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VOICE RECOGNITION IN SELF-
                                 ADMINISTERED MOBILE SURVEYS
                                 LORENZ GRÄF, SVEN SCHERRER, MARC HAUPT,
                                 MICHAEL BOSNJAK, MARIO CALLEGARO

    April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
1   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
AGENDA
    1.Background
    2.Research Questions
    3.Method
    4.Results
    5.Discussion and Outlook




    April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
2   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
AGENDA
    1.Background
    2.Research Questions
    3.Method
    4.Results
    5.Discussion and Outlook




    April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
3   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
USABILITY OF MOBILE SURVEYS: PAST FINDINGS

                                 Subjective Usability Assessment                                                            Observed

                              Post-hoc survey (Web) one week after mobile survey completion                                Item-   Drop-
                                Indicators for usability score: fluency, simplicity, ease of use                             NR     Out

                   Single choice
            Einfachauswahl untereinander                                                                 89,2




                Multiple choice
           Mehrfachauswahl untereinander                                                         87,3
                                                                                                                                   9%
Fragetyp




           Drop-Down menu
             Geschlossene Auswahlliste                                               82,7




                            Textfield
                         Textfeld einzeilig                     74,7
                                                                                                                       45%         9%

                       Image map
                        Fragetyp mit Bild                                                         87,9
                                                                                                                                   23%
                                              65,00     73,75                   82,50                     91,25   100,00
                                                                 Usability score (Range: 0-100 Punkte)


                   April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
               4   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
AGENDA
    1.Background
    2.Research Questions
    3.Method
    4.Results
    5.Discussion and Outlook




    April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
5   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
OVERALL GOAL
       Improving mobile input formats requiring rich, non-
      standardized information, which is usually captured using
      text input in other self-administered survey modes.
       Alternative to (typed) text-input formats:
           Embedding voice input into self-administered mobile
          surveys, similar to CATI or esp. IVR surveys
      Today: Subjective usability assessments as indicators of a
      potential improvement text versus voice
      Next step: Analyzing objective / unobtrusive data on
      nonresponse (item-nonresponse, drop-out)


    April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
6   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION: IPHONE APP




    April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
7   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION: ANDROID




    April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
8   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
RESEARCH QUESTION(S) TESTED
      Differences between
          iPhone-App-based voice capturing
          versus
          Android-based voice recognition
          versus
          Classical (touchscreen-based) text input
      on the following dependent variables:
          usability assessment immediately following a specific voice/text
          input format,
          (objective indicators of nonresponse, esp. item-nonresponse and
          drop-out,)
          retrospective usability assessement Ø 5 days following
          participation?

    April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
9   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
AGENDA
     1.Background
     2.Research Questions
     3.Method
     4.Results
     5.Discussion and Outlook




     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
10   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
MINGLE PANEL – MOBILE USERS




      N=10518

11   04/11/11    Mobile Study III
     Globalpark. Manage what matters.
MINGLE PANEL – SMARTPHONE OS




      N=3136

12   04/11/11    Mobile Study III
     Globalpark. Manage what matters.
PARTICIPANTS




13   April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
     Globalpark. Manage what matters.
PARTICIPANTS




                                                 6,6 %
                                                  Sales
                                        14,2 %

     Employment
                                                                   Employed
     Status                                                        Student
                                                                   Unemployed


                                                          79,2 %

14   April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
     Globalpark. Manage what matters.
PROCEDURE
     Part 1: Pre-Survey (23.03. – 28.03.2011, 6 Days, time of invitation: 5 PM GMT)
     • Device Screening
     • Android: Technical requirements check
     • iPhone: Instructions App installation
     • Pre-commitment

     Part 2: Main survey (28.03. – 03.04.2011, 7 Days, time of invitation: 5 PM GMT)
     • Test drive: Voice recording / voice recognition
     • Three text/voice input items (short: single number, medium: list three items, long answers: elaborated
     text/answer)
     • Usability assessment following each text/voice input item

     Part 3: Post survey (05.04. – 09.04.2011, 5 days, time of invitation: 8 AM GMT)
     • Retrospective usability assessment
     • Evaluation of Main-Survey Drop-Out
     • Preferred input method short / long entries


15    April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
      Globalpark. Manage what matters.
PROCEDURE (PARTS 2 AND 3)
                                  Respondi panel members (N= 235)



               iPhone App Voice               Android Voice
                                                                        Android Text Input
                Capturing Group             Recognition Group
                                                                        Group (n3.1= 49)
                  (n1.1= 126)                  (n2.1= 60)




                    Immediate usability assessment for three corresponding questions.



                   (n1.2= 87)                  (n2.2= 36)                    (n3.2= 38)

                      Retrospective usability assessment (after Ø 5 days, Web-based).

                   (n1.3= 79)                   (n2.3= 36)                    (n3.3= 34)

     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
16   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
DEPENDENT MEASURES
     Immediate usability assessment:
     Mean score (transformed to 0 -100 range) of three identically worded, closed-
     ended single items evaluating the extent to which (iPhone) voice recording /
     (Android VR) voice recognition / (Android text) text input was appropriate to
     capture the intended response („How do you evaluate the performance of the
     voice- recognition/-capturing /touchscreen keyboard feature?“, scaled from
     ´very good´ thru ´very poor´).
     Retrospective usability assessment (reminder screenshots were displayed):
     Mean score (transformed to 0 - 100 range) of the following four indicators:
     ease of use, fluency, usability, unintended entries .
     Non-response (work in progress):
         Item-nonresponse: Aggregated item-nonresponse percentage for all three
         questions with experimentally manipulated input formats (per experimental
         condition)
         Drop-Out: Overall drop-out rates (per experimental condition)

     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
17   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
AGENDA
     1.Background
     2.Research Questions
     3.Method
     4.Results
     5.Discussion and Outlook




     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
18   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
USABILITY ASSESSMENT; IMMEDIATE

                                         Immediate usability
                                        assessment best and
                                         most homogeneous
                                          for Android-based
                                              text input (!)




     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
19   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
USABILITY ASSESSMENT: RETROSPECT
 Retrospective usability
  assessment best for
Globalpark´s iPhone-App-
 based voice capturing
       technology.




     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
20   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
MISC: INPUT FORMAT PREFERENCES
                     iPhone App                                                Android

                                                     100 %


                                                                                         57 %
                                                                        76 %
                                                      50 %
                                                                                         9%


                                                                        9%               33 %
                                                                       13 %
                                                        0%
         Short Entry                Long Entry                       Short Entry     Long Entry
                                                 Don't Know
                                                 Touchscreen
                                                 Voice Capt/Rec
                                                 Physical Keyboard

     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
21   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
SUMMARY OF RESULTS
       Immediate usability assessment:
           Android touchscreen > better than > iPhone App VC > better than > Android VR
           Android touchscreen ratings most homogeneous (largest agreements)


       Retrospective usability assessment:
           iPhone App VC > better than > Android touchscreen > better than > Android VR
           Android VR shows largest dispersion among ratings (largest disagreement)


       Additional result:
           The larger the amount of text information to be entered, the more preferred
           are voice input formats on the expense of the touchscreen-based version,
           but only for iPhone participants (not for Android participants).



     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
22   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
AGENDA
     1.Background
     2.Research Questions
     3.Method
     4.Results
     5.Discussion and Outlook




     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
23   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
DISCUSSION AND OUTLOOK
       Further analyses using data from the current study:
           Item-Nonresponse analysis
           Drop-Out analysis (partly done, see Appendix)
           Quality of content between groups?
           Technology and/or selection effects? For instance,
           iPhone users are more experienced with Apps and more ´attached´ to their
           Smartphone, ´causing´ more favourable post-hoc evaluations of App-based
           input formats;
           men versus women systematically overrepresented in certain groups,
           other systematic differences?
       Next steps:
           Results consistent over time and in the context of ´real life´ applications?
           Please feel free to use VC/VR in your own studies!


     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
24   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
THANK YOU!


     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
25   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
Appendix

     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
26   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
DROP-OUT (WORK IN PROGRESS)
                                          Voice         Voice
                                                                   Regular
                                        Capturing    Recognition
     Test Drive
                                         9 (9,3%)     5 (10,4%)        -
     Instructions
     Test Drive                          1 (1,0%)      0 (0%)       0 (0%)
     Single figure                       0 (0%)        0 (0%)       0 (0%)
     List                                0 (0%)        0 (0%)       0 (0%)
     Free text                           0 (0%)        0 (0%)       0 (0%)
     Drop Out on other
                                         0 (0%)       7 (14,6%)     2 (5%)
     pages

     Drop Out Overall                   10 (10,3%)    12 (25%)      2 (5%)


               N=                       97 (100%)     48 (100%)    40 (100%)


     April 19, 2011  Mobile Study III
27   Globalpark. Manage what matters.
Comments and Data Samples
     Comments Voicecapturing
        „Da ich nicht sprechen konnte, konnte ich den Fragebogen nicht zu Ende durchgehen.“
        „Ich war krank, böse Erkältung und konnte mich nicht motivieren, zumal mir das Sprechen superschwer fiel.“

     Comments Voicerecognition
        „Spracherkennung ist bei meinem Handy für solche Felder nicht verfügbar, nur für die Google-Suche“
        „Ich hatte nur die englische Spracheingabe. Habe im Internet nach Hilfestellungen gesucht um auf deutsche
        Spracheingabe umzustellen, allerdings nichts gefunden.“
        „Spracheingabe funktionierte nicht richtig. Spracheingabe ging nur als englischer Text. Alles Einstellungen meines
        HTC waren auf Deutsch und ich habe keine Möglichkeit gefunden die Spracheingabe auf Deutsch zu berichtigen.“
     Comments Touchscreen Input
        „Gute Erhebungstechnik, gerne wieder über smartphone...“
        „Würde mich sehr freuen weitere Umfragen mit dem Handy beantworten zu dürfen.“
     Data Samples Voicerecognition – Testphrase „Diese Befragung ist sehr interessant“
        „Die herbe frau geküsst interessant“
        “These are The 5 sense sons”
        “disappear.com sia into the sun”
        „Die befragung sea of sand“
        „wiese befragung ist sehr interessant“



28   04/11/11    Mobile Study III
     Globalpark. Manage what matters.
Demo - Audio Samples iPhone
     Apple Quicktime required

     0: Testtrial
        mingle61 (optimal)

     0: Single Word
        mingle 99 (Optimal)
        mingle 166 (Background noise)
        mingle 173 (Additional info)

     2: List
        mingle31 / 19 (optimal)
        mingle16 (Background noise)
        mingle8 (Real List)

     3: Open answer
        mingle198 (Slight saxon dialect)
        mingle187 (Whole sentence)
        mingle192 (slightly annoyed)


29   04/11/11    Mobile Study III
     Globalpark. Manage what matters.

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Voice recognition in self-administered mobile surveys' - Free University of Bozen-Bolzano and Globalpark (Mobile Research Conference 2011)

  • 1. VOICE RECOGNITION IN SELF- ADMINISTERED MOBILE SURVEYS LORENZ GRÄF, SVEN SCHERRER, MARC HAUPT, MICHAEL BOSNJAK, MARIO CALLEGARO April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 1 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 2. AGENDA 1.Background 2.Research Questions 3.Method 4.Results 5.Discussion and Outlook April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 2 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 3. AGENDA 1.Background 2.Research Questions 3.Method 4.Results 5.Discussion and Outlook April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 3 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 4. USABILITY OF MOBILE SURVEYS: PAST FINDINGS Subjective Usability Assessment Observed Post-hoc survey (Web) one week after mobile survey completion Item- Drop- Indicators for usability score: fluency, simplicity, ease of use NR Out Single choice Einfachauswahl untereinander 89,2 Multiple choice Mehrfachauswahl untereinander 87,3 9% Fragetyp Drop-Down menu Geschlossene Auswahlliste 82,7 Textfield Textfeld einzeilig 74,7 45% 9% Image map Fragetyp mit Bild 87,9 23% 65,00 73,75 82,50 91,25 100,00 Usability score (Range: 0-100 Punkte) April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 4 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 5. AGENDA 1.Background 2.Research Questions 3.Method 4.Results 5.Discussion and Outlook April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 5 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 6. OVERALL GOAL Improving mobile input formats requiring rich, non- standardized information, which is usually captured using text input in other self-administered survey modes. Alternative to (typed) text-input formats: Embedding voice input into self-administered mobile surveys, similar to CATI or esp. IVR surveys Today: Subjective usability assessments as indicators of a potential improvement text versus voice Next step: Analyzing objective / unobtrusive data on nonresponse (item-nonresponse, drop-out) April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 6 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 7. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION: IPHONE APP April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 7 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 8. TECHNICAL IMPLEMENTATION: ANDROID April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 8 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 9. RESEARCH QUESTION(S) TESTED Differences between iPhone-App-based voice capturing versus Android-based voice recognition versus Classical (touchscreen-based) text input on the following dependent variables: usability assessment immediately following a specific voice/text input format, (objective indicators of nonresponse, esp. item-nonresponse and drop-out,) retrospective usability assessement Ø 5 days following participation? April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 9 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 10. AGENDA 1.Background 2.Research Questions 3.Method 4.Results 5.Discussion and Outlook April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 10 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 11. MINGLE PANEL – MOBILE USERS N=10518 11 04/11/11 Mobile Study III Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 12. MINGLE PANEL – SMARTPHONE OS N=3136 12 04/11/11 Mobile Study III Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 13. PARTICIPANTS 13 April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 14. PARTICIPANTS 6,6 % Sales 14,2 % Employment Employed Status Student Unemployed 79,2 % 14 April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 15. PROCEDURE Part 1: Pre-Survey (23.03. – 28.03.2011, 6 Days, time of invitation: 5 PM GMT) • Device Screening • Android: Technical requirements check • iPhone: Instructions App installation • Pre-commitment Part 2: Main survey (28.03. – 03.04.2011, 7 Days, time of invitation: 5 PM GMT) • Test drive: Voice recording / voice recognition • Three text/voice input items (short: single number, medium: list three items, long answers: elaborated text/answer) • Usability assessment following each text/voice input item Part 3: Post survey (05.04. – 09.04.2011, 5 days, time of invitation: 8 AM GMT) • Retrospective usability assessment • Evaluation of Main-Survey Drop-Out • Preferred input method short / long entries 15 April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 16. PROCEDURE (PARTS 2 AND 3) Respondi panel members (N= 235) iPhone App Voice Android Voice Android Text Input Capturing Group Recognition Group Group (n3.1= 49) (n1.1= 126) (n2.1= 60) Immediate usability assessment for three corresponding questions. (n1.2= 87) (n2.2= 36) (n3.2= 38) Retrospective usability assessment (after Ø 5 days, Web-based). (n1.3= 79) (n2.3= 36) (n3.3= 34) April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 16 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 17. DEPENDENT MEASURES Immediate usability assessment: Mean score (transformed to 0 -100 range) of three identically worded, closed- ended single items evaluating the extent to which (iPhone) voice recording / (Android VR) voice recognition / (Android text) text input was appropriate to capture the intended response („How do you evaluate the performance of the voice- recognition/-capturing /touchscreen keyboard feature?“, scaled from ´very good´ thru ´very poor´). Retrospective usability assessment (reminder screenshots were displayed): Mean score (transformed to 0 - 100 range) of the following four indicators: ease of use, fluency, usability, unintended entries . Non-response (work in progress): Item-nonresponse: Aggregated item-nonresponse percentage for all three questions with experimentally manipulated input formats (per experimental condition) Drop-Out: Overall drop-out rates (per experimental condition) April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 17 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 18. AGENDA 1.Background 2.Research Questions 3.Method 4.Results 5.Discussion and Outlook April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 18 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 19. USABILITY ASSESSMENT; IMMEDIATE Immediate usability assessment best and most homogeneous for Android-based text input (!) April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 19 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 20. USABILITY ASSESSMENT: RETROSPECT Retrospective usability assessment best for Globalpark´s iPhone-App- based voice capturing technology. April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 20 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 21. MISC: INPUT FORMAT PREFERENCES iPhone App Android 100 % 57 % 76 % 50 % 9% 9% 33 % 13 % 0% Short Entry Long Entry Short Entry Long Entry Don't Know Touchscreen Voice Capt/Rec Physical Keyboard April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 21 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 22. SUMMARY OF RESULTS Immediate usability assessment: Android touchscreen > better than > iPhone App VC > better than > Android VR Android touchscreen ratings most homogeneous (largest agreements) Retrospective usability assessment: iPhone App VC > better than > Android touchscreen > better than > Android VR Android VR shows largest dispersion among ratings (largest disagreement) Additional result: The larger the amount of text information to be entered, the more preferred are voice input formats on the expense of the touchscreen-based version, but only for iPhone participants (not for Android participants). April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 22 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 23. AGENDA 1.Background 2.Research Questions 3.Method 4.Results 5.Discussion and Outlook April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 23 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 24. DISCUSSION AND OUTLOOK Further analyses using data from the current study: Item-Nonresponse analysis Drop-Out analysis (partly done, see Appendix) Quality of content between groups? Technology and/or selection effects? For instance, iPhone users are more experienced with Apps and more ´attached´ to their Smartphone, ´causing´ more favourable post-hoc evaluations of App-based input formats; men versus women systematically overrepresented in certain groups, other systematic differences? Next steps: Results consistent over time and in the context of ´real life´ applications? Please feel free to use VC/VR in your own studies! April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 24 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 25. THANK YOU! April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 25 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 26. Appendix April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 26 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 27. DROP-OUT (WORK IN PROGRESS) Voice Voice Regular Capturing Recognition Test Drive 9 (9,3%) 5 (10,4%) - Instructions Test Drive 1 (1,0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) Single figure 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) List 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) Free text 0 (0%) 0 (0%) 0 (0%) Drop Out on other 0 (0%) 7 (14,6%) 2 (5%) pages Drop Out Overall 10 (10,3%) 12 (25%) 2 (5%) N= 97 (100%) 48 (100%) 40 (100%) April 19, 2011 Mobile Study III 27 Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 28. Comments and Data Samples Comments Voicecapturing „Da ich nicht sprechen konnte, konnte ich den Fragebogen nicht zu Ende durchgehen.“ „Ich war krank, böse Erkältung und konnte mich nicht motivieren, zumal mir das Sprechen superschwer fiel.“ Comments Voicerecognition „Spracherkennung ist bei meinem Handy für solche Felder nicht verfügbar, nur für die Google-Suche“ „Ich hatte nur die englische Spracheingabe. Habe im Internet nach Hilfestellungen gesucht um auf deutsche Spracheingabe umzustellen, allerdings nichts gefunden.“ „Spracheingabe funktionierte nicht richtig. Spracheingabe ging nur als englischer Text. Alles Einstellungen meines HTC waren auf Deutsch und ich habe keine Möglichkeit gefunden die Spracheingabe auf Deutsch zu berichtigen.“ Comments Touchscreen Input „Gute Erhebungstechnik, gerne wieder über smartphone...“ „Würde mich sehr freuen weitere Umfragen mit dem Handy beantworten zu dürfen.“ Data Samples Voicerecognition – Testphrase „Diese Befragung ist sehr interessant“ „Die herbe frau geküsst interessant“ “These are The 5 sense sons” “disappear.com sia into the sun” „Die befragung sea of sand“ „wiese befragung ist sehr interessant“ 28 04/11/11 Mobile Study III Globalpark. Manage what matters.
  • 29. Demo - Audio Samples iPhone Apple Quicktime required 0: Testtrial mingle61 (optimal) 0: Single Word mingle 99 (Optimal) mingle 166 (Background noise) mingle 173 (Additional info) 2: List mingle31 / 19 (optimal) mingle16 (Background noise) mingle8 (Real List) 3: Open answer mingle198 (Slight saxon dialect) mingle187 (Whole sentence) mingle192 (slightly annoyed) 29 04/11/11 Mobile Study III Globalpark. Manage what matters.