaporization 689.9 kJ·mol−1
Molar heat capacity 24.60 J·mol−1
·K−1
as the name of the element in 1949, but the name columbium
remains in current use in metallurgy in the United States.
Brazil is the leading producer of niobium and ferroniobium, an
alloy of niobium and iron. Niobium is used mostly in alloys, the
largest part in special steel such as that used in gas
pipelines.
103
O
Ocean
An ocean (from Ancient Greek
Ὠκεανός (Okeanos); the World
Ocean of classical
antiquity[1]
) is a body of
saline water that composes
much of a planet's
hydrosphere. On Earth, an
ocean is one or all of the
major divisions of the
planet's World Ocean – which
are, in descending order of
area, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern (Antarctic), and
Arctic Oceans. The word sea is often used interchangeably with
"ocean" in American English
but, strictly speaking, a
sea is a body of saline
water (generally a division of the World Ocean) that land partly
or fully encloses.
Earth is the only planet that is known to have an ocean (or any
large amounts of open liquid water). Saline water covers
approximately 72% of the planet's surface (~3.6x108
km2
) and is
Representation of ocean.
customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller
seas, with the ocean covering approximately 71% of the Earth's
104
surface. The ocean contains 97% of the Earth's water, and
oceanographers have stated that only 5% of the World Ocean has
been explored. The total volume is approximately 1.3 billion
cubic kilometres (310 million cu mi) with an average depth of
3,682 metres (12,080 ft).The ocean principally comprises Earth's
hydrosphere and therefore is integral to all known life, forms
part of the carbon cycle, and influences climate and weather
patterns. It is the habitat of 230,000 known species, although
much of the ocean's depths remain unexplored, and over two
million marine species are estimated to exist. The origin of
Earth's oceans remains unknown; oceans are believed to have
formed in the Hadean period and may have been the impetus for
the emergence of life.
Ohm’s Law
Ohm's law states that
the current through a
conductor between two
points is
directly proportional to
the potential
difference across the two
points. Introducing the
constant of
proportionality,
the resistance, one
arrives at the usual
mathematical equation
that describes this
relationship: where I is the current through the
conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference
measured across the conductor in units ofvolts, and R is
the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. More
specifically, Ohm's law states that the R in this relation is
V, I, and R, the parameters of Ohm's law.
constant, independent of the current. The law was named after
the German physicist Georg Ohm, who, in a treatise published in
1827, described measurements of applied voltage and current
105
through simple electrical circuits containing various lengths of
wire. He presented a slightly more complex equation than the one
above (see History section below) to explain his experimental
results. The above equation is the modern form of Ohm's law.
In physics, the term Ohm's law is also used to refer to various
generalizations of the law originally formulated by Ohm. The
simplest example of this is:
where J is the current density at a given location
in a resistive material, E is the electric field at that
location, and σ is a material dependent parameter called
the conductivity. This reformulation of Ohm's law is due
to Gustav Kirchhoff.
Onnes,Heike Kamerlingh
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (21 September
1853 – 21 February 1926) was a
Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate
pioneered refrigeration techniques
and used these to explore how
materials behave when cooled to
nearly absolute zero. He was the
first toliquefy helium. His
production of extreme cryogenic
temperatures led to his discovery
of superconductivity in 1911: for
certain materials, electrical
resistance abruptly vanishes at very
low temperatures.
Kamerlingh Onnes was born in Groningen, Netherlands. His father,
Harm Kamerlingh Onnes, was a brickworks owner. His mother was
Anna Gerdina Coers of Arnhem.
In 1870, Kamerlingh Onnes attended
Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
the University of Groningen. He studied under Robert
Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff at
106
The University of Heidelberg from 1871 to 1873. Again at
Groningen, he obtained his masters in 1878 and a doctorate in
1879. His thesis was "Nieuwe bewijzen voor de aswenteling der
aarde" (tr. New proofs of the rotation of the earth). From 1878
to 1882 he was assistant to Johannes Bosscha, the director of
the TU Delft (then Delft Polytechnic), for whom he substituted
as lecturer in 1881 and 1882
He was married to Maria Adriana Wilhelmina Elisabeth Bijleveld
(m. 1887) and had one child, named Albert. His brother Menso
Kamerlingh Onnes (1860–1925) was a fairly well known painter
(and father of another painter, Harm Kamerlingh Onnes), while
his sister Jenny married another famous painter, Floris
Verster (1861–1927).
Ørsted ,Hans Christian
Hans Christian Ørsted, often
rendered Oersted in English; 14 August
1777 – 9 March 1851) was a
Danish physicist and chemist who
discovered that electric
currents create magnetic fields, an
important aspect ofelectromagnetism. He
shaped post-Kantian philosophy and
advances in science throughout the late
19th century.
In 1824, Ørsted founded Selskabet for
Naturlærens Udbredelse (SNU), a society to disseminate knowledge
of the natural sciences. He was also the founder of predecessor
organizations which eventually became
the Danish Meteorological
Institute and the Danish Patent and
Trademark Office. Ørsted was the first modern thinker to
explicitly describe and name the thought experiment.
A leader of the so-called Danish Golden Age, Ørsted was a close
friend of Hans Christian Andersen and the brother of politician
Danish physicist & chemist
107
and jurist Anders Sandøe Ørsted, who eventually served as Danish
prime minister (1853–54). The oersted (Oe), the cgs unit
of magnetic H-field strength, is named after him.
Ørsted was born in Rudkøbing. As a young boy Ørsted developed
his interest in science while working for his father, who owned
a pharmacy. He and his brother Anders received most of their
early education through self-study at home, going to Copenhagen
in 1793 to take entrance exams for theUniversity of Copenhagen,
where both brothers excelled academically. By 1796 Ørsted had
been awarded honors for his papers in
both aesthetics and physics. He earned his doctorate in 1799 for
a dissertation based on the works of Kant entitled "The
Architectonics of Natural Metaphysics".
0smosis
Osmosis is the spontaneous
net movement
of solvent molecules through
a
partially permeable membrane
into a region of
higher solute concentration,
in the direction that tends
to equalize the solute
concentrations on the two
sides. It may also be used to
describe a physical process
in which any solvent moves,
without input of
energy, across a semipermeable membrane (permeable to
the solvent, but not the
solute) separating two
solutions of different concentrations. Although osmosis does not
require input of energy, it does use kinetic energy and can be
made to do work.
The osmotic pressure is defined to be the pressure required to
maintain an equilibrium, with no net movement of solvent.
Osmotic pressure is a colligative property, meaning that the
One frame of a computer simulation of osmosis
108
osmotic pressure depends on the molar concentration of the
solute but not on its identity.Osmosis is an essential aspect
in biological systems, as biological membranes are
semipermeable.
In general, these membranes are impermeable to large
and polar molecules, such as ions, proteins,
and polysaccharides, while being permeable to non-polar
and/orhydrophobic molecules like lipids as well as to small
molecules like oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitric oxide,
etc. Permeability depends on solubility, charge, or chemistry,
as well as solute size.
Water molecules travel through the plasma membrane, tonoplast
membrane (vacuole) or protoplast by diffusing across the
phospholipid bilayer via aquaporins (small transmembrane
proteins similar to those in facilitated diffusion and in
creating ion channels). Osmosis provides the primary means by
which water is transported into and out of cells.
The turgor pressure of a cell is largely maintained by osmosis
across the cell membrane between the cell interior and its
relatively hypotonic environment.
109
P
Paradigm shift
In 1962, Thomas
Kuhn wrote The
Structure of
Scientific
Revolution, and
fathered, defined and
popularized the
concept of "paradigm
shift" Kuhn argues
that scientific advancement is not evolutionary, but rather is a
"series of peaceful interludes punctuated by intellectually
violent revolutions",
and in those
revolutions "one
conceptual world view
is replaced by
another".
Kuhn used the duck-rabbit optical illusion to
demonstrate the way in which a paradigm shift could
cause one to see the same information in an entirely
different way.
Think of a Paradigm Shift as a change from one way of thinking
to another. It's a revolution, a transformation, a sort of
metamorphosis. It just does not happen, but rather it is driven
by agents of change.
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For example, agriculture changed early primitive society. The
primitive Indians existed for centuries roaming the earth
constantly hunting and gathering for seasonal foods and water.
However, by 2000 B.C., Middle America was a landscape of very
small villages, each surrounded by patchy fields of corn and
other vegetables.
Agents of change helped create a paradigm-shift moving
scientific theory from the Plolemaic system (the earth at the
center of the universe) to the Copernican system (the sun at the
center of the universe), and moving from Newtonian physics to
Relativity and Quantum Physics. Both movements eventually
changed the world view. These transformations were gradual as
old beliefs were replaced by the new paradigms creating "a new
gestalt" (p. 112).
Likewise, the printing press, the making of books and the use of
vernacular language inevitable changed the culture of a people
and had a direct affect on the scientific revo ution. Johann
Gutenberg's invention in the 1440's of movable type was an agent
of change. With the invention of the printing press, books
became readily available, smaller and easier to handle and cheap
to purchase. Masses of people acquired direct access to the
scriputures. Attitudes began to change as people were relieved
from church domination.
Similarly, agents of change are driving a new paradigm shift
today. The signs are all around us. For example, the
introduction of the personal computer and the internet have
impacted both personal and business environments, and is a
catalyst for a Paradigm Shift. We are shifting from a
mechanistic, manufacturing, industrial society to an organic,
service based, information centered society, and increases in
technology will continue to impact globally. Change is
inevitable. It's the only true constant.
In conclusion, for millions of years we have been evolving and
will continue to do so. Change is difficult. Human Beings
resist change; however, the process has been set in motion long
ago and we will continue to co-create our own experience. Kuhn
states that "awareness is prerequisite to all acceptable changes
of theory" (p. 67). It all begins in the mind of the person.
What we perceive, whether normal or metanormal, conscious or
unconscious, are subject to the limitations and distortions
produced by our inherited and socially conditional nature.
However, we are not restricted by this for we can change. We are
moving at an accelerated rate of speed and our state of
consciousness is transforming and transcending. Many are
awakening as our conscious awareness expands.
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Photovoltaics
Photovoltaics (PV) is a method
of generating electrical
power by converting solar
radiation into direct current
electricity using semiconductor
s that exhibit the photovoltaic
effect. Photovoltaic power
generation employs solar
panels composed of a number
of solar cells containing a
photovoltaic material.
Materials presently used for
photovoltaics
include monocrystalline
silicon,polycrystalline
silicon, amorphous
silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium
selenide/sulfide. Due to the increased demand for renewable
energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells
and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent
years.
Solar photovoltaics is a sustainable energy source. By the end
of 2011, a total of 71.1 GW had been installed, sufficient to
generate 85 TWh/year. And by end of 2012, the 100 GW installed
capacity milestone was achieved. Solar photovoltaics is now,
after hydro and wind power, the third most important renewable
energy source in terms of globally installed capacity. More than
100 countries use solar PV. Installations may be ground-mounted
(and sometimes integrated with farming and grazing) or built
into the roof or walls of a building (either building-integrated
photovoltaics or simply rooftop.
Driven by advances in technology and increases in manufacturing
scale and sophistication, the cost of photovoltaics has declined
steadily since the first solar cells were manufactured, and the
levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) from PV is competitive with
conventional electricity sources in an expanding list of
geographic regions. Net metering and financial incentives, such
Solar cells produce electricity directly
from sunlight.
as preferential feed-in tariffs for solar-generated electricity,
have supported solar PV installations in many countries. With
current technology, photovoltaics recoup the energy needed to
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manufacture them in 3 to 4 years. Anticipated technology would
reduce time needed to recoup the energy to 1 to 2 years.
Photovoltaics are best known as a method for generating electric
power by using solar cells to convert energy from the sun into a
flow of electrons. The photovoltaic effect refers to photons of
light exciting electrons into a higher state of energy, allowing
them to act as charge carriers for an electric current. The
photovoltaic effect was first observed by Alexandre-Edmond
Becquerel in 1839. The term photovoltaic denotes the unbiased
operating mode of a photodiode in which current through the
device is entirely due to the transduced light energy. Virtually
all photovoltaic devices are some type of photodiode.
Solar cells produce direct current electricity from sun light
which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery.
The first practical application of photovoltaics was to power
orbiting satellites and other spacecraft, but today the
majority of photovoltaic modules are used for grid connected
power generation. In this case an inverter is required to
convert the DC to AC.
There is a smaller market for off-grid power for remote
dwellings, boats,recreational vehicles, electric cars, roadside
emergency telephones, remote sensing, and cathodic protection of
pipelines.
Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a
number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material.
Materials presently used for photovoltaics include
monocrystalline silicon,polycrystalline silicon, amorphous
silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium
selenide/sulfide. Copper solar cables connect modules (module
cable), arrays (array cable), and sub-fields. Because of the
growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing
of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably
in recent years.
Cells require protection from the environment and are usually
packaged tightly behind a glass sheet. When more power is
required than a single cell can deliver, cells are electrically
connected together to form photovoltaic modules, or solar
panels. A single module is enough to power an emergency
telephone, but for a house or a power plant the modules must be
arranged in multiples as arrays.
Photovoltaic power capacity is measured as maximum power output
under standardized test conditions (STC) in "Wp" (Watts peak).
The actual power output at a particular point in time may be
less than or greater than this standardized, or "rated," value,
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depending on geographical location, time of day, weather
conditions, and other factors. Solar photovoltaic array capacity
factors are typically under 25%, which is lower than many other
industrial sources of electricity.
Pheromones
A pheromone (from Greek φέρω phero
"to bear" and hormone, from Greek
ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or
excreted chemical factor that
triggers a social response in
members of the same species.
Pheromones are chemicals capable of
acting outside the body of the
secreting individual to impact the
behavior of the receiving
individual. There are alarm
pheromones, food trail
pheromones, sex pheromones, and
many others that affect behavior or
physiology. Pheromones are used from basic
unicellular prokaryotes to complex multicellular eukaryotes.
Their use among insects has been particularly well documented.
In addition, some vertebrates and plants communicate by using
pheromones.
The term "pheromone" was introduced by Peter Karlson and Martin
Lüscher in 1959, based on the Greek word pherein (to transport)
and hormone (to stimulate). They are also sometimes classified
as ecto-hormones. They were researched earlier by various
scientists, including Jean-Henri Fabre, Joseph A. Lintner,
Adolph Butenandt, and ethologist Karl von Frisch who called
them various names like "alarm substances." These chemical
messengers are transported outside of the body and effect neuro
Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonovgland
(white-at tip of abdomen) releasing
pheromone to entice swarm into an
empty hive
circuits, including the autonomous nervous system with hormone
or cytokine mediated physiological changes, inflammatory
signaling,immune system changes and/or behavioral change in the
recipient. They proposed the term to describe chemical signals
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from conspecifics that elicit innate behaviors soon after the
German Biochemist Adolf Butenandt had characterized the first
such chemical, bombykol, a chemically well-characterized
pheromone released by the female silkworm to attract mates.
There are physical limits on the practical size of organisms
employing pheromones, because at small sizes pheromone diffuses
away from the source organism faster than it can be produced,
and a sensible concentration accumulates too slowly to be
useful. For this reason, bacteria are too small to use
pheromones as sex attractants on an individual basis. However,
they do use them to determine the local population density of
similar organisms and control behaviors that take more time to
execute (e.g. pheromones are used in quorum sensing or to
promote natural competence for transformation, i.e. sexual gene
transfer). In similar manner, the simple animals rotifers are,
it appears, also too small for females to lay down a useful
trail, but in the slightly larger copepods the female leaves a
trail that the male can follow.
Polymer
A polymer /ˈpɒlɨmər/is a large molecule, or macromolecule,
composed of many repeated subunits, known as monomers. Because
of their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural
polymers play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday
life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as
polystyrene (or styrofoam) to natural biopolymers such
as DNAand proteins that are fundamental to biological structure
and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created
via polymerization of many monomers. Their consequently
largemolecular mass relative to small molecule compounds
produces unique physical properties, including toughness,
viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form glasses and
semicrystalline structures rather than crystals.
The term "polymer" derives from the ancient Greek word
πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and μέρος (meros, meaning
"parts"), and refers to a molecule whose structure is composed
of multiple repeating units, from which originates
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a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant
properties. The units composing polymers derive, actually or
conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass. The
term was coined in 1833 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, though with a
definition distinct from the modern IUPAC definition.[8][9] The
modern concept of polymers as covalently bonded macromolecular
structures was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Staudinger, who spent
the next decade finding experimental evidence for this
hypothesis.
Polymers are studied in the fields of biophysics and
macromolecular science, and polymer science(which includes
polymer chemistry and polymer physics). Historically, products
arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical
bonds have been the primary focus of polymer science; emerging
important areas of the science now focus on non-covalent
links. Polyisoprene of
latex rubber and the
polystyrene of styrofoam are
examples of polymeric
natural/biological and
synthetic polymers,
respectively. In biological
contexts, essentially all
biological macromolecules
i.e.,proteins (polyamides)
, nucleic
acids (polynucleotides),
and polysaccharides—are
purely polymeric, or are composed in large part of polymeric
components—e.g., isoprenylated/lipid-modified glycoproteins,
where small lipidic molecule and oligosaccharide modifications
occur on the polyamide backbone of the protein.
Projectile motion
Appearance of real linear polymer chains as
recorded using an atomic force microscope on
a surface, under liquid medium. Chaincontour
length for this polymer is ~204 nm; thickness
is ~0.4 nm.
Projectile is defined as, any body thrown with some initial
velocity, which is then allowed to move under the action of
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gravity alone, without
being propelled by any
engine or fuel. The path
followed by a projectile is
called its trajectory. A
projectile moves at a
constant speed in the
horizontal direction while
experiencing a constant
acceleration of 9.8
m/s2
downwards in the
vertical direction. To be
consistent, we define the
up or upwards direction to
be the positive direction.
Therefore the acceleration
of gravity is, -9.8 m/s2
.
The speed in the horizontal direction is 'vx' and this speed
doesn't change. The equation which predicts the position at any
time in the horizontal direction is simply,
Because gravity has a downward pull, the vertical velocity
changes constantly. The equation that predicts the vertical
velocity at any time 'vy' is
The 'Voy' is simply the original velocity in the vertical or y-
direction. To calculate the position in the y-direction, the
full distance formula must be used. 'Yo', represents the original
position in the y-direction.
Acceleration for projectiles near the Earth's surface is -9.8
m/s2
. We don't re-write the equation with a negative sign.
Rather, we use the negative acceleration value when solving
problems.
When a projectile is launched horizontally a ball rolls off a
table, a car runs off the edge of a cliff, etc. Here the
original y-velocity is zero. For example, if the projectile
Parabolic Water Tragectory
drops 10 meters, you can set the Yo = 0 and Yf = -10 m. Or, you
can set Yo = 10 m and Yf = 0. Either works out the same.
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Q
Quantum
Quantum physics is a
branch of science
that deals with
discrete, indivisible
units of energy
called quanta as
described by the
Quantum Theory. There
are five main ideas
represented in
Quantum Theory:
1. Energy is not continuous, but comes in small but discrete
units.
2. The elementary particles behave both like
particles and like waves.
3. The movement of these particles is inherently random.
4. It is physically impossible to know both the position and
the momentum of a particle at the same time. The more
precisely one is known, the less precise the measurement of
the other is
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5. The atomic world is nothing like the world we live in.
While at a glance this may seem like just another strange
theory, it contains many clues as to the fundamental nature of
the universe and is more important then even relativity in the
grand scheme of things (if any one thing at that level could be
said to be more important then anything else). Furthermore, it
describes the nature of the universe as being much different
then the world we see. As Niels Bohr said, "Anyone who is not
shocked by quantum theory has not understood it."
Quartz
Quartz is the second
most
abundant mineral in
the Earth's continental
crust, after feldspar.
It is made up of a
continuous framework of
SiO4 silicon–
oxygen tetrahedra, with
each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an
overall formula SiO2.
There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which
are semi-precious gemstones.
Especially in Europe and the Middle East, varieties of quartz
119
have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the
making of jewelry and hardstone carvings.
The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "Quarz" and
its Middle High German ancestor "twarc", which probably
originated in Slavic (cf. Czech tvrdý ("hard"),
Polish twardy ("hard").
Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. The ideal crystal
shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six-
sided pyramids at each end. In nature quartz crystals are often
twinned, distorted, or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of
quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape, or
to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive.
Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has
unconstrained growth into a void; usually the crystals are
attached at the other end to a matrix and only one termination
pyramid is present. However doubly-terminated crystals do occur
where they develop freely without attachment, for instance
within gypsum. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void
is approximately spherical in shape, lined with a bed of
crystals pointing inward. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal
crystal system, space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. β-
quartz belongs to the hexagonal system, space group P6222
and P6422, respectively. These space groups are truly chiral
(they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphism pairs). Both α-
quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures
composed of achiral building blocks (SiO4 tetrahedra in the
present case). The transformation between α- and β-quartz only
involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with
respect to one another, without change in the way they are
linked.
Quartzite
Quartzite (from German Quar
zit) is a hard, non-
foliated metamorphic
rock which was originally
pure quartzsandstone.
Sandstone is converted into
quartzite through heating
and pressure usually
related to tectonic
compression within orogenic
belts. Pure quartzite is
usually
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white to grey, though
quartzites often occur in
various shades of pink and
red due to varying amounts
of iron oxide (Fe2O3).
Other colors, such as yellow, green, blue and orange, are due to
other mineral impurities.
When sandstone is cemented to quartzite, the
individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former
cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz
crystals. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary
structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. The
grainy, sandpaper-like surface becomes glassy in appearance.
Minor amounts of former cementing materials, iron oxide, silica,
carbonate and clay, often migrate during recrystallization and
metamorphosis. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the
quartzite.
Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of
usually well rounded quartz grains cemented bysilica.
Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2 with only very minor amounts of
iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such
as zircon, rutile and magnetite. Although few fossils are
normally present, the original texture and
sedimentary structures are preserved.
The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz
arenites, and both usages are found in the literature. The
typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation
into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly
cemented, diagenetically altered, and metamorphosized so that it
will fracture and break across grain boundaries, not around
them. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and
often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. The nearly pure
silica content of the rock provides little for soil, therefore,
the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very
thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation.
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Because of its hardness and angular shape, crushed quartzite is
often used as ballast. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may
be used to cover walls, as roofing tiles, as flooring, and stair
steps. Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction.
High purity quartzite is used to produce ferrosilicon,
industrial silica sand, silicon and silicon carbide. During
the Stone Age quartzite was used, in addition to flint, quartz,
and other lithic raw materials, for making stone tools.
Quasars and
QSOs
These objects were
named Quasistellar
Radio
Sources (meaning
"star-like radio
sources") which
was soon
contracted
to quasars. Later,
it was found that
many similar objects did not emit radio waves. These were
termed Quasistellar Objects or QSOs. Now, all of these are often
termed quasars (Only about 1% of the quasars discovered to date
have detectable radio emission).
Here are some Hubble Space Telescope quasar images, and the
following figure shows the quasar 3C273, which was the first
quasar discovered and is also the quasar with the greatest
apparent brightness. It will be discussed further below.
The quasars were deemed to be strange new phenomena, and
initially there was considerable speculation that new laws of
physics might have to be invented to account for the amount of
energy that they produced.
Quasars
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 The quasar 3C273. Left image shows the quasar and the jet. Right image
superposes on this contours of radio frequency intensity. The sharp radial
lines from the quasar are optical spike artifacts because of its brightness
However, subsequent research has shown that the quasars are
closely related to the active galaxies that have been studied at
closer distances. We now believe quasars and active galaxies to
be related phenomena, and that their energy output can be
explained using the theory of general relativity. In that sense,
the quasars are certainly strange, but perhaps are not
completely new phenomena.
The quasars are thought to be powered by supermassive rotating
black holes at their centers. Because they are the most luminous
objects known in the universe, they are the objects that have
been observed at the greatest distances from us. The most
distant are so far away that the light we see coming from them
was produced when the Universe was only one tenth of its present
age.
The present belief is that quasars are actually closely related
to active galaxies such as Seyfert Galaxies or BL Lac objects in
that they are very active galaxies with bright nuclei powered by
enormous rotating black holes. However, because the quasars are
at such large distances, it is difficult to see anything other
than the bright nucleus of the active galaxy in their case.
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Quine, Willard Van Orman
W. V. O. Quine (1908-2000) did
not conceive of philosophy as an
activity separate from the
general province of empirical
science. His interest in science
is not best described as a
philosophy of science but as a
set of reflections on the nature
of science that is pursued with
the same empirical spirit that
animates scientific inquiry.
Quine’s philosophy should then
be seen as a systematic attempt
to understand science from
within the resources of science
itself. This project
investigates both the
epistemological and ontological
dimensions of scientific
theorizing. Quine’s epistemological concern is to examine our
successful acquisition of scientific theories, while his
ontological interests focus on the further logical regimentation
of that theory. He thus advocates what is more famously known as
‘naturalized epistemology’, which consists of his attempt to
provide an improved scientific explanation of how we have
developed elaborate scientific theories on the basis of meager
sensory input. Quine further argues that the most general
features of reality can be examined through the use of formal
logic by clarifying what objects we must acknowledge as real
given our acceptance of an overarching systematic view of the
world. In pursuing these issues, Quine reformulates and thus
transforms these philosophical concerns according to those
standards of clarity, empirical adequacy, and utility that he
takes as central to the explanatory power of empirical science.
While few philosophers have adopted Quine’s strict standards or
accepted the details of his respective positions, the general
empirical reconfiguration of philosophy and philosophy of
science recommended by his naturalism has been very influential.
Willard Van Orman Quine
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R
Reproduction
125
Reproduction (or procreation) is the biological process by which
new "offspring" individual organisms are produced from their
"parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known
life; each individual organism exists as the result of
reproduction. The known methods of reproduction are broadly
grouped into two main types: sexual and asexual.
In asexual reproduction, an individual can reproduce without
involvement with another individual of that species. The
division of a bacterial cell into two daughter cells is an
example of asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is not,
however, limited to single-celled organisms. Most plants have
the ability to reproduce asexually and the ant
species Mycocepurus smithii is thought to reproduce entirely by
asexual means.
Sexual reproduction typically requires the involvement of two
individuals or gametes, one each from opposite type of sex. The
propagation of organisms can also occur through cloning.
Asexual reproduction
Asexual reproduction is the process by which an organism creates
a genetically similar or identical copy of itself without a
contribution of genetic material from another
individual. Bacteria divide asexually via binary
fission; viruses take control of host cells to produce more
viruses; Hydras (invertebrates of the order Hydro idea)
and yeasts are able to reproduce by budding. These organisms
often do not possess different sexes, and they are capable of
"splitting" themselves into two or more individuals. On the
other hand, some of these species that are capable of
reproducing asexually, like hydra, yeast (Mating of yeasts)
and jellyfish, may also reproduce sexually. For instance, most
plants are capable of vegetative reproduction—reproduction
without seeds or spores—but can also reproduce sexually.
Likewise, bacteria may exchange genetic information
by conjugation. Other ways of asexual reproduction
include parthenogenesis, fragmentation and spore formation that
involves only mitosis. Parthenogenesis (from the Greek παρθένος
parthenos, "virgin", + γένεσις genesis, "creation") is the
growth and development of
embryo or seed without fertilization by a male. Parthenogenesis
occurs naturally in some species, including lower plants (where
it is called apomixis), invertebrates (e.g. water fleas, aphids,
some bees and parasitic wasps).
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Sexual reproduction
Sexual reproduction is a biological process by which organisms
create descendants that have a combination of genetic material
contributed from two (usually) different members of the species.
(Self-fertilization requires only one organism.) Each of two
parent organisms contributes half of the offspring's genetic
makeup by creating haploid gametes. Most organisms form two
different types of gametes. In these anisogamous species, the
two sexes are referred to as male (producing sperm or
microspores) and female (producing ova or megaspores).
In isogamous species, the gametes are similar or identical in
form (isogametes), but may have separable properties and then
may be given other different names (isogamy). For example, in
the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, there are so-called
"plus" and "minus" gametes. A few types of organisms, such
as ciliates, Paramecium aurelia, have more than two types of
"sex", called syngens.
Reptile
Phylogentic classifications group mammal-like reptiles, like this Varanodon, with
other synapsids, not with extant reptiles.
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Reptiles, the class Reptilia, are an evolutionary grade of
animals, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes,
lizards, and tuatara, as well as many extinct groups. A reptile
is any amniote (a tetrapod whose egg has an additional membrane,
originally to allow them to lay eggs on land) that is neither
a mammal nor a bird. Unlike mammals, birds, and certain extinct
reptiles, living reptiles have scales orscutes (rather than fur
or feathers) and are cold-blooded. Advocates of phylogenetic
nomenclature regard the traditional category 'Reptilia' to be
invalid, as not all descendants of a common ancestor are
included. However, in practice, these non-
cladistic classifications, such as reptile, fish, and amphibian,
remain in use by some biologists, especially in popular books
written for a general audience. The historically combined study
of reptiles and amphibians is called herpetology.
The earliest known reptiles originated around 340-335 million
years ago during the Carboniferous period, having evolved from
advancedreptile-like amphibians that became increasingly adapted
to life on dry land. Some early examples include the lizard-
like Hylonomus,Casineria and possibly Westlothiana, although the
latter may be an advanced land-dwelling amphibian. In addition
to the living reptiles, there are many diverse groups that are
now extinct, in some cases due to mass extinction events. In
particular, the K–Pg extinctionwiped out
the pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, ornithischians, and sauropods, as
well as many species
of theropods (e.g. tyrannosaurs anddromaeosaurids), crocodylifor
ms, and squamates (e.g. mosasaurids).
Modern reptiles inhabit every continent with the exception of
Antarctica. Several living subgroups are recognized:
Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises): approximately
400 species
Sphenodontia (tuatara from New Zealand): 2 species
Squamata (lizards, snakes, and worm lizards): over 9,600
species
Crocodilia (crocodiles, gavials, caimans, and alligators): 25
species
Although they have scutes on their feet and lay eggs, birds have
historically been excluded from the reptiles. They, therefore,
do not appear on the list above. However, as some reptiles are
more closely related to birds than they are to other reptiles —
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 crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to
lizards — cladistic writers who prefer a more
unified (monophyletic) grouping usually also include the birds,
which include over 10,000 species.
Rhenium
Rhenium is a chemical element with the symbol Re and atomic
number 75. It is a silvery-white, heavy, third-row transition
metal in group 7 of the periodic table. With an estimated
average concentration of 1 part per billion (ppb), rhenium is
one of the rarest elements in the Earth's crust. Discovered in
1925, rhenium was the last stable element to be discovered. It
was named after the river Rhine in Europe.
Nickel-based super alloys of rhenium are used in the
combustion chambers, turbine blades, and exhaust nozzles of jet
engines. These alloys contain up to 6% rhenium, making jet
engine construction the largest single use for the element, with
the chemical industry's catalytic uses being next-most
important.
Rhenium (Latin: Rhenus meaning: "Rhine") was the last element to
be discovered having a stable isotope (other new radioactive
elements have
been discovered
in nature since
then, such
as neptunium and plutonium). The existence of a yet undiscovered
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element at this position in the periodic had been first
predicted by Dmitry Mendeleev. Other calculated information was
obtained by Henry Moseley in 1914. It is generally considered to
have been discovered by Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke, and Otto
Berg in Germany. In 1925 they reported that they detected the
element in platinum ore and in the mineral columbite. They also
found rhenium in gadolinite and molybdenite. In 1928 they were
able to extract 1 g of the element by processing 660 kg of
molybdenite. It was estimated in 1968 that 75% of the rhenium
metal in the United States was used for research and the
development of refractory metal alloys. It took several years
from that point on before the super alloys became widely used.
Rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that results
in a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect
many tissues and organs, but principally attacks flexible
(synovial) joints. The process involves an inflammatory response
of the capsule around the joints (synovium) secondary to
swelling (turgescence) of synovial cells, excess synovial fluid,
and the development of fibrous tissue (pannus) in the synovium.
The pathology of the disease process often leads to the
destruction of articular cartilage and ankylosis (fusion) of the
joints. RA can also produce diffuse inflammation in the lungs,
the membrane around the heart
130
(pericardium), the
membranes of the lung
(pleura), and white of
the eye (sclera), and
also nodular lesions,
mostcommonin subcutaneous tissue. Although the cause of RA is
unknown, autoimmunity plays a big part, and RA is a systemic
autoimmune disease. It is a clinical diagnosis made on the basis
of symptoms, physical exam, radiographs (X-rays) and labs.
Hand affected by rheumatoid arthritis
Rheumatic fever
Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that occurs following
a Streptococcus pyogenes infection, such as streptococcal
pharyngitis. Believed to be caused by antibody cross-reactivity
that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain, the illness
typically develops two to three weeks after a streptococcal
infection. Acute rheumatic fever commonly appears in children
between the ages of 6 and 15, with only 20% of first-time
attacks occurring in adults. The illness is so named because of
its similarity in presentation to rheumatism.
131
Skin with rheumatic fever.
S
Saturated fat
Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing
only saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double
bonds between the
individual carbon
atoms of the fatty acid
chain. That is, the chain
of carbon atoms is fully
"saturated"
with hydrogen atoms.
There are many kinds of
naturally occurring
saturated fatty acids,
which differ mainly in
number of carbon atoms,
from 3 carbons (propionic
acid) to 36 (hexatriacontanoic acid).
Various fats contain different proportions of saturated
and unsaturated fat. Examples of foods containing a high
proportion of saturated fat include animal fats such
as cream, cheese, butter, and ghee; suet, tallow, lard, and
fatty meats; as well as certain vegetable products such
as coconut oil, cottonseed oil, palm kernel oil, chocolate, and
many prepared foods.
Schleiden, Matthias Jakob
Schleiden, Matthias Jakob (5 April 1804 – 23 June 1881) was
a German botanist and co-founder of the cell theory, along
132
with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf
Virchow.
Born in Hamburg, Schleiden was
educated at Heidelberg, then
practiced law in Hamburg, but soon
developed his love for
the botany into a full-time
pursuit. Schleiden preferred to
study plant structure under
the microscope. While a professor
of botany at the University of
Jena, he wrote Contributions to
Phytogenesis (1838), in which he
stated that the different parts of
the plant organism are composed of
cells. Thus, Schleiden and Schwann became the first to formulate
what was then an informal belief as a principle of biology equal
in importance to the atomic theory of chemistry. He also
recognized the importance of the cell nucleus, discovered in
1831 by the Scottish botanist Robert Brown, and sensed its
connection with cell division.
Schleiden was one of the first German biologists to
accept Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. He became professor
of botany at the University of Dorpat in 1863. He concluded that
all plant parts are made of cells and that an embryonic plant
organism arises from the one cell. He died in Frankfurt am
Main on 23 June 1881.
Sputnik 1
Sputnik 1 was the
first artificial Earth
satellite. It was a
58 cm (23 in) diameter
polished metal sphere,
with four external radio
antennas to broadcast
radio pulses. The Soviet
Matthias Jakob Schleiden
First man-made satellite to orbit the earth.
Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth
133
orbit on 4 October 1957. It was visible all around the Earth and
its radio pulses were detectable. The surprise success
precipitated the American Sputnik crisis, began the Space
Age and triggered the Space Race, a part of the larger Cold War.
The launch ushered in new political, military, technological,
and scientific developments.
Sputnik itself provided scientists with valuable information.
The density of the upper atmosphere could be deduced from
its drag on the orbit, and the propagation of its radio signals
gave information about the ionosphere.
Sputnik 1 was launched during the International Geophysical
Year from Site No.1/5, at
the 5th Tyuratam range,
in Kazakh SSR (now at the
Baikonur Cosmodrome). The satellite travelled at about 29,000
kilometers per hour (18,000 mph), taking 96.2 minutes to
complete each orbit. It transmitted on 20.005 and 40.002 MHz
which were monitored by amateur radio operators throughout the
world. The signals continued for 22 days until the transmitter
batteries ran out on 26 October 1957. Sputnik 1 burned up on 4
January 1958, as it fell from orbit upon reentering Earth's
atmosphere, after travelling about 70 million km (43.5 million
miles) and spending 3 months in orbit.
Steroid
A steroid is a
type of organic
compound that
contains a
characteristic
arrangement of
Figure 1 Sputnik 1 was the first man-made object
to orbit the Earth.
four cycloalkane rings that are joined to each other. Examples
of steroids include the dietary lipid cholesterol, the sex
134
hormones estradiol and testosterone and the anti-
inflammatory drug dexamethasone.
The core of steroids is composed of seventeen carbon atoms
bonded together that take the form of four fused rings:
three cyclohexane rings (designated as rings A, B and C in the
figure to the right) and one cyclopentane ring (the D ring). The
steroids vary by the functional groups attached to this four-
ring core and by the oxidation state of the rings. Sterols are
special forms of steroids, with a hydroxyl group at position-3
and a skeleton derived from cholestane.
Hundreds of distinct steroids are found
in plants, animals and fungi. All steroids are made in cells
either from the sterols lanosterol (animals and fungi, see below
right) or from cycloartenol (plants). Both lanosterol and
cycloartenol are derived from the cyclization of
the triterpene squalene.
Storm surge
Storm surge is an
offshore rise of
water associated
with a low
pressure weather
system,
typically tropical
cyclones and
strong extra
tropical cyclones.
Storm surges are
caused primarily by
high winds pushing
on the ocean's
surface. The wind causes the water to
135
pile up higher than the ordinary sea level. Low pressure at the
center of a weather system also has a small secondary effect, as
can the bathymetry of the body of water. It is this combined
effect of low pressure and persistent wind over a shallow water
body which is the most common cause of storm surge flooding
problems. The term "storm surge" in casual (non-scientific) use
is storm tide; that is, it refers to the rise of water
associated with the storm, plus tide, wave run-up, and
freshwater flooding. "Tidal surge" is incorrect since there is
no such thing. When referring to storm surge height, it is
important to clarify the usage, as well as the reference point.
The U.S. National Hurricane Center defines storm surge as water
height above predicted astronomical tide level, and storm tide
as water height above NGVD-29, a 1929 benchmark of mean sea
level. Most casualties during a tropical cyclone occur during
the storm surge.
136
INDEX
M
Maltose, pp.90-91
Mantle, pp.91-93
Momentum, pp.93-94
Mudslide, pp.95-96
Myelin, pp.96-97
N
Neon, pp.98-99
Neodymium ,p. 101-
102
Neptunium, pp.100-
101
Newton, Isaac,
pp.99-100
Niobium ,p.102-103
O
Ocean, pp.104-105
Ohm’s law, pp.105-
106
Onnes, Heike
Kamerlingh, p.106-
107
Orsted, Hans
Christian , p.107-
108
Osmosis, p.108-109
P
Paradigm Shift,
pp.110-111
Pheromones,
pp.114-115
Photovoltaics,
pp.112-114
Polymer, pp. 115-
116
Projectile Motion,
pp. 116-117
Q
Quantum, p.118-119
Quartz, pp.119-120
Quartzite, pp.120-
122
Quasars and quo’s,
pp.122-123
Quine, Willard Van
Orman, p. 124
R
Reproduction ,
pp.125-127
Reptiles, pp.127-
129
Rhenium , pp.129-
130
Rheumatoid
arthritis, p.130-
131
Rheumatic fever,
p.131
S
Saturated fat,
p.132
Schleiden,
Matthias Jakob,
pp.132-133
Sputnik 1, pp.133-
134
Steroid, pp.134-
135
Storm surge,
PP.135-136
Table of Contents
I. Title Page i.
II. Acknowledgement ii.
III. Maltose 90
Mantle 91
Momentum 93
Mudslide 95
Myelin 96
IV. Neon 98
Neodymium 101
Neptunium 100
Newton, Isaac 99
Niobium 102
V. Ocean 104
Ohm’s law 105
Onnes, Heike Kamerlingh 106
Orsted, Hans Christian 107
Osmosis 108
VI. Paradigm Shift 110
Pheromones 114
Photovoltaics 112
Polymer 115
Projectile Motion 116
VII. Quantum 118
Quartz 119
Quartzite 120
Quasars and quo’s 122
Quine, Willard Van Orman 124
VIII. Reproduction 125
Reptiles 127
Rhenium 129
Rheumatoid arthritis 130
Rheumatic fever 131
IX. Saturated fat 132
Schleiden, Matthias Jakob 132
Sputnik 1 133
Steroid 134
Storm surge 135
X. Index
ii

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ENCYCLOPEDIA- Volume 3..final

  • 1. M Maltose Maltose (/ˈmɔˈltoʊs/ or also known asmaltobiose or malt sugar, is a disaccharide formed from two units of glucose joined with an α(1→4) bond, formed from a condensation reaction. The isomerisomaltose has two glucose molecules linked through an α(1→6) bond. Maltose is the second member of an important biochemical series of glucose chains. Maltose is the disaccharide produced when amylase breaks downstarch. It is found in germinating seeds such as barley as they break down their starch stores to use for food. It is also produced when glucose is caramelized. Maltose was discovered by Ireland's Cornelius O’Sullivanin 1872[5] and its name comes from malt, from Old English mealt, of Germanic origin, and the suffix –ose, a suffix forming names of sugars and other carbohydrates. Maltose α-Maltose
  • 2. Maltose is a biomolecule that belongs to the group of 90 carbohydrates within the division into three groups, which are divided into essential elements: carbohydrates, lipids and proteins. Carbohydrates are composed by O, H, C, and are defined as polyhydroxyaldehydes or polyhydroxyketones. It is generally divided into monosaccharides, oligosaccharides and polysaccharides depending on the number of residues. Maltose is a disaccharide formed by the union of two glucose units (monosaccharide). The two are classified as hexoses because each one is composed of six carbons. The two glucoses which compose maltose are cyclized in piran form and are joined by an O-glycosidic bond through one of the firstglucose carbon and fourth carbon of the second glucose, indicated as (1 → 4). The link is characterized as α due to the -OH position of the anomeric carbon in the opposite plane of CH2OH radical (the carbon is the number 6).Due to O-glycosidic link, maltose is a disaccharide that can reduce Fehling's reagent. Furthermore, maltose can be obtained by hydrolysis of glycogen or starch, polymers of linked maltoses in position α (1 → 4) and branching in position α (1 → 6). These are very abundant and form a large number of branches. Amylase enzymes produce maltose and limit dextrin. These can be further degraded by maltase enzyme to hydrolyze maltoses as glucoses and they are ready to be degrade and obtain energy in form of ATP. Maltose has the ability to reduce the Fehling’s solution, due to its free aldehyde. The aldehyde group is oxidized giving a positive result, which means that the maltose is a reducing sugar. Maltose in aqueous solution exhibit mutarotation, due to its anomeric carbon which can form α and β isomers. In aqueous solution, it is shown a balanced way between α and β forms. It has a sweet taste. Lu and Sharkey – in 2006 – said that maltose was the main carbon form exported from chloroplasts at night. MANTLE
  • 3. The mantle is a part of a terrestrial planet or other rocky body large enough to have differentiation by density. The interior of 91 the Earth, similar to the other terrestrial planets, is chemically divided into layers. The mantle is a layer between the crust and the outer core. Earth's mantle is a silicate rocky shell about 2,900 km (1,800 mi) thick that constitutes about 84% of Earth's volume. It is predominantly solid but in geological time it behaves like very viscous liquid. The mantle encloses the hot core rich in iron and nickel, which occupies about 15% of Earth's volume. Past episodes of melting and volcanism at the shallower levels of the mantle have produced a thin crust of crystallized melt products near the surface, upon which we live.[4] Information about structure and composition of the mantle either result from geophysical investigation or from direct geoscientific analyses on Earth mantle derived xenoliths and on mantle exposed by mid- oceanic ridge spreading. The Structure of the Earth
  • 4. Two main zones are distinguished in the upper mantle: the inner asthenosphere composed of plastic flowing rock about 200 km thick,and the lowermost part of the lithosphere composed of rigid rock about 50 to 120 km thick. A thin crust, the upper 92 part of the lithosphere, surrounds the mantle and is about 5 to 75 km thick. In some places under the ocean the mantle is actually exposed on the surface of the Earth. There are also a few places on land where mantle rock has been pushed to the surface by tectonic activity, most notably the Tablelands region of Gros Morne National Park in the Canadian province of Newfoundland. The mantle is divided into sections which are based upon results from seismology. These layers (and their thicknesses/depths) are the following: the upper mantle (starting at the Moho, or base of the crust around 7 to 35 km downward to 410 km),the transition zone (410–660 km), the lower mantle (660–2891 km), and anomalous core–mantle boundary with a variable thickness (on average ~200 km thick). The top of the mantle is defined by a sudden increase in seismic velocity, which was first noted by Andrija Mohorovičić in 1909; this boundary is now referred to as the "Mohorovičić discontinuity" or "Moho". The uppermost mantle plus overlying crust are relatively rigid and form the lithosphere, an irregular layer with a maximum thickness of perhaps 200 km, below the lithosphere the upper mantle becomes notably more plastic. In some regions below the lithosphere, the seismic velocity is reduced; this so-called low-velocity zone (LVZ) extends down to a depth of several hundred km. Inge Lehmann discovered a seismic discontinuity at about 220 km depth; although this discontinuity has been found in other studies, it is not known whether the discontinuity is ubiquitous. The transition zone is an area of great complexity; it physically separates the upper and lower mantle. Very little is known about the lower mantle apart from that it appears to be relatively seismically homogeneous. The D" layers at the core– mantle boundary separates the mantle from the core. MOMENTUM
  • 5. In classical mechanics, line ar momentum or translational 93 momentum (pl. m omenta; SI unit kg m/s, or equivalently, N s) is the product of the mass and veloci ty of an object. For example, a heavy truck moving fast has a large momentum—it takes a large and prolonged force to get the truck up to this speed, and it takes a large and prolonged force to bring it to a stop afterwards. If the truck were lighter or moving more slowly, then it would have less momentum. Like velocity, linear momentum is a vector quantity, possessing a direction as well as a magnitude: Linear momentum is also a conserved quantity, meaning that if a closed system is not affected by external forces, its total linear momentum cannot change. In classical mechanics, conservation of linear momentum is implied by Newton's laws; but it also holds in special relativity (with a modified formula) and, with appropriate definitions, a (generalized) linear momentum conservation law holds in electrodynamics, mechanics, quantum, and general relativity. Momentum has a direction as well as magnitude. Quantities that have both a magnitude and a direction are known as vector quantities. Because momentum has a direction, it can be used to predict the resulting direction of objects after they collide, as well as their speeds. Below, the basic properties of momentum are described in one dimension. The vector equations are almost identical to the scalar equations (see multiple dimensions). Billiard balls possesses momentum.
  • 6. 94 MUDSLIDE A mudslide is the most rapid (up to 80 km/h, or 50 mph) and fluid type of downhill mass wasting. It is a rapid movement of a large mass of mud formed from loose dirt and water. Similar phenomena include mudflow, mud stream, debris flow (e.g. in high mountains), jökulhlaup, and lahar (from volcanoes). These terms cover a broad variety in water content (from loamy mud, to almost liquid, and even steam); material (wet soil, sandy sediments and/or silt, dirt, rock, debris, volcanic ash, small plants, and even trees); length; total mass; and velocity. Heavy rainfall, snowmelt, or high levels of water flowing through cracked bedrock may trigger a movement of soil or sediments. Floods, debris- and mud flows may also occur when strong rains on hill or mountain slopes cause extensive erosion and/or what is known as "channel scour". The 2006 Sidoarjo mud flow may have been caused by rogue drilling. Some broad mudflows are rather viscous and therefore slow; others begin very quickly and continue like an avalanche. If Mailbox caught in a mudslide
  • 7. large enough they can devastate villages and country sides. They are composed of at least 50% silt and clay-sized materials and up to 30% water. Mudflows are common even in 95 the hills around Los Angeles where they have destroyed many homes built on hillsides without sufficient support. The point where a muddy material begins to flow depends on its grain and the water content. Fine grainy material or soil has a smaller friction angle than a coarse sediment or a debris flow, but falling rock pieces can trigger a material flow, too. On December 14, 1999 in Vargas, Venezuela, a mudslide known as The Vargas tragedy, which significantly altered more than 60 kilometers (37 mi) of its coastline, was triggered due to heavy rainfall and caused estimated damages of USD $1.79 to $3.5 billion, a death toll considered to be between 10,000 and 30,000, 85,000 people evacuated and led to the complete collapse of the state's infrastructure. When a mudslide occurs it is given four named areas, the 'main scarp', in bigger mudslides the 'upper and lower shelves' and the 'toe'. The main scarp will be the original area of incidence; the toe is the last affected area(s). The upper and lower shelves are located wherever a large dip (due to mountain or natural drop) in the mudslides path. Due to this a mudslide can have many shelves. Myelin Myelin is a dielectric(electrically insulating) material that forms a layer, the myelin sheath, usually around only the axon of a neuron. It is essential for the proper functioning of the nervous system. It is an outgrowth of a type of glial cell. The production of the myelin sheath is called myelination. In humans, the production of myelin begins in the 14th week of fetal development, although little myelin exists in the brain at the time of birth. During infancy, myelination occurs quickly and continues through the adolescent stages of life. Schwann cells supply the myelin for peripheral neurons, whereas oligodendrocytes, specifically of the inter fascicular
  • 8. type, myelinate the axons of have also arisen by parallel evolution in some invertebrates, although they are quite 96 different from vertebrate myelin at the molecular level. Myelin was discovered in 1854 by Rudolf Virchow. Myelin is made up by different cell types, and varies in chemical composition and configuration, but performs the same insulating function. Myelinated axons are white in appearance, hence the "white matter" of the brain. The fat helps to insulate the axons from electrically charged atoms and molecules. These charged particles (ions) are found in the fluid surrounding the entire nervous system. Under a microscope, myelin looks like strings of sausages. Myelin is also a part of the maturation process leading to a child's fast development, including crawling and walking in the first year. Myelin is about 40% water; the dry mass is about 70– 85% lipids and about 15–30% proteins. Some of the proteins are myelin basic protein, myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, and proteolipid protein. The primary lipid of myelin is a glycolipid called galactocerebroside. The intertwining hydrocarbon chains of sphingomyelin serve to strengthen the myelin sheath. Myelin Sheath Formation
  • 9. The main purpose of a myelin layer (or sheath) is to increase the speed at which impulses propagate along the myelinated fiber. 97 N Appearance and Properties of Neon cColorless gas exhibiting an orange-red glow when placed in a high voltage electric field Spectral lines of neon in the visible region General properties Name, symbol, number neon, Ne, 10 Pronunciation /ˈniˈɒn/ Element category noble gases Group, period, block 18 (noble gases), 2, p Standard atomic weight 20.1797(6) Electron configuration [He] 2s2 2p6 2, 8 Atomic properties Oxidation states 1[6] , 0 Ionization energies (more) 1st: 2080.7 kJ·mol−1 2nd: 3952.3 kJ·mol−1
  • 10. Neon Neon is a chemical element with symbol Ne and atomic number 10. It is in group 18 (noble gases) of the periodic table. Neon is a colorless, odorless, inert monatomic gas under standard conditions, with about two-thirds the density of air. It was discovered (along with krypton and xenon) in 1898 as one of the three residual rare inert elements remaining in dry air, after nitrogen, oxygen, argon and carbon dioxide are removed. 98 Neon was the second of these three rare gases to be discovered, and was immediately recognized as a new element from its bright red emission spectrum. The name neon is derived from the Greek word, νέον, neuter singular form of νέος [neos], meaning new. Neon is chemically inert and forms no uncharged chemical compounds. Neon is a very common element in the universe and solar system (it is fifth in cosmic abundance after hydrogen, helium, oxygen and carbon), but, it is very rare on Earth. Neon gives a distinct reddish-orange glow when used in either low-voltage neon glow lamps or in high-voltage discharge tubes or neon advertising signs. Neon is used in a few plasma tube and refrigerant applications but has few other commercial uses. Newton, Isaac Sir Isaac Newton (25 December 1642 – 20 March 1727) was an English physicist and mathematician who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists 3rd: 6122 kJ·mol−1 Covalent radius 58 pm Van der Waals radius 154 pm Chemical Symbol of Neon
  • 11. of all time and as a key figure in the scientific revolution. His book Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica ("Mathematical Principles of Natural Philosophy"), first published in 1687, laid the foundations for most of classical mechanics. Newton also made seminal contributions to optics and shares credit with Gottfried Leibniz for the invention of the infinitesimal calculus. Newton's Principia formulated the laws of motion and universal gravitation that dominated scientists' view of the physical universe for the next three centuries. It also demonstrated that the motion of objects on the Earth and that of celestial bodies 99 could be described by the same principles. Newton built the first practical reflecting telescope and developed a theory of colour based on the observation that a prism decomposes white light into the many colours of the visible spectrum. He also formulated an empirical law of cooling and studied the speed of sound. Appearance and Properties of Neptunium Silvery-metallic General properties Name, symbol, number neptunium, Np, 93 Element category actinide Godfrey Kneller's 1689 portrait of Isaac Newton (age 46)
  • 12. Neptunium Neptunium is a chemical element with the symbol Np and atomic number 93. A radioactive actinide metal, neptunium is the first transuranic element. Its position in the periodic table just after uranium, named after the planet Uranus, led to its being named after Neptune, the next planet beyond Uranus. A neptunium atom has 93 protons and 93 electrons, of which seven are valence electrons. Neptunium metal is silvery and tarnishes when exposed to air. The element normally exhibits five oxidation states, ranging from +3 to +7. In the 1870s, Dmitri Mendeleev first predicted the existence of neptunium, and many false claims of its discovery were made over the years. Most neptunium is produced by bombarding uranium with neutrons in 100 nuclear reactors; neptunium is also generated as a by-product in conventional nuclear reactors. Group, period, block n/a, 7, f Standard atomic weight (237) Electron configuration [Rn] 5f4 6d1 7s2 2, 8, 18, 32, 22, 9, 2 Discovery Edwin McMillan and Philip H. Abelson (1940) Physical properties Density (near r.t.) (alpha) 20.45[1] g·cm−3 Density (near r.t.) (accepted standard value) 19.38 g·cm−3 Melting point 912 K1182 °F 639 °C, , Boiling point 7545 4174 °C, 4447 K, (extrapolated) °F Appearance and Properties of Neodymiun Silvery-white
  • 13. Neodymium Neodymium is a chemical element with the symbol Nd and atomic number 60. It is a soft silvery metal that tarnishes in air. Neodymium was discovered in 1885 by the Austrian chemist Carl Auer von Welsbach. It is present in significant quantities in the ore minerals monazite and bastnäsite. Neodymium is not found naturally in metallic form or unmixed with other lanthanides, and it is usually refined for general use. Although neodymium is classed as a "rare earth", it is a fairly common element, no rarer than cobalt, nickel, and copper, and is widely distributed in the Earth's crust. Neodymium compounds were first commercially used as glass dyes in 1927, and they remain a popular additive in glasses. The color of neodymium compounds—due to the Nd3+ ion—is often a reddish-purple but it changes with the type of lighting, with the type of lighting, duefluorescent effects. Some neodymium-doped glasses are also used in lasers that emit infrared light with wavelengths between 1047 and 1062 nanometers. 101 These have been used in extremely high power applications, such as experiments in inertial confinement fusion.Neodymium is also used with various other substrate crystals, such as yttrium General properties Name, symbol, number neodymium, Nd, 60 Element category lanthanide Group, period, block n/a, 6, f Standard atomic weight 144.242 Electron configuration [Xe] 4f4 6s2 2, 8, 18, 22, 8, 2 Discovery Carl Auer von Welsbach (1885) Physical properties Phase solid Liquid density at m.p. 6.89 g·cm−3 Melting point 1297 K1875 °F 1024 °C, , Boiling point 5565 °F 3074 °C, 3347 K, Heat of fusion 7.14 kJ·mol−1
  • 14. aluminum garnet in the Nd:YAG laser. This laser usually emits infrared waves at a wavelength of about 1064 nanometers. Niobium Niobium,formerly columbium, is a chemical element with the symbol Nb (formerly Cb) and atomic number 41. It is a soft, grey, ductile transition metal, which is often found in the pyrochlore mineral, the main commercial source for niobium, and columbite. The name comes from Greek mythology: Niobe, daughter of Tantalus. The English chemist Charles Hatchett reported a new element similar to tantalum in 1801 and named it columbium. In 1809, the English chemist William Hyde Wollaston wrongly concluded that tantalum and columbium were identical. The German chemist Heinrich Rose determined in 1846 that tantalum ores contain a second element, which he named niobium. In 1864 and 1865, a series of scientific findings clarified that niobium and columbium were the same 102 element (as distinguished from tantalum), and for a century both names were used interchangeably. Niobium was officially adopted Appearance and Properties of Niobium gray metallic, bluish when oxidized General properties Name, symbol, number niobium, Nb, 41 Element category transition metal Group, period, block 5, 5, d Standard atomic weight 92.90637(2) Electron configuration [Kr] 4d4 5s1 2, 8, 18, 12, 1 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r.t.) 8.57 g·cm−3 Melting point 2750 K4491 °F 2477 °C, , Boiling point 8571 °F 4744 °C, 5017 K, Heat of fusion 30 kJ·mol−1 Heat of vaporization 689.9 kJ·mol−1 Molar heat capacity 24.60 J·mol−1 ·K−1
  • 15. as the name of the element in 1949, but the name columbium remains in current use in metallurgy in the United States. Brazil is the leading producer of niobium and ferroniobium, an alloy of niobium and iron. Niobium is used mostly in alloys, the largest part in special steel such as that used in gas pipelines. 103
  • 16. O Ocean An ocean (from Ancient Greek Ὠκεανός (Okeanos); the World Ocean of classical antiquity[1] ) is a body of saline water that composes much of a planet's hydrosphere. On Earth, an ocean is one or all of the major divisions of the planet's World Ocean – which are, in descending order of area, the Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Southern (Antarctic), and Arctic Oceans. The word sea is often used interchangeably with "ocean" in American English but, strictly speaking, a sea is a body of saline water (generally a division of the World Ocean) that land partly or fully encloses. Earth is the only planet that is known to have an ocean (or any large amounts of open liquid water). Saline water covers approximately 72% of the planet's surface (~3.6x108 km2 ) and is Representation of ocean.
  • 17. customarily divided into several principal oceans and smaller seas, with the ocean covering approximately 71% of the Earth's 104 surface. The ocean contains 97% of the Earth's water, and oceanographers have stated that only 5% of the World Ocean has been explored. The total volume is approximately 1.3 billion cubic kilometres (310 million cu mi) with an average depth of 3,682 metres (12,080 ft).The ocean principally comprises Earth's hydrosphere and therefore is integral to all known life, forms part of the carbon cycle, and influences climate and weather patterns. It is the habitat of 230,000 known species, although much of the ocean's depths remain unexplored, and over two million marine species are estimated to exist. The origin of Earth's oceans remains unknown; oceans are believed to have formed in the Hadean period and may have been the impetus for the emergence of life. Ohm’s Law Ohm's law states that the current through a conductor between two points is directly proportional to the potential difference across the two points. Introducing the constant of proportionality, the resistance, one arrives at the usual mathematical equation that describes this relationship: where I is the current through the conductor in units of amperes, V is the potential difference measured across the conductor in units ofvolts, and R is the resistance of the conductor in units of ohms. More specifically, Ohm's law states that the R in this relation is V, I, and R, the parameters of Ohm's law.
  • 18. constant, independent of the current. The law was named after the German physicist Georg Ohm, who, in a treatise published in 1827, described measurements of applied voltage and current 105 through simple electrical circuits containing various lengths of wire. He presented a slightly more complex equation than the one above (see History section below) to explain his experimental results. The above equation is the modern form of Ohm's law. In physics, the term Ohm's law is also used to refer to various generalizations of the law originally formulated by Ohm. The simplest example of this is: where J is the current density at a given location in a resistive material, E is the electric field at that location, and σ is a material dependent parameter called the conductivity. This reformulation of Ohm's law is due to Gustav Kirchhoff. Onnes,Heike Kamerlingh Heike Kamerlingh Onnes (21 September 1853 – 21 February 1926) was a Dutch physicist and Nobel laureate pioneered refrigeration techniques and used these to explore how materials behave when cooled to nearly absolute zero. He was the first toliquefy helium. His production of extreme cryogenic temperatures led to his discovery of superconductivity in 1911: for certain materials, electrical resistance abruptly vanishes at very low temperatures. Kamerlingh Onnes was born in Groningen, Netherlands. His father, Harm Kamerlingh Onnes, was a brickworks owner. His mother was Anna Gerdina Coers of Arnhem. In 1870, Kamerlingh Onnes attended Heike Kamerlingh Onnes
  • 19. the University of Groningen. He studied under Robert Bunsen and Gustav Kirchhoff at 106 The University of Heidelberg from 1871 to 1873. Again at Groningen, he obtained his masters in 1878 and a doctorate in 1879. His thesis was "Nieuwe bewijzen voor de aswenteling der aarde" (tr. New proofs of the rotation of the earth). From 1878 to 1882 he was assistant to Johannes Bosscha, the director of the TU Delft (then Delft Polytechnic), for whom he substituted as lecturer in 1881 and 1882 He was married to Maria Adriana Wilhelmina Elisabeth Bijleveld (m. 1887) and had one child, named Albert. His brother Menso Kamerlingh Onnes (1860–1925) was a fairly well known painter (and father of another painter, Harm Kamerlingh Onnes), while his sister Jenny married another famous painter, Floris Verster (1861–1927). Ørsted ,Hans Christian Hans Christian Ørsted, often rendered Oersted in English; 14 August 1777 – 9 March 1851) was a Danish physicist and chemist who discovered that electric currents create magnetic fields, an important aspect ofelectromagnetism. He shaped post-Kantian philosophy and advances in science throughout the late 19th century. In 1824, Ørsted founded Selskabet for Naturlærens Udbredelse (SNU), a society to disseminate knowledge of the natural sciences. He was also the founder of predecessor organizations which eventually became the Danish Meteorological Institute and the Danish Patent and Trademark Office. Ørsted was the first modern thinker to explicitly describe and name the thought experiment. A leader of the so-called Danish Golden Age, Ørsted was a close friend of Hans Christian Andersen and the brother of politician Danish physicist & chemist
  • 20. 107 and jurist Anders Sandøe Ørsted, who eventually served as Danish prime minister (1853–54). The oersted (Oe), the cgs unit of magnetic H-field strength, is named after him. Ørsted was born in Rudkøbing. As a young boy Ørsted developed his interest in science while working for his father, who owned a pharmacy. He and his brother Anders received most of their early education through self-study at home, going to Copenhagen in 1793 to take entrance exams for theUniversity of Copenhagen, where both brothers excelled academically. By 1796 Ørsted had been awarded honors for his papers in both aesthetics and physics. He earned his doctorate in 1799 for a dissertation based on the works of Kant entitled "The Architectonics of Natural Metaphysics". 0smosis Osmosis is the spontaneous net movement of solvent molecules through a partially permeable membrane into a region of higher solute concentration, in the direction that tends to equalize the solute concentrations on the two sides. It may also be used to describe a physical process in which any solvent moves, without input of energy, across a semipermeable membrane (permeable to the solvent, but not the solute) separating two solutions of different concentrations. Although osmosis does not require input of energy, it does use kinetic energy and can be made to do work. The osmotic pressure is defined to be the pressure required to maintain an equilibrium, with no net movement of solvent. Osmotic pressure is a colligative property, meaning that the One frame of a computer simulation of osmosis
  • 21. 108 osmotic pressure depends on the molar concentration of the solute but not on its identity.Osmosis is an essential aspect in biological systems, as biological membranes are semipermeable. In general, these membranes are impermeable to large and polar molecules, such as ions, proteins, and polysaccharides, while being permeable to non-polar and/orhydrophobic molecules like lipids as well as to small molecules like oxygen, carbon dioxide, nitrogen, nitric oxide, etc. Permeability depends on solubility, charge, or chemistry, as well as solute size. Water molecules travel through the plasma membrane, tonoplast membrane (vacuole) or protoplast by diffusing across the phospholipid bilayer via aquaporins (small transmembrane proteins similar to those in facilitated diffusion and in creating ion channels). Osmosis provides the primary means by which water is transported into and out of cells. The turgor pressure of a cell is largely maintained by osmosis across the cell membrane between the cell interior and its relatively hypotonic environment.
  • 22. 109 P Paradigm shift In 1962, Thomas Kuhn wrote The Structure of Scientific Revolution, and fathered, defined and popularized the concept of "paradigm shift" Kuhn argues that scientific advancement is not evolutionary, but rather is a "series of peaceful interludes punctuated by intellectually violent revolutions", and in those revolutions "one conceptual world view is replaced by another". Kuhn used the duck-rabbit optical illusion to demonstrate the way in which a paradigm shift could cause one to see the same information in an entirely different way.
  • 23. Think of a Paradigm Shift as a change from one way of thinking to another. It's a revolution, a transformation, a sort of metamorphosis. It just does not happen, but rather it is driven by agents of change. 110 For example, agriculture changed early primitive society. The primitive Indians existed for centuries roaming the earth constantly hunting and gathering for seasonal foods and water. However, by 2000 B.C., Middle America was a landscape of very small villages, each surrounded by patchy fields of corn and other vegetables. Agents of change helped create a paradigm-shift moving scientific theory from the Plolemaic system (the earth at the center of the universe) to the Copernican system (the sun at the center of the universe), and moving from Newtonian physics to Relativity and Quantum Physics. Both movements eventually changed the world view. These transformations were gradual as old beliefs were replaced by the new paradigms creating "a new gestalt" (p. 112). Likewise, the printing press, the making of books and the use of vernacular language inevitable changed the culture of a people and had a direct affect on the scientific revo ution. Johann Gutenberg's invention in the 1440's of movable type was an agent of change. With the invention of the printing press, books became readily available, smaller and easier to handle and cheap to purchase. Masses of people acquired direct access to the scriputures. Attitudes began to change as people were relieved from church domination. Similarly, agents of change are driving a new paradigm shift today. The signs are all around us. For example, the introduction of the personal computer and the internet have impacted both personal and business environments, and is a catalyst for a Paradigm Shift. We are shifting from a mechanistic, manufacturing, industrial society to an organic, service based, information centered society, and increases in technology will continue to impact globally. Change is inevitable. It's the only true constant. In conclusion, for millions of years we have been evolving and will continue to do so. Change is difficult. Human Beings resist change; however, the process has been set in motion long ago and we will continue to co-create our own experience. Kuhn states that "awareness is prerequisite to all acceptable changes of theory" (p. 67). It all begins in the mind of the person. What we perceive, whether normal or metanormal, conscious or unconscious, are subject to the limitations and distortions produced by our inherited and socially conditional nature. However, we are not restricted by this for we can change. We are
  • 24. moving at an accelerated rate of speed and our state of consciousness is transforming and transcending. Many are awakening as our conscious awareness expands. 111 Photovoltaics Photovoltaics (PV) is a method of generating electrical power by converting solar radiation into direct current electricity using semiconductor s that exhibit the photovoltaic effect. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon,polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide. Due to the increased demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years. Solar photovoltaics is a sustainable energy source. By the end of 2011, a total of 71.1 GW had been installed, sufficient to generate 85 TWh/year. And by end of 2012, the 100 GW installed capacity milestone was achieved. Solar photovoltaics is now, after hydro and wind power, the third most important renewable energy source in terms of globally installed capacity. More than 100 countries use solar PV. Installations may be ground-mounted (and sometimes integrated with farming and grazing) or built into the roof or walls of a building (either building-integrated photovoltaics or simply rooftop. Driven by advances in technology and increases in manufacturing scale and sophistication, the cost of photovoltaics has declined steadily since the first solar cells were manufactured, and the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE) from PV is competitive with conventional electricity sources in an expanding list of geographic regions. Net metering and financial incentives, such Solar cells produce electricity directly from sunlight.
  • 25. as preferential feed-in tariffs for solar-generated electricity, have supported solar PV installations in many countries. With current technology, photovoltaics recoup the energy needed to 112 manufacture them in 3 to 4 years. Anticipated technology would reduce time needed to recoup the energy to 1 to 2 years. Photovoltaics are best known as a method for generating electric power by using solar cells to convert energy from the sun into a flow of electrons. The photovoltaic effect refers to photons of light exciting electrons into a higher state of energy, allowing them to act as charge carriers for an electric current. The photovoltaic effect was first observed by Alexandre-Edmond Becquerel in 1839. The term photovoltaic denotes the unbiased operating mode of a photodiode in which current through the device is entirely due to the transduced light energy. Virtually all photovoltaic devices are some type of photodiode. Solar cells produce direct current electricity from sun light which can be used to power equipment or to recharge a battery. The first practical application of photovoltaics was to power orbiting satellites and other spacecraft, but today the majority of photovoltaic modules are used for grid connected power generation. In this case an inverter is required to convert the DC to AC. There is a smaller market for off-grid power for remote dwellings, boats,recreational vehicles, electric cars, roadside emergency telephones, remote sensing, and cathodic protection of pipelines. Photovoltaic power generation employs solar panels composed of a number of solar cells containing a photovoltaic material. Materials presently used for photovoltaics include monocrystalline silicon,polycrystalline silicon, amorphous silicon, cadmium telluride, and copper indium gallium selenide/sulfide. Copper solar cables connect modules (module cable), arrays (array cable), and sub-fields. Because of the growing demand for renewable energy sources, the manufacturing of solar cells and photovoltaic arrays has advanced considerably in recent years. Cells require protection from the environment and are usually packaged tightly behind a glass sheet. When more power is required than a single cell can deliver, cells are electrically connected together to form photovoltaic modules, or solar panels. A single module is enough to power an emergency telephone, but for a house or a power plant the modules must be arranged in multiples as arrays. Photovoltaic power capacity is measured as maximum power output under standardized test conditions (STC) in "Wp" (Watts peak).
  • 26. The actual power output at a particular point in time may be less than or greater than this standardized, or "rated," value, 113 depending on geographical location, time of day, weather conditions, and other factors. Solar photovoltaic array capacity factors are typically under 25%, which is lower than many other industrial sources of electricity. Pheromones A pheromone (from Greek φέρω phero "to bear" and hormone, from Greek ὁρμή "impetus") is a secreted or excreted chemical factor that triggers a social response in members of the same species. Pheromones are chemicals capable of acting outside the body of the secreting individual to impact the behavior of the receiving individual. There are alarm pheromones, food trail pheromones, sex pheromones, and many others that affect behavior or physiology. Pheromones are used from basic unicellular prokaryotes to complex multicellular eukaryotes. Their use among insects has been particularly well documented. In addition, some vertebrates and plants communicate by using pheromones. The term "pheromone" was introduced by Peter Karlson and Martin Lüscher in 1959, based on the Greek word pherein (to transport) and hormone (to stimulate). They are also sometimes classified as ecto-hormones. They were researched earlier by various scientists, including Jean-Henri Fabre, Joseph A. Lintner, Adolph Butenandt, and ethologist Karl von Frisch who called them various names like "alarm substances." These chemical messengers are transported outside of the body and effect neuro Fanning honeybee exposes Nasonovgland (white-at tip of abdomen) releasing pheromone to entice swarm into an empty hive
  • 27. circuits, including the autonomous nervous system with hormone or cytokine mediated physiological changes, inflammatory signaling,immune system changes and/or behavioral change in the recipient. They proposed the term to describe chemical signals 114 from conspecifics that elicit innate behaviors soon after the German Biochemist Adolf Butenandt had characterized the first such chemical, bombykol, a chemically well-characterized pheromone released by the female silkworm to attract mates. There are physical limits on the practical size of organisms employing pheromones, because at small sizes pheromone diffuses away from the source organism faster than it can be produced, and a sensible concentration accumulates too slowly to be useful. For this reason, bacteria are too small to use pheromones as sex attractants on an individual basis. However, they do use them to determine the local population density of similar organisms and control behaviors that take more time to execute (e.g. pheromones are used in quorum sensing or to promote natural competence for transformation, i.e. sexual gene transfer). In similar manner, the simple animals rotifers are, it appears, also too small for females to lay down a useful trail, but in the slightly larger copepods the female leaves a trail that the male can follow. Polymer A polymer /ˈpɒlɨmər/is a large molecule, or macromolecule, composed of many repeated subunits, known as monomers. Because of their broad range of properties, both synthetic and natural polymers play an essential and ubiquitous role in everyday life. Polymers range from familiar synthetic plastics such as polystyrene (or styrofoam) to natural biopolymers such as DNAand proteins that are fundamental to biological structure and function. Polymers, both natural and synthetic, are created via polymerization of many monomers. Their consequently largemolecular mass relative to small molecule compounds produces unique physical properties, including toughness, viscoelasticity, and a tendency to form glasses and semicrystalline structures rather than crystals. The term "polymer" derives from the ancient Greek word
  • 28. πολύς (polus, meaning "many, much") and μέρος (meros, meaning "parts"), and refers to a molecule whose structure is composed of multiple repeating units, from which originates 115 a characteristic of high relative molecular mass and attendant properties. The units composing polymers derive, actually or conceptually, from molecules of low relative molecular mass. The term was coined in 1833 by Jöns Jacob Berzelius, though with a definition distinct from the modern IUPAC definition.[8][9] The modern concept of polymers as covalently bonded macromolecular structures was proposed in 1920 by Hermann Staudinger, who spent the next decade finding experimental evidence for this hypothesis. Polymers are studied in the fields of biophysics and macromolecular science, and polymer science(which includes polymer chemistry and polymer physics). Historically, products arising from the linkage of repeating units by covalent chemical bonds have been the primary focus of polymer science; emerging important areas of the science now focus on non-covalent links. Polyisoprene of latex rubber and the polystyrene of styrofoam are examples of polymeric natural/biological and synthetic polymers, respectively. In biological contexts, essentially all biological macromolecules i.e.,proteins (polyamides) , nucleic acids (polynucleotides), and polysaccharides—are purely polymeric, or are composed in large part of polymeric components—e.g., isoprenylated/lipid-modified glycoproteins, where small lipidic molecule and oligosaccharide modifications occur on the polyamide backbone of the protein. Projectile motion Appearance of real linear polymer chains as recorded using an atomic force microscope on a surface, under liquid medium. Chaincontour length for this polymer is ~204 nm; thickness is ~0.4 nm.
  • 29. Projectile is defined as, any body thrown with some initial velocity, which is then allowed to move under the action of 116 gravity alone, without being propelled by any engine or fuel. The path followed by a projectile is called its trajectory. A projectile moves at a constant speed in the horizontal direction while experiencing a constant acceleration of 9.8 m/s2 downwards in the vertical direction. To be consistent, we define the up or upwards direction to be the positive direction. Therefore the acceleration of gravity is, -9.8 m/s2 . The speed in the horizontal direction is 'vx' and this speed doesn't change. The equation which predicts the position at any time in the horizontal direction is simply, Because gravity has a downward pull, the vertical velocity changes constantly. The equation that predicts the vertical velocity at any time 'vy' is The 'Voy' is simply the original velocity in the vertical or y- direction. To calculate the position in the y-direction, the full distance formula must be used. 'Yo', represents the original position in the y-direction. Acceleration for projectiles near the Earth's surface is -9.8 m/s2 . We don't re-write the equation with a negative sign. Rather, we use the negative acceleration value when solving problems. When a projectile is launched horizontally a ball rolls off a table, a car runs off the edge of a cliff, etc. Here the original y-velocity is zero. For example, if the projectile Parabolic Water Tragectory
  • 30. drops 10 meters, you can set the Yo = 0 and Yf = -10 m. Or, you can set Yo = 10 m and Yf = 0. Either works out the same. 117 Q Quantum Quantum physics is a branch of science that deals with discrete, indivisible units of energy called quanta as described by the Quantum Theory. There are five main ideas represented in Quantum Theory: 1. Energy is not continuous, but comes in small but discrete units.
  • 31. 2. The elementary particles behave both like particles and like waves. 3. The movement of these particles is inherently random. 4. It is physically impossible to know both the position and the momentum of a particle at the same time. The more precisely one is known, the less precise the measurement of the other is 118 5. The atomic world is nothing like the world we live in. While at a glance this may seem like just another strange theory, it contains many clues as to the fundamental nature of the universe and is more important then even relativity in the grand scheme of things (if any one thing at that level could be said to be more important then anything else). Furthermore, it describes the nature of the universe as being much different then the world we see. As Niels Bohr said, "Anyone who is not shocked by quantum theory has not understood it." Quartz Quartz is the second most abundant mineral in the Earth's continental crust, after feldspar. It is made up of a continuous framework of SiO4 silicon– oxygen tetrahedra, with each oxygen being shared between two tetrahedra, giving an overall formula SiO2. There are many different varieties of quartz, several of which are semi-precious gemstones.
  • 32. Especially in Europe and the Middle East, varieties of quartz 119 have been since antiquity the most commonly used minerals in the making of jewelry and hardstone carvings. The word "quartz" is derived from the German word "Quarz" and its Middle High German ancestor "twarc", which probably originated in Slavic (cf. Czech tvrdý ("hard"), Polish twardy ("hard"). Quartz belongs to the trigonal crystal system. The ideal crystal shape is a six-sided prism terminating with six- sided pyramids at each end. In nature quartz crystals are often twinned, distorted, or so intergrown with adjacent crystals of quartz or other minerals as to only show part of this shape, or to lack obvious crystal faces altogether and appear massive. Well-formed crystals typically form in a 'bed' that has unconstrained growth into a void; usually the crystals are attached at the other end to a matrix and only one termination pyramid is present. However doubly-terminated crystals do occur where they develop freely without attachment, for instance within gypsum. A quartz geode is such a situation where the void is approximately spherical in shape, lined with a bed of crystals pointing inward. α-quartz crystallizes in the trigonal crystal system, space group P3121 and P3221 respectively. β- quartz belongs to the hexagonal system, space group P6222 and P6422, respectively. These space groups are truly chiral (they each belong to the 11 enantiomorphism pairs). Both α- quartz and β-quartz are examples of chiral crystal structures composed of achiral building blocks (SiO4 tetrahedra in the present case). The transformation between α- and β-quartz only involves a comparatively minor rotation of the tetrahedra with respect to one another, without change in the way they are linked. Quartzite
  • 33. Quartzite (from German Quar zit) is a hard, non- foliated metamorphic rock which was originally pure quartzsandstone. Sandstone is converted into quartzite through heating and pressure usually related to tectonic compression within orogenic belts. Pure quartzite is usually 120 white to grey, though quartzites often occur in various shades of pink and red due to varying amounts of iron oxide (Fe2O3). Other colors, such as yellow, green, blue and orange, are due to other mineral impurities. When sandstone is cemented to quartzite, the individual quartz grains recrystallize along with the former cementing material to form an interlocking mosaic of quartz crystals. Most or all of the original texture and sedimentary structures of the sandstone are erased by the metamorphism. The grainy, sandpaper-like surface becomes glassy in appearance. Minor amounts of former cementing materials, iron oxide, silica, carbonate and clay, often migrate during recrystallization and metamorphosis. This causes streaks and lenses to form within the quartzite. Orthoquartzite is a very pure quartz sandstone composed of usually well rounded quartz grains cemented bysilica. Orthoquartzite is often 99% SiO2 with only very minor amounts of iron oxide and trace resistant minerals such as zircon, rutile and magnetite. Although few fossils are normally present, the original texture and sedimentary structures are preserved. The term is also traditionally used for quartz-cemented quartz arenites, and both usages are found in the literature. The typical distinction between the two (since each is a gradation into the other) is a metamorphic quartzite is so highly cemented, diagenetically altered, and metamorphosized so that it will fracture and break across grain boundaries, not around them. Quartzite is very resistant to chemical weathering and often forms ridges and resistant hilltops. The nearly pure
  • 34. silica content of the rock provides little for soil, therefore, the quartzite ridges are often bare or covered only with a very thin layer of soil and (if any) little vegetation. 121 Because of its hardness and angular shape, crushed quartzite is often used as ballast. Quartzite is a decorative stone and may be used to cover walls, as roofing tiles, as flooring, and stair steps. Crushed quartzite is sometimes used in road construction. High purity quartzite is used to produce ferrosilicon, industrial silica sand, silicon and silicon carbide. During the Stone Age quartzite was used, in addition to flint, quartz, and other lithic raw materials, for making stone tools. Quasars and QSOs These objects were named Quasistellar Radio Sources (meaning "star-like radio sources") which was soon contracted to quasars. Later, it was found that many similar objects did not emit radio waves. These were termed Quasistellar Objects or QSOs. Now, all of these are often termed quasars (Only about 1% of the quasars discovered to date have detectable radio emission). Here are some Hubble Space Telescope quasar images, and the following figure shows the quasar 3C273, which was the first quasar discovered and is also the quasar with the greatest apparent brightness. It will be discussed further below. The quasars were deemed to be strange new phenomena, and initially there was considerable speculation that new laws of physics might have to be invented to account for the amount of energy that they produced. Quasars
  • 35. 122  The quasar 3C273. Left image shows the quasar and the jet. Right image superposes on this contours of radio frequency intensity. The sharp radial lines from the quasar are optical spike artifacts because of its brightness However, subsequent research has shown that the quasars are closely related to the active galaxies that have been studied at closer distances. We now believe quasars and active galaxies to be related phenomena, and that their energy output can be explained using the theory of general relativity. In that sense, the quasars are certainly strange, but perhaps are not completely new phenomena. The quasars are thought to be powered by supermassive rotating black holes at their centers. Because they are the most luminous objects known in the universe, they are the objects that have been observed at the greatest distances from us. The most distant are so far away that the light we see coming from them was produced when the Universe was only one tenth of its present age. The present belief is that quasars are actually closely related to active galaxies such as Seyfert Galaxies or BL Lac objects in that they are very active galaxies with bright nuclei powered by enormous rotating black holes. However, because the quasars are at such large distances, it is difficult to see anything other than the bright nucleus of the active galaxy in their case.
  • 36. 123 Quine, Willard Van Orman W. V. O. Quine (1908-2000) did not conceive of philosophy as an activity separate from the general province of empirical science. His interest in science is not best described as a philosophy of science but as a set of reflections on the nature of science that is pursued with the same empirical spirit that animates scientific inquiry. Quine’s philosophy should then be seen as a systematic attempt to understand science from within the resources of science itself. This project investigates both the epistemological and ontological dimensions of scientific theorizing. Quine’s epistemological concern is to examine our successful acquisition of scientific theories, while his ontological interests focus on the further logical regimentation of that theory. He thus advocates what is more famously known as ‘naturalized epistemology’, which consists of his attempt to provide an improved scientific explanation of how we have developed elaborate scientific theories on the basis of meager sensory input. Quine further argues that the most general features of reality can be examined through the use of formal logic by clarifying what objects we must acknowledge as real given our acceptance of an overarching systematic view of the world. In pursuing these issues, Quine reformulates and thus transforms these philosophical concerns according to those standards of clarity, empirical adequacy, and utility that he takes as central to the explanatory power of empirical science. While few philosophers have adopted Quine’s strict standards or accepted the details of his respective positions, the general empirical reconfiguration of philosophy and philosophy of science recommended by his naturalism has been very influential. Willard Van Orman Quine
  • 38. 125 Reproduction (or procreation) is the biological process by which new "offspring" individual organisms are produced from their "parents". Reproduction is a fundamental feature of all known life; each individual organism exists as the result of reproduction. The known methods of reproduction are broadly grouped into two main types: sexual and asexual. In asexual reproduction, an individual can reproduce without involvement with another individual of that species. The division of a bacterial cell into two daughter cells is an example of asexual reproduction. Asexual reproduction is not, however, limited to single-celled organisms. Most plants have the ability to reproduce asexually and the ant species Mycocepurus smithii is thought to reproduce entirely by asexual means. Sexual reproduction typically requires the involvement of two individuals or gametes, one each from opposite type of sex. The propagation of organisms can also occur through cloning. Asexual reproduction
  • 39. Asexual reproduction is the process by which an organism creates a genetically similar or identical copy of itself without a contribution of genetic material from another individual. Bacteria divide asexually via binary fission; viruses take control of host cells to produce more viruses; Hydras (invertebrates of the order Hydro idea) and yeasts are able to reproduce by budding. These organisms often do not possess different sexes, and they are capable of "splitting" themselves into two or more individuals. On the other hand, some of these species that are capable of reproducing asexually, like hydra, yeast (Mating of yeasts) and jellyfish, may also reproduce sexually. For instance, most plants are capable of vegetative reproduction—reproduction without seeds or spores—but can also reproduce sexually. Likewise, bacteria may exchange genetic information by conjugation. Other ways of asexual reproduction include parthenogenesis, fragmentation and spore formation that involves only mitosis. Parthenogenesis (from the Greek παρθένος parthenos, "virgin", + γένεσις genesis, "creation") is the growth and development of embryo or seed without fertilization by a male. Parthenogenesis occurs naturally in some species, including lower plants (where it is called apomixis), invertebrates (e.g. water fleas, aphids, some bees and parasitic wasps). 126 Sexual reproduction Sexual reproduction is a biological process by which organisms create descendants that have a combination of genetic material contributed from two (usually) different members of the species. (Self-fertilization requires only one organism.) Each of two parent organisms contributes half of the offspring's genetic makeup by creating haploid gametes. Most organisms form two different types of gametes. In these anisogamous species, the two sexes are referred to as male (producing sperm or microspores) and female (producing ova or megaspores). In isogamous species, the gametes are similar or identical in form (isogametes), but may have separable properties and then may be given other different names (isogamy). For example, in the green alga, Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, there are so-called "plus" and "minus" gametes. A few types of organisms, such as ciliates, Paramecium aurelia, have more than two types of "sex", called syngens.
  • 40. Reptile Phylogentic classifications group mammal-like reptiles, like this Varanodon, with other synapsids, not with extant reptiles. 127 Reptiles, the class Reptilia, are an evolutionary grade of animals, comprising today's turtles, crocodilians, snakes, lizards, and tuatara, as well as many extinct groups. A reptile is any amniote (a tetrapod whose egg has an additional membrane, originally to allow them to lay eggs on land) that is neither a mammal nor a bird. Unlike mammals, birds, and certain extinct reptiles, living reptiles have scales orscutes (rather than fur or feathers) and are cold-blooded. Advocates of phylogenetic nomenclature regard the traditional category 'Reptilia' to be invalid, as not all descendants of a common ancestor are included. However, in practice, these non- cladistic classifications, such as reptile, fish, and amphibian, remain in use by some biologists, especially in popular books written for a general audience. The historically combined study of reptiles and amphibians is called herpetology. The earliest known reptiles originated around 340-335 million years ago during the Carboniferous period, having evolved from advancedreptile-like amphibians that became increasingly adapted to life on dry land. Some early examples include the lizard- like Hylonomus,Casineria and possibly Westlothiana, although the latter may be an advanced land-dwelling amphibian. In addition
  • 41. to the living reptiles, there are many diverse groups that are now extinct, in some cases due to mass extinction events. In particular, the K–Pg extinctionwiped out the pterosaurs, plesiosaurs, ornithischians, and sauropods, as well as many species of theropods (e.g. tyrannosaurs anddromaeosaurids), crocodylifor ms, and squamates (e.g. mosasaurids). Modern reptiles inhabit every continent with the exception of Antarctica. Several living subgroups are recognized: Testudines (turtles, terrapins and tortoises): approximately 400 species Sphenodontia (tuatara from New Zealand): 2 species Squamata (lizards, snakes, and worm lizards): over 9,600 species Crocodilia (crocodiles, gavials, caimans, and alligators): 25 species Although they have scutes on their feet and lay eggs, birds have historically been excluded from the reptiles. They, therefore, do not appear on the list above. However, as some reptiles are more closely related to birds than they are to other reptiles — 128  crocodiles are more closely related to birds than they are to lizards — cladistic writers who prefer a more unified (monophyletic) grouping usually also include the birds, which include over 10,000 species. Rhenium
  • 42. Rhenium is a chemical element with the symbol Re and atomic number 75. It is a silvery-white, heavy, third-row transition metal in group 7 of the periodic table. With an estimated average concentration of 1 part per billion (ppb), rhenium is one of the rarest elements in the Earth's crust. Discovered in 1925, rhenium was the last stable element to be discovered. It was named after the river Rhine in Europe. Nickel-based super alloys of rhenium are used in the combustion chambers, turbine blades, and exhaust nozzles of jet engines. These alloys contain up to 6% rhenium, making jet engine construction the largest single use for the element, with the chemical industry's catalytic uses being next-most important. Rhenium (Latin: Rhenus meaning: "Rhine") was the last element to be discovered having a stable isotope (other new radioactive elements have been discovered in nature since then, such as neptunium and plutonium). The existence of a yet undiscovered 129 element at this position in the periodic had been first predicted by Dmitry Mendeleev. Other calculated information was obtained by Henry Moseley in 1914. It is generally considered to have been discovered by Walter Noddack, Ida Tacke, and Otto Berg in Germany. In 1925 they reported that they detected the element in platinum ore and in the mineral columbite. They also found rhenium in gadolinite and molybdenite. In 1928 they were able to extract 1 g of the element by processing 660 kg of
  • 43. molybdenite. It was estimated in 1968 that 75% of the rhenium metal in the United States was used for research and the development of refractory metal alloys. It took several years from that point on before the super alloys became widely used. Rheumatoid arthritis Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that results in a chronic, systemic inflammatory disorder that may affect many tissues and organs, but principally attacks flexible (synovial) joints. The process involves an inflammatory response of the capsule around the joints (synovium) secondary to swelling (turgescence) of synovial cells, excess synovial fluid, and the development of fibrous tissue (pannus) in the synovium. The pathology of the disease process often leads to the destruction of articular cartilage and ankylosis (fusion) of the joints. RA can also produce diffuse inflammation in the lungs, the membrane around the heart 130 (pericardium), the membranes of the lung (pleura), and white of the eye (sclera), and also nodular lesions, mostcommonin subcutaneous tissue. Although the cause of RA is unknown, autoimmunity plays a big part, and RA is a systemic autoimmune disease. It is a clinical diagnosis made on the basis of symptoms, physical exam, radiographs (X-rays) and labs. Hand affected by rheumatoid arthritis
  • 44. Rheumatic fever Rheumatic fever is an inflammatory disease that occurs following a Streptococcus pyogenes infection, such as streptococcal pharyngitis. Believed to be caused by antibody cross-reactivity that can involve the heart, joints, skin, and brain, the illness typically develops two to three weeks after a streptococcal infection. Acute rheumatic fever commonly appears in children between the ages of 6 and 15, with only 20% of first-time attacks occurring in adults. The illness is so named because of its similarity in presentation to rheumatism. 131 Skin with rheumatic fever.
  • 45. S Saturated fat Saturated fat is fat that consists of triglycerides containing only saturated fatty acids. Saturated fatty acids have no double bonds between the individual carbon atoms of the fatty acid chain. That is, the chain of carbon atoms is fully "saturated" with hydrogen atoms. There are many kinds of naturally occurring saturated fatty acids, which differ mainly in number of carbon atoms, from 3 carbons (propionic acid) to 36 (hexatriacontanoic acid). Various fats contain different proportions of saturated and unsaturated fat. Examples of foods containing a high proportion of saturated fat include animal fats such as cream, cheese, butter, and ghee; suet, tallow, lard, and fatty meats; as well as certain vegetable products such as coconut oil, cottonseed oil, palm kernel oil, chocolate, and many prepared foods. Schleiden, Matthias Jakob
  • 46. Schleiden, Matthias Jakob (5 April 1804 – 23 June 1881) was a German botanist and co-founder of the cell theory, along 132 with Theodor Schwann and Rudolf Virchow. Born in Hamburg, Schleiden was educated at Heidelberg, then practiced law in Hamburg, but soon developed his love for the botany into a full-time pursuit. Schleiden preferred to study plant structure under the microscope. While a professor of botany at the University of Jena, he wrote Contributions to Phytogenesis (1838), in which he stated that the different parts of the plant organism are composed of cells. Thus, Schleiden and Schwann became the first to formulate what was then an informal belief as a principle of biology equal in importance to the atomic theory of chemistry. He also recognized the importance of the cell nucleus, discovered in 1831 by the Scottish botanist Robert Brown, and sensed its connection with cell division. Schleiden was one of the first German biologists to accept Charles Darwin's theory of evolution. He became professor of botany at the University of Dorpat in 1863. He concluded that all plant parts are made of cells and that an embryonic plant organism arises from the one cell. He died in Frankfurt am Main on 23 June 1881. Sputnik 1 Sputnik 1 was the first artificial Earth satellite. It was a 58 cm (23 in) diameter polished metal sphere, with four external radio antennas to broadcast radio pulses. The Soviet Matthias Jakob Schleiden First man-made satellite to orbit the earth.
  • 47. Union launched it into an elliptical low Earth 133 orbit on 4 October 1957. It was visible all around the Earth and its radio pulses were detectable. The surprise success precipitated the American Sputnik crisis, began the Space Age and triggered the Space Race, a part of the larger Cold War. The launch ushered in new political, military, technological, and scientific developments. Sputnik itself provided scientists with valuable information. The density of the upper atmosphere could be deduced from its drag on the orbit, and the propagation of its radio signals gave information about the ionosphere. Sputnik 1 was launched during the International Geophysical Year from Site No.1/5, at the 5th Tyuratam range, in Kazakh SSR (now at the Baikonur Cosmodrome). The satellite travelled at about 29,000 kilometers per hour (18,000 mph), taking 96.2 minutes to complete each orbit. It transmitted on 20.005 and 40.002 MHz which were monitored by amateur radio operators throughout the world. The signals continued for 22 days until the transmitter batteries ran out on 26 October 1957. Sputnik 1 burned up on 4 January 1958, as it fell from orbit upon reentering Earth's atmosphere, after travelling about 70 million km (43.5 million miles) and spending 3 months in orbit. Steroid A steroid is a type of organic compound that contains a characteristic arrangement of Figure 1 Sputnik 1 was the first man-made object to orbit the Earth.
  • 48. four cycloalkane rings that are joined to each other. Examples of steroids include the dietary lipid cholesterol, the sex 134 hormones estradiol and testosterone and the anti- inflammatory drug dexamethasone. The core of steroids is composed of seventeen carbon atoms bonded together that take the form of four fused rings: three cyclohexane rings (designated as rings A, B and C in the figure to the right) and one cyclopentane ring (the D ring). The steroids vary by the functional groups attached to this four- ring core and by the oxidation state of the rings. Sterols are special forms of steroids, with a hydroxyl group at position-3 and a skeleton derived from cholestane. Hundreds of distinct steroids are found in plants, animals and fungi. All steroids are made in cells either from the sterols lanosterol (animals and fungi, see below right) or from cycloartenol (plants). Both lanosterol and cycloartenol are derived from the cyclization of the triterpene squalene. Storm surge Storm surge is an offshore rise of water associated with a low pressure weather system, typically tropical cyclones and strong extra tropical cyclones. Storm surges are caused primarily by high winds pushing on the ocean's
  • 49. surface. The wind causes the water to 135 pile up higher than the ordinary sea level. Low pressure at the center of a weather system also has a small secondary effect, as can the bathymetry of the body of water. It is this combined effect of low pressure and persistent wind over a shallow water body which is the most common cause of storm surge flooding problems. The term "storm surge" in casual (non-scientific) use is storm tide; that is, it refers to the rise of water associated with the storm, plus tide, wave run-up, and freshwater flooding. "Tidal surge" is incorrect since there is no such thing. When referring to storm surge height, it is important to clarify the usage, as well as the reference point. The U.S. National Hurricane Center defines storm surge as water height above predicted astronomical tide level, and storm tide as water height above NGVD-29, a 1929 benchmark of mean sea level. Most casualties during a tropical cyclone occur during the storm surge.
  • 50. 136 INDEX M Maltose, pp.90-91 Mantle, pp.91-93 Momentum, pp.93-94 Mudslide, pp.95-96 Myelin, pp.96-97 N Neon, pp.98-99 Neodymium ,p. 101- 102 Neptunium, pp.100- 101 Newton, Isaac, pp.99-100 Niobium ,p.102-103 O Ocean, pp.104-105 Ohm’s law, pp.105- 106 Onnes, Heike Kamerlingh, p.106- 107 Orsted, Hans Christian , p.107- 108 Osmosis, p.108-109 P Paradigm Shift, pp.110-111 Pheromones, pp.114-115 Photovoltaics, pp.112-114 Polymer, pp. 115- 116 Projectile Motion, pp. 116-117 Q Quantum, p.118-119 Quartz, pp.119-120 Quartzite, pp.120- 122 Quasars and quo’s, pp.122-123 Quine, Willard Van Orman, p. 124 R Reproduction , pp.125-127 Reptiles, pp.127- 129 Rhenium , pp.129- 130 Rheumatoid arthritis, p.130- 131 Rheumatic fever, p.131
  • 51. S Saturated fat, p.132 Schleiden, Matthias Jakob, pp.132-133 Sputnik 1, pp.133- 134 Steroid, pp.134- 135 Storm surge, PP.135-136 Table of Contents I. Title Page i. II. Acknowledgement ii. III. Maltose 90 Mantle 91 Momentum 93 Mudslide 95 Myelin 96 IV. Neon 98 Neodymium 101 Neptunium 100 Newton, Isaac 99 Niobium 102 V. Ocean 104 Ohm’s law 105 Onnes, Heike Kamerlingh 106
  • 52. Orsted, Hans Christian 107 Osmosis 108 VI. Paradigm Shift 110 Pheromones 114 Photovoltaics 112 Polymer 115 Projectile Motion 116 VII. Quantum 118 Quartz 119 Quartzite 120 Quasars and quo’s 122 Quine, Willard Van Orman 124 VIII. Reproduction 125 Reptiles 127 Rhenium 129 Rheumatoid arthritis 130 Rheumatic fever 131 IX. Saturated fat 132 Schleiden, Matthias Jakob 132 Sputnik 1 133 Steroid 134 Storm surge 135