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Cyber	Security	Economics	
101
Vlad	Styran
OWASP	Kyiv	Winter	2017
Agenda
1. The	subject	of	security	economics
2. Why	security	is	an	economics	problem
3. The	problems	security	economics	solves
4. Information	security	investment	and	management
5. Security	economics	principles	and	laws
6. Case	studies
7. Conclusion
Agenda
1. The	subject	of	security	economics
2. Why	security	is	an	economics	problem
3. The	problems	security	economics	solves
4. Information	security	investment	and	management
5. Security	economics	principles	and	laws
6. Case	studies
7. Conclusion
Security	players
• Security	consumers
– Budget	1st
• Security	providers
– Business	1st
• Security	industry
– Wat?…
• Attackers
Measuring	security	productivity
Security	costs
Direct	&	Indirect
Fixed	&	Variable
Onetime	&	Recurring
Sunk	&	Recoverable
Security	level
Deterministic	&
Stochastic	indicators
Security	benefits
Reduction	of	losses	caused	by	
the	absence	of	security
Security	productivity	growth
Types	of	security
Security	providers
Network	economics
Market	rewards	the	1st
Dev	costs	are	sunk
Growth	strategy
Ship	today,	fix	tomorrow
Visible	features	1st
Convenience	2nd
Ignore	security
But	plan	to	add	it	later
Security	consumers
“Real”	security
Direct	business	impact
Security	for	business
Indirect	business	impact
Security	for	customers
Support	of	business	strategy
Security	against	customers
“Best-practice”	security
Compliance
Security	against	liability
Security	as	a	market
Market	of	information	goods
Marginal	cost	is	zero:	information	wants	to	be	free
Prone	to	asymmetry	of	information
Vendors	know	their	products	are	vulnerable	(software	security)
Enterprises	know	they	got	breached	(incident	data)
Consumers	don’t	know	any	of	it
Disclosure	of	incidents
Is	essential	for	“security	of	the	world”
Is	suboptimal	for	security	of	each	individual	business
Monopolies	are	inevitable
Monopolists	don’t	care	about	security	as	a	public	good
Why	“best	practice”	security	sucks
Most	metrics	focus	on	controls
Developed	by	security	providers
Easier	to	measure
Selling	controls	is	the	business	model
Controls	are	deterministic,	attackers	aren’t
Controls	are	about	effort,	not	actual	security
Focusing	on	controls	leaves	responsibility	to	buyer
Security	metrics
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
Controls
Vulnerabilites
Incidents
(Prevented)	Losses
Security	metrics	applied	to	“best	practice”	frameworks
PCI	DSS ISO27002 CIS SANS BSIMM SAMM CSAN-3
Regulation
Security	market	can’t	regulate	itself
Regulation?
Ex	ante	(PCI	DSS	after	the	fact	non-compliance)
Ex	post	(appsec liability	and	OSS)
Certification
Information	disclosure
Intermediary	liability
Use	case:	payment	cards
PCI	DSS
Ex	ante	self-regulation
Opsec of	merchants
Failure	to	comply	causes	
liability	for	fraud
Disclosure	laws
Actual	laws
Increase	indirect	cost	of	
insecurity
Correct	information	
asymmetry
Force	security	investment
Security	and	humans
Expected	utility	theory	
Utility
First	$100	are	>	than	the	10th
Wealth
$10	is	much	if	it’s	all	u	have
Rational	choice	model
People	are	expected	to	
choose	the	best	option
Prospect	theory
People	are	risk	- seeking	when	
faced	with	potential	loss
While	they	are	risk	averse	and	
prefer	certainty	for	gain
Economics	of	privacy	(1)
Right	to	be	left	alone
“I	have	nothing	to	hide”	is	bullshit
“Good”	vs.	“Bad”	privacy
Example:	good	debtor	is	OK	with	it	to	be	known,	while	
bad	debtor	isn’t
Privacy	of	ads
I	want	firms	know	what	I	wanna buy	so	I	get	less	spam
But	not	how	much	I	want	it,	or	I’ll	get	ripped	off
Economics	of	privacy	(2)
• Perception	vs.	reality
– 1/3	of	people	say	they	don’t	care
– 1/3	say	they	care	a	lot!
– 1/3	say	they	could	trade
– Yet	4/5	give	away	sensitive	info	for	trivial	benefits
• Why	the	difference?
– People	are	irrational	economic	agents
– People	ignore	risks	in	the	distant	future
– People	are	prone	to	illusion	of	control
• Privacy	salience
– Normal	vs.	salient	vs.	“fun	and	games”	salient
That’s	all	folks
Secon101x
https://www.edx.org/course/cyber-security-
economics-delftx-secon101x-0
Ross	Anderson’s	Economics	and	Security	
resource	page
http://www.cl.cam.ac.uk/%7Erja14/econsec.html
Bruce	Schneier	on	Economics	of	Security
https://www.schneier.com/essays/economics/

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