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The myphotonics project deals with the construction of opto-mechanical components and optical experiment implementation using modular systems such as LEGO®. The components are low cost and the instructions that originated them are free to use. OpenAdaptonik and myphotonics can work together sharing the same purpose.

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Av 738- Adaptive Filtering - Wiener Filters[wk 3]

Av 738- Adaptive Filtering - Wiener Filters[wk 3]

Av 738 - Adaptive Filtering - Kalman Filters

Av 738 - Adaptive Filtering - Kalman Filters

Lecture 14 15-time_domain_analysis_of_2nd_order_systems

Lecture 14 15-time_domain_analysis_of_2nd_order_systems

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Av 738- Adaptive Filtering - Wiener Filters[wk 3]

The document discusses the derivation and properties of Wiener filters, which are linear filters that minimize the mean square error between the desired signal and the estimate. Specifically:
- It derives the Weiner-Hopf equation, which provides the condition for optimal filter weights to minimize the mean square error.
- It shows that the optimal filter output and minimum error are orthogonal.
- It discusses how the Weiner filter can be used for applications like noise cancellation by estimating the desired signal using two microphones.
- It provides an example of applying a Weiner filter to cancel noise from a signal measured by two microphones mounted on a pilot's helmet.

Av 738 - Adaptive Filtering - Kalman Filters

Avionics 738 Adaptive Filtering at Air University PAC Campus by Dr. Bilal A. Siddiqui in Spring 2018. This lecture deals with introduction to Kalman Filtering. Based n Optimal State Estimation by Dan Simon.

Lecture 14 15-time_domain_analysis_of_2nd_order_systems

1. The document discusses time domain analysis of second order systems. It defines key terms like damping ratio, natural frequency, and describes the four categories of responses based on damping ratio: overdamped, underdamped, undamped, and critically damped.
2. An example shows how to determine the natural frequency and damping ratio from a given transfer function. The poles of a second order system depend on these parameters.
3. The time domain specification of a second order system's step response is explained, including definitions of delay time, rise time, peak time, settling time, and overshoot.

Learning agile and dynamic motor skills for legged robots

The document proposes a control method for multi-legged robots that combines simulation modeling improvements and deep reinforcement learning. It trains a policy using reinforcement learning in a stochastic simulator. The policy is then deployed on a real robot. Experimental results show the method enables command-conditioned locomotion, high-speed locomotion over 1.6 m/s, and recovery from falls - outperforming prior model-based approaches. Key techniques include using an actuator network to bridge the simulator-reality gap, improving contact simulation speed using a dichotomy method, and randomizing simulator conditions to learn robust policies.

Robotics of Quadruped Robot

1. The document discusses the state estimation, locomotion, kinematics, dynamics, and control of quadruped robots. It focuses on the ANYmal robot from ETH Zurich as a key example.
2. Key topics covered include the use of an extended Kalman filter for state estimation, the inverse kinematics and dynamics challenges of quadruped robots, and approaches for support consistent inverse kinematics and dynamics that respect contact constraints.
3. The document provides an overview of concepts for quadruped control, including kinematic control, impedance control, inverse dynamics control, and whole-body control through simultaneous optimization of posture, contact forces and joint torques.

Undamped vibration absorber

This document provides a theory and experimental procedure for demonstrating an undamped vibration absorber. The theory section explains how attaching an auxiliary mass-spring system to a vibrating object can reduce vibrations by extracting the energy that causes them. If the absorber's natural frequency matches the object's frequency, the object's amplitude can be reduced to zero. The experiment uses a beam with a motor to induce vibrations, and an absorber attached below to reduce the beam's amplitude at different motor speeds by adjusting the absorber's mass positions. The goal is to determine the absorber configuration that minimizes the beam's vibrations.

[Paper Review] MIT Cheetah 1: Gait-pattern, trajectory generator

- The document summarizes the gait pattern modulator and trajectory generator for the Cheetah 1 robot.
- It describes how phase signals are used to impose gait patterns and synchronize legs based on touch down events. The phase signals change to enable transitions between trots and gallops.
- The trajectory generator designs swing phase trajectories using Bezier curves defined by control points. Stance phase trajectories were originally sinusoidal waves but are now controlled by force in Cheetah 3.

Me314 week08-stability and steady state errors

ME-314 Introduction to Control Engineering is a course taught to Mechanical Engineering senior undergrads. The course is taught by Dr. Bilal Siddiqui at DHA Suffa University. This lecture is about time response of systems derived by inspection of poles and zeros. Stability concepts and steady state errors are taught.

Absorber

The document describes the mathematical modeling and analysis of a dynamic vibration absorber system. It presents the differential equations of motion for a primary system attached to a secondary absorber system. It then derives the frequency response equation and shows that tuning the natural frequencies of the two systems eliminates vibration response. MATLAB code is also included to simulate and analyze the time response and frequency response of the tuned dynamic vibration absorber.

Control chap6

This document discusses steady-state errors in control systems. It defines steady-state error as the difference between the input and output of a system as time approaches infinity. For a unity feedback system, the steady-state error can be calculated from the closed-loop transfer function T(s) or open-loop transfer function G(s). The steady-state error depends on the type of input signal (step, ramp, or parabola) and number of integrations in the system. Systems are classified as Type 0, 1, or 2 based on this number of integrations. The document provides examples of calculating steady-state error for different system types and input signals.

Csl9 4 f15

The document discusses the time response of first order systems. It defines time response as the solution to a differential equation over time. Time response consists of the natural response and forced response, and is characterized by transient and steady-state responses on a time response plot. The time constant of a first order system is the time it takes to reach 63% of its final value. Transfer functions can be used to find the system's poles and zeros, which indicate the time response.

Me314 week 06-07-Time Response

ME-314 Introduction to Control Engineering is a course taught to Mechanical Engineering senior undergrads. The course is taught by Dr. Bilal Siddiqui at DHA Suffa University. This lecture is about time response of systems derived by inspection of poles and zeros. First and second order systems are considered, along with higher order and nonminimum phase systems

Transfer fn mech. systm

The document defines transfer function as the ratio of the Laplace transform of the output to the input of a system with zero initial conditions. It discusses poles and zeros, which are values of s that make the transfer function tend to infinity or zero. Strictly proper, proper, and improper transfer functions are classified based on the order of the numerator and denominator polynomials. The characteristic equation is obtained by equating the denominator of the transfer function to zero. Advantages of transfer functions include representing systems with algebraic equations and determining poles, zeros and differential equations. Translational and rotational mechanical systems are described along with their resisting forces, and D'Alembert's principle is explained.

Modeling of mechanical_systems

This document discusses modeling mechanical systems using three basic elements: springs, dampers, and masses. It describes the properties and dynamic responses of ideal spring and damper elements and provides examples of real-world springs and dampers. The document also discusses modeling nonlinear springs and damping effects in mechanical systems.

IMPULSE RESPONSE OF SECOND ORDER SYSTEM

THIS PPT IS SO USEFUL FOR THE CONTROL SYSTEM STUDENTS MOSTLY. THIS PPT MAINLY DISCUSSED ABOUT THE IMPULSE RESPONSE OF SECOND ORDER SYSTEM
AND THE CHARACTERISTICS OF THE SYSTEM AND STABILITY FACTOR OF THE SYSTEM AN THIS PPT CONTAINS A MATLAB CODING AND SIMULATION AND THE RESULTS ARE ALSO PLOTED IN THE PPT . SO IT IS SO USEFUL TO THE STUDENTS

Bhdpis1

This document discusses path integration for a scalar field with one degree of freedom along the time direction. It begins by writing the transition matrix for a scalar field in the absence of time-dependent sources. It then expresses the path integral evaluation of this transition matrix using the action of the scalar field. The scalar field is decomposed into a classical part and a perturbation part. The path integral is then written in factored form using the effective action involving just the classical and perturbation parts. It then discusses taking the Fourier transform of the perturbation part to satisfy the boundary conditions and obtain the Fourier components needed for the path integral.

Quantum Anharmonic Oscillator, A Computational Approach

What is anharmonicity? What happens to the energy levels of an anharmonic oscillator? What is dissociation energy? Many such questions can be answered by the computational method. The computational methods used for solving the second degree differential equation (Schroedinger's equation) is by Runge- Kutta fourth order method using Microsoft-Excel. For anharmonic oscillator, the accuracy of the results is fairly good.

Modern Control - Lec 03 - Feedback Control Systems Performance and Characteri...

The document summarizes key concepts about feedback control systems including:
- It defines the order of a system as the highest power of s in the denominator of the transfer function. First and second order systems are discussed.
- Standard test signals like impulse, step, ramp and parabolic are introduced to analyze the response of systems.
- The time response of systems has transient and steady-state components. Poles determine the transient response.
- For first order systems, the responses to unit impulse, step, and ramp inputs are derived. The step response reaches 63.2% of its final value after one time constant.
- For second order systems, the natural frequency, damping ratio, and poles are defined.

Mechanical system

The document describes a mechanical system project presented by group members Ali Ahssan, Faysal Shahzad, M. Aaqib, and Nafees Ahmed. It discusses translational and rotational mechanical systems. Translational systems move in a straight line and include mass, spring, and dashpot elements. Rotational systems move about a fixed axis and include moment of inertia, dashpot, and torsional spring elements. The document also provides equations to calculate the opposing forces or torques in each element when a force or torque is applied based on Newton's second law of motion.

Me mv-16-17 unit-5

This document provides an overview of numerical analysis methods for multi-degree of freedom mechanical vibration systems. It covers Rayleigh's method, Dunkerley's method, Rayleigh-Ritz method, critical speeds of shafts, whirling of uniform shafts, shafts with discs with and without damping, and multi-disc shafts. The document also provides examples of applying the Rayleigh's method and Dunkerley's formula to calculate vibration frequencies of beams and shafts.

Av 738- Adaptive Filtering - Wiener Filters[wk 3]

Av 738- Adaptive Filtering - Wiener Filters[wk 3]

Av 738 - Adaptive Filtering - Kalman Filters

Av 738 - Adaptive Filtering - Kalman Filters

Lecture 14 15-time_domain_analysis_of_2nd_order_systems

Lecture 14 15-time_domain_analysis_of_2nd_order_systems

Learning agile and dynamic motor skills for legged robots

Learning agile and dynamic motor skills for legged robots

Robotics of Quadruped Robot

Robotics of Quadruped Robot

Undamped vibration absorber

Undamped vibration absorber

[Paper Review] MIT Cheetah 1: Gait-pattern, trajectory generator

[Paper Review] MIT Cheetah 1: Gait-pattern, trajectory generator

Me314 week08-stability and steady state errors

Me314 week08-stability and steady state errors

Absorber

Absorber

Control chap6

Control chap6

Csl9 4 f15

Csl9 4 f15

Me314 week 06-07-Time Response

Me314 week 06-07-Time Response

Transfer fn mech. systm

Transfer fn mech. systm

Modeling of mechanical_systems

Modeling of mechanical_systems

IMPULSE RESPONSE OF SECOND ORDER SYSTEM

IMPULSE RESPONSE OF SECOND ORDER SYSTEM

Bhdpis1

Bhdpis1

Quantum Anharmonic Oscillator, A Computational Approach

Quantum Anharmonic Oscillator, A Computational Approach

Modern Control - Lec 03 - Feedback Control Systems Performance and Characteri...

Modern Control - Lec 03 - Feedback Control Systems Performance and Characteri...

Mechanical system

Mechanical system

Me mv-16-17 unit-5

Me mv-16-17 unit-5

Opening for TFMA - Aaron Kahlow

The document discusses social media and its empowering effects on both people and businesses. It summarizes the mission of the Online Marketing Summit to enable collaboration and learning of best online marketing practices through education. It also discusses the creation of an Online Marketing Institute to provide real and validated education and certifications to help careers. The presentation encourages marketers to get beyond just experimenting with social media and to properly use channels to drive digital results like lead generation and website traffic. It emphasizes the importance of prioritizing social media use based on highest business impact.

αρχαια σικυωνα

Αρχαιολογικός χώρος της αρχαίας Σικυώνας

IDCC 1921 Avenant n56 septembre 2016 cotisation afc

Un accord relatif à l'allocation de fin de carrière a été signé le 13 septembre 2016 dans la CCN des huissiers de justice.
L'accord a été signé par les organismes patronaux la Chambre Nationale des Huissiers de Justice et l'union nationale des huissiers de justice.
Les syndicats de salariés signataires de l'accord sont la Fédération CSFV-CFTC, la fédération Nationale des Personnels des Sociétés d’études et Prévention C.G.T, le Syndicat national du personnel d'encadrement et assimilés des cabinets d'avocats et activités connexes, la Fédération Employés et Cadres F.O., la Fédération des Services C.F.D.T et l’Union Nationale des Syndicats Autonomes UNSA FESSAD.
L'accord prévoit que la cotisation à l'allocation de fin de carrière est calculée sur la rémunération brute servant de base à la déclaration des traitements et salaires fournis chaque trimestre par l'employeur à la CARCO, en y ajoutant éventuellement la partie de salaire déclarée à une caisse de retraite des cadres.
L'accord fixe le montant de la cotisation, à charge de l'employeur, à compter du 1er juillet 2016, à 1,50% du salaire défini précédemment.

gajanand_1___1___2___1_

1. Gajanan Bhavare is an experienced IT professional with over 11 years of experience in core banking software implementation and application support. He has strong expertise in Finacle version 10.2 and experience in retail and corporate banking functions.
2. He is currently working as an application support consultant for Modus Information Systems in Botswana and is looking for a new challenging position utilizing his banking domain expertise.
3. Bhavare has extensive experience in Finacle implementation and application support across various banks and organizations in India and Africa over the past decade.

780078

This document is a patent application for an adjustable mirror supported on a floor stand. The mirror stand has two parallel tubular members that can be adjusted longitudinally to change the height of the mirror. The mirror is mounted on a rotating frame that allows it to rotate horizontally and vertically. A removable tray is mounted below the mirror on the stand and can be used to hold cosmetics. The mirror stand allows both hands to be free while using the mirror for applying makeup.

Inbound Marketing: Lead Generation at 60% Lower Cost - HubSpot, Ellie Mirman

The document is a presentation about content marketing and inbound marketing given by Ellie Mirman at the Online Marketing Summit in Orlando, FL on August 3, 2010. The presentation covers how to get found and generate leads through content at a lower cost by following steps to publish content everywhere, optimize content for search engines, engage with audiences on social media, convert visitors to leads with landing pages, and convert leads to customers by cultivating relationships with content. Metrics like total reach, visitors, leads, sales, and content performance are also discussed for measuring marketing efforts.

780013

This patent document describes improvements to means for applying printing ink to paper or other material using a rotary printing machine. It involves using an inking roll with depressions to hold ink that is applied to a printing roll via direct contact or through intermediate rolls. A doctor blade is used to remove excess ink from the inking roll surface while leaving ink in the depressions. The doctor blade is disposed at an angle less than 90 degrees to the inking roll tangent in the direction of rotation away from the blade. This ensures only ink in the depressions is transferred to apply an even ink film to the printing roll for printing.

IDCC 2761 Avenant n 2 pei 2016

N° 2 PLAN D'ÉPARGNE INTERENTREPRISES - PEI

780080

The document describes a process for manufacturing hydrogen cyanide by passing low molecular weight hydrocarbons and ammonia through an electric arc. Key points:
- Hydrocarbons such as methane, ethane, ethylene, propane, propylene, butane, butylene, isobutane or isobutylene are used along with 0.5-1.2 moles of ammonia per mole of carbon in the hydrocarbon.
- The mixture is passed through an electric arc generated between electrodes for 0.001-0.00002 seconds to initiate the endothermic reaction.
- The product mixture containing hydrogen cyanide and hydrogen is then rapidly cooled before hydrogen cyanide is separated

780088

1. The document describes an invention for improving friction block assemblies used in clutches and brakes.
2. It involves securing friction linings to support shoes using thin metal keeper strips housed in grooves in the rear face of the lining and bonded in place, with the lining recessed to provide access to mounting bolts that pass through the strips.
3. This allows for increased wear of the friction material before replacement is needed compared to conventional constructions.

Ilicitos tributarios

Los ilícitos tributarios son acciones u omisiones que violan la normativa tributaria. Pueden ser sancionados con multas o penas privativas de libertad. Existen tres corrientes sobre la naturaleza jurídica de los ilícitos tributarios: penal, administrativa y autonómica. Los ilícitos se clasifican en ilícitos formales, relativos a especies fiscales, materiales y aquellos sancionados con pena privativa de libertad como la defraudación tributaria. La responsabilidad penal es personal pero las personas jurí

780124

This document summarizes a patent for improvements in the manufacture of viscose. Specifically, it describes an apparatus that uses a rotating perforated plate and roller to break up lumps of cellulose xanthate in a slurry with caustic soda solution. The lumps are deposited on the plate and squeezed through the perforations by the roller to more finely divide the cellulose xanthate. This facilitates faster dissolution and yields viscose free of lumps. Diagrams of the apparatus are provided showing its components and operation.

Electrical Engineer cv

Mukesh Kumar is seeking a position as an electrical design and production engineer. He has over 2 years of experience in this role at RS Engineering and ARK Electric. His responsibilities include electrical system design, equipment selection and sizing, load calculation, cable scheduling, panel design, and testing and commissioning. He has a B.Tech in Electrical and Electronics Engineering and is proficient in AutoCAD and Microsoft Office applications.

Mulicolinearidade em análise de r. multipla emanuel ramos correia borges

Na construção de um modelo de regressão linear múltipla devem ser testadas algumas hipóteses do modelo clássico de regressão linear e uma delas é a hipótese de que não existe uma relação exata entre as variáveis explicativas, ou seja, a não existência de multicolinearidade perfeita.
Este estudo aborda de forma prática o problema de multicolinearidade, com um caso prático em software R e Stata.

Übung Open Data: Informationen zu den Übungen, App-Demos & Einführung in Tools

Forschungsstelle Digitale Nachhaltigkeit

Leer, entender y escribir

El documento discute la importancia de enseñar la lectura y escritura como objetivos esenciales de la educación obligatoria. Explica que la lectura y escritura son fundamentales para todas las áreas de conocimiento y que a través de ellas los estudiantes pueden expresarse, acceder al conocimiento y descubrir que saber leer y escribir es útil en diversos ámbitos de la vida. También destaca que la enseñanza de la lectura y escritura debe tener en cuenta los usos y funciones del lenguaje escrito en la sociedad

Noor Wali Baz Afridi

This document contains the resume of Noor Wali Baz Afridi. It summarizes his work experience and education. He currently works as a Cost Accountant and Costing Supervisor at Rauf Textile Mills Pvt Ltd where he prepares costing sheets and production efficiency reports for various machines. Previously, he worked as a Store In-Charge at a cold storage company where he managed goods receiving and delivery notes using their software. He has a Bachelor's degree in Commerce from Karachi University. He is proficient in Pashto, Urdu, English and various computer programs.

Data driven facts about the dangers of pot

Psychologically, marijuana can increase anxiety and paranoia, lead to depression and reduce the brain’s ability to think clearly.

Contrastes

Breve presentación para por en práctica un curso.

rahul verma

Rahul Kumarverma is seeking a position in the hospitality industry utilizing his skills and qualifications. He has a diploma in front office from IGNOU and is pursuing a B.Sc degree. His professional experience includes training at Hotel Four Point by Sheraton Jaipur and working as a front office assistant at Hotel Om Tower and Lebua Hotel and Resort. His skills include guest handling, solving customer queries, room status tracking, and providing sightseeing information. He is proficient in Opera, Binix, WINHMS and MS Office.

Opening for TFMA - Aaron Kahlow

Opening for TFMA - Aaron Kahlow

αρχαια σικυωνα

αρχαια σικυωνα

IDCC 1921 Avenant n56 septembre 2016 cotisation afc

IDCC 1921 Avenant n56 septembre 2016 cotisation afc

gajanand_1___1___2___1_

gajanand_1___1___2___1_

780078

780078

Inbound Marketing: Lead Generation at 60% Lower Cost - HubSpot, Ellie Mirman

Inbound Marketing: Lead Generation at 60% Lower Cost - HubSpot, Ellie Mirman

780013

780013

IDCC 2761 Avenant n 2 pei 2016

IDCC 2761 Avenant n 2 pei 2016

780080

780080

780088

780088

Ilicitos tributarios

Ilicitos tributarios

780124

780124

Electrical Engineer cv

Electrical Engineer cv

Mulicolinearidade em análise de r. multipla emanuel ramos correia borges

Mulicolinearidade em análise de r. multipla emanuel ramos correia borges

Übung Open Data: Informationen zu den Übungen, App-Demos & Einführung in Tools

Übung Open Data: Informationen zu den Übungen, App-Demos & Einführung in Tools

Leer, entender y escribir

Leer, entender y escribir

Noor Wali Baz Afridi

Noor Wali Baz Afridi

Data driven facts about the dangers of pot

Data driven facts about the dangers of pot

Contrastes

Contrastes

rahul verma

rahul verma

14th_Class_19-03-2024 Control systems.pptx

Here's the continuation of the report:
3.2.1 Parallel Plate Capacitor (continued)
As the IV fluid droplets move between the plates of the capacitor, the capacitance increases due to the change in the dielectric constant, resulting in the observation of a peak in capacitance.
3.2.2 Semi-cylindrical Capacitor
The semi-cylindrical capacitor consists of two semi-cylindrical conductors (plates) facing each other with a gap between them. The gap between the plates is filled with a dielectric material, typically the IV fluid.
When a potential difference is applied across the plates, electric field lines form between them. The dielectric material between the plates enhances the capacitance by reducing the electric field strength and increasing the charge storage capacity.
3.2.3 Cylindrical Cross Capacitor
The cylindrical cross capacitor is composed of two cylindrical conductors (rods) intersecting at right angles to form a cross shape. The space between the rods is filled with a dielectric material, such as the IV fluid.
When a potential difference is applied between the rods, electric field lines form between them. The dielectric material between the rods enhances the capacitance by reducing the electric field strength and increasing the charge storage capacity, similar to the semi-cylindrical design.
3.3 Advantages of Capacitive Sensing Approach
Capacitive sensing for IV fluid monitoring offers several advantages over other automated monitoring methods:
1. Non-invasive operation: The sensors do not require direct contact with the IV fluid, reducing the risk of contamination or disruption to the therapy.
2. High sensitivity: Capacitive sensors can detect minute changes in capacitance, enabling precise tracking of IV fluid droplets.
3. Low cost: The sensors can be constructed using relatively inexpensive materials, making them a cost-effective solution.
4. Low power consumption: Capacitive sensors typically have low power requirements, making them suitable for continuous monitoring applications.
5. Ease of implementation: The sensors can be easily integrated into existing IV setups without significant modifications.
6. Stable measurements: Capacitive sensors can provide stable and repeatable measurements across different IV fluid types.
Chapter 4: Experimental Setup and Results
4.1 Description of Experimental Setup
To evaluate the performance of capacitive sensors for IV fluid monitoring, an experimental setup was constructed. The setup included various capacitive sensor designs, such as parallel plate, semi-cylindrical, and cylindrical cross capacitors, positioned around an IV drip chamber.
The sensors were connected to a capacitance measurement circuit, which recorded the changes in capacitance as IV fluid droplets passed through the sensor's electric field. Multiple experiments were conducted using different IV fluid types and flow rates to assess the sensors' accuracy, repeatability, and sensitivity.
4.2 Measurements with

Presentation statusmeeting 2017_05

This document discusses vibration isolation of a LEGO platform using a skyhook control solution. It proposes using an active damping system with force proportional to isolated mass speed. Preliminary measurements found the first 8 eigenmodes. A real system uses 4 symmetric actuators and sensors. Decentralized control is effective with minimal performance loss versus MIMO control. Experimental results show reduced transmissibility between base and plate when controlled, though high noise remains an issue. Next steps propose replacing the current system with the SISO isolation demo's lower cost analog PID control approach.

Linear control system Open loop & Close loop Systems

Open-loop systems & Close loop Systems in Linear control system with its positive and negative system

Lecture Notes: EEEC4340318 Instrumentation and Control Systems - Fundamental...

The document discusses fundamentals of feedback control systems, including:
1) Feedback control systems use a transfer function to relate the output (Y(s)) to the input (U(s)) as Y(s) = G(s)U(s), where stability requires the poles of G(s) be in the left half plane.
2) Open loop control has the error E(s) = R(s) - Y(s) where the controller Gc(s) cannot reject disturbances.
3) Closed loop control uses feedback to measure the error Ea(s) = R(s) - H(s)Y(s) + N(s) and

Lecture 5 backpropagation

The document discusses backpropagation, an algorithm used to train neural networks. It begins with background on perceptron learning and the need for an algorithm that can train multilayer perceptrons to perform nonlinear classification. It then describes the development of backpropagation, from early work in the 1970s to its popularization in the 1980s. The document provides examples of using backpropagation to design networks for binary classification and multi-class problems. It also outlines the generalized mathematical expressions and steps involved in backpropagation, including calculating the error derivative with respect to weights and updating weights to minimize loss.

ME421-SDF (Forced) part 2.pdf

The document summarizes the analysis of forced vibrations in a single degree of freedom system. It presents the derivation of the steady state response using complex notation and defines the transfer function. It describes how the response amplitude and phase angle vary with frequency and damping ratio. It also defines concepts like magnification factor, quality factor, bandwidth and their relation to damping in the system.

Chapter 3.pdf

(1) The document discusses the characteristics and effects of feedback control systems. It describes how feedback can reduce sensitivity to parameter variations, improve stability, and reduce the impact of disturbances.
(2) Feedback works by sampling the output signal and comparing it to the desired output to generate an error signal. This error signal is used to adjust the system via negative feedback.
(3) While feedback provides advantages like improved robustness, it also introduces complexity and reduces the overall system gain. There is therefore a cost associated with incorporating feedback into a control system.

Mod 3.pptx

Laplace transform can be used to solve differential equations. Taking the Laplace transform of both sides of a differential equation converts it into an algebraic equation that can be solved for the Laplace transform of the original function. The inverse Laplace transform of the solution gives the time domain solution to the original differential equation. Common differential equations like first and second order constant coefficient equations and equations with unit step or delta functions can be solved using properties of the Laplace transform.

Chemical Bonding

The document discusses the Schrodinger equation and methods to approximate solutions to it. It begins by defining the time-independent Schrodinger equation and its components. It then provides examples of writing out the Schrodinger equation for different chemical systems with varying numbers of electrons and nuclei. Approximation methods are needed because the Schrodinger equation can only be exactly solved for a few simple systems. Two approximation methods discussed are the variational method and perturbation theory. The variational method uses a trial wavefunction to variationally minimize the energy.

lecture 1 courseII (2).pptx

1. The document discusses open loop and closed loop control systems. An open loop system's output is not controlled, while a closed loop system uses feedback to maintain its output constant despite disturbances.
2. A closed loop system consists of a process, measuring element, comparator, controller and final control element. The controller acts to minimize the error between the measured and desired output.
3. Transfer functions can be derived to model the response of open and closed loop systems. The closed loop transfer function depends on the process, controller, and other elements.

Passivity-based control of rigid-body manipulator

Explain what is passivity and relation with stability.
And list control equations extending this principle to rigid-body manipulator.

control_5.pptx

This chapter introduces analog computing techniques. It discusses the components of an analog computer including operational amplifiers, resistors, capacitors and inductors. It describes how operational amplifiers can be used to simulate linear systems using inverting amplifiers, non-inverting amplifiers, summer amplifiers, integrators and differentiators. The chapter also covers how to apply magnitude and time scaling to model systems within the voltage range of an analog computer. An example shows how to derive the scaled dynamic model of a system and realize it using operational amplifiers.

control system Lab 01-introduction to transfer functions

The document provides information about transfer functions and their characteristics including time response, frequency response, stability, and system order. It discusses different types of systems including first order and second order systems. It also demonstrates how to analyze transfer functions and obtain step and impulse responses using MATLAB. Key points include:
- Transfer functions relate the input and output of a system in the Laplace domain
- Time and frequency responses provide information about a system's behavior over time and at different frequencies
- Stability depends on the locations of the poles - systems are stable if all poles have negative real parts
- First and second order systems have distinguishing characteristics like rise time, settling time, overshoot
- MATLAB commands like step, impulse, pole can

Pscc june2016

This document describes a receding-horizon control scheme to use distributed generation (DG) units to correct voltage or thermal violations in distribution networks. The control scheme uses a model predictive control approach where at each time step it computes an optimal sequence of future DG setpoints and applies only the first setpoint. It aims to keep voltages and currents within limits while tracking desired active and reactive power schedules from DG units. The approach was tested on a realistic distribution system model with different DG unit dispatch scenarios.

Dcs lec03 - z-analysis of discrete time control systems

The document discusses discrete time control systems and their mathematical representation using z-transforms. It covers topics such as impulse sampling, the convolution integral method for obtaining the z-transform, properties of the z-transform, inverse z-transforms using long division and partial fractions, and mapping between the s-plane and z-plane. Examples are provided to illustrate various concepts around discrete time systems and their analysis using z-transforms.

lecture_18-19_state_observer_design.pptx

This document discusses observer-based control system design. It introduces full order and reduced order state observers, which estimate all or some unmeasurable state variables, respectively. The full order state observer design problem is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the pole placement problem. This "duality property" allows solving the observer design problem using pole placement techniques for the dual system. Methods for determining the observer gain matrix K include using a transformation matrix P, direct substitution, and Ackermann's formula. The observer poles should be placed faster than the controller poles for accurate state estimation. An example designs a full order observer for a given system to achieve desired closed loop poles.

04 Multi-layer Feedforward Networks

This document provides an outline for a course on neural networks and fuzzy systems. The course is divided into two parts, with the first 11 weeks covering neural networks topics like multi-layer feedforward networks, backpropagation, and gradient descent. The document explains that multi-layer networks are needed to solve nonlinear problems by dividing the problem space into smaller linear regions. It also provides notation for multi-layer networks and shows how backpropagation works to calculate weight updates for each layer.

Non-linear control of a bipedal (Three-Linked) Walker using feedback Lineariz...

Non-linear control of a bipedal (Three-Linked) Walker using feedback Linearization is a research project for control theory subject in Robotics Master Course in the Higher Institute of Applied Science and Technology.

Time Response in Control System

This document summarizes key concepts from a lecture on time response and steady state errors in discrete-time control systems. It provides examples of finding the impulse response and transfer function of discrete-time systems. It also covers the final value theorem, which can be used to calculate the steady state value from the z-transform. The position and velocity error constants are defined, which relate to the steady state error from a step or ramp input respectively. Worked examples calculate these error constants and steady state errors for sample systems.

تطبيقات المعادلات التفاضلية

This document discusses applications of partial differential equations, specifically looking at the effects of convective conditions on radiative peristaltic flow of pseudoplastic nanofluid through a porous medium. It presents governing equations for the problem, including equations for stress, momentum, heat transfer and stream functions. It then uses perturbation methods and binomial expansion to simplify the equations for a small pseudoplastic fluid parameter.

14th_Class_19-03-2024 Control systems.pptx

14th_Class_19-03-2024 Control systems.pptx

Presentation statusmeeting 2017_05

Presentation statusmeeting 2017_05

Linear control system Open loop & Close loop Systems

Linear control system Open loop & Close loop Systems

Lecture Notes: EEEC4340318 Instrumentation and Control Systems - Fundamental...

Lecture Notes: EEEC4340318 Instrumentation and Control Systems - Fundamental...

Lecture 5 backpropagation

Lecture 5 backpropagation

ME421-SDF (Forced) part 2.pdf

ME421-SDF (Forced) part 2.pdf

Chapter 3.pdf

Chapter 3.pdf

Mod 3.pptx

Mod 3.pptx

Chemical Bonding

Chemical Bonding

lecture 1 courseII (2).pptx

lecture 1 courseII (2).pptx

Passivity-based control of rigid-body manipulator

Passivity-based control of rigid-body manipulator

control_5.pptx

control_5.pptx

control system Lab 01-introduction to transfer functions

control system Lab 01-introduction to transfer functions

Pscc june2016

Pscc june2016

Dcs lec03 - z-analysis of discrete time control systems

Dcs lec03 - z-analysis of discrete time control systems

lecture_18-19_state_observer_design.pptx

lecture_18-19_state_observer_design.pptx

04 Multi-layer Feedforward Networks

04 Multi-layer Feedforward Networks

Non-linear control of a bipedal (Three-Linked) Walker using feedback Lineariz...

Non-linear control of a bipedal (Three-Linked) Walker using feedback Lineariz...

Time Response in Control System

Time Response in Control System

تطبيقات المعادلات التفاضلية

تطبيقات المعادلات التفاضلية

Makeathon kickoff 170523_v2

Präsentation zum Makeathon Kickoff
2017

Open Adaptronik Workshop Simulationpräsentation

This document evaluates and analyzes several open source simulation software tools - OpenModelica, Hopsan, and Scilab. It describes each tool, including their origins and capabilities. OpenModelica is a Modelica programming language environment from Linkoping University. Hopsan is also from Linkoping University and originally focused on hydraulic systems. Scilab is a Matlab alternative with many additional modules. The document demonstrates simple simulations with each tool and ultimately recommends Scilab as a powerful Matlab alternative, OpenModelica for its simulation capabilities, and Hopsan for hydraulic systems.

Bachelorverteidigung

Evaluation an Adaptation of Open-Source Development Tools for Mechatronic Systems
Bachelor Thesis : Zack Stull
Computer-Aided-Design Programs

Günstige Aktoren

Eine weitere Präsentation den Open Adaptronik Workshops!
Recherche und Tauglichkeitsprüfung günstiger Aktoren, Vermessung der Aktoren, Konstruktion eines Schwingers und Anregers, Simulationsmodelle

Präsentation Statusworkshop: FABLAB

Open Adaptronik
Fertigungsmöglichkeiten und Erfahrungen im Fablab.
3D-Druck, Lasercutter, CNC-Fräse zum Ausprobieren für Jedermann an der TU Darmstadt.

Open Adaptronik Kick Off Berlin

OpenAdaptronik ist ein vom BMBF gefördertes Projekt, welches aktive Systeme zur Schwingungsminderung für die Maker-Bewegung in der Photonik aufbereitet und so einer breiten Öffentlichkeit die Umsetzung von bildstabilisierenden Systemen, Schwingunsisolatoren für optische Instrumente und vielem mehr ermöglicht.

Open Adaptronik Kick Off

Vorstellung des Projektes Open Adaptronik.
OpenAdaptronik ist ein vom BMBF gefördertes Projekt, welches aktive Systeme zur Schwingungsminderung für die Maker-Bewegung in der Photonik aufbereitet und so einer breiten Öffentlichkeit die Umsetzung von bildstabilisierenden Systemen, Schwingunsisolatoren für optische Instrumente und vielem mehr ermöglicht.

Makeathon kickoff 170523_v2

Makeathon kickoff 170523_v2

Open Adaptronik Workshop Simulationpräsentation

Open Adaptronik Workshop Simulationpräsentation

Bachelorverteidigung

Bachelorverteidigung

Günstige Aktoren

Günstige Aktoren

Präsentation Statusworkshop: FABLAB

Präsentation Statusworkshop: FABLAB

Open Adaptronik Kick Off Berlin

Open Adaptronik Kick Off Berlin

Open Adaptronik Kick Off

Open Adaptronik Kick Off

Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...

"Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from the Marsfontein orangeite diatreme, South Africa".
N.S. Ngwenya, S. Tappe, K.A. Smart, D.C. Hezel, J.A.H. Campbell, K.S. Viljoen

The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track

So-called ‘dark comets’ are small, morphologically inactive near-Earth objects
(NEOs) that exhibit nongravitational accelerations inconsistent with radiative
effects. These objects exhibit short rotational periods (minutes to hours), where
measured. We find that the strengths required to prevent catastrophic disintegration are consistent with those measured in cometary nuclei and expected in
rubble pile objects. We hypothesize that these dark comets are the end result
of a rotational fragmentation cascade, which is consistent with their measured
physical properties. We calculate the predicted size-frequency distribution for
objects evolving under this model. Using dynamical simulations, we further
demonstrate that the majority of these bodies originated from the 𝜈6
resonance,
implying the existence of volatiles in the current inner main belt. Moreover, one of
the dark comets, (523599) 2003 RM, likely originated from the outer main belt,
although a JFC origin is also plausible. These results provide strong evidence
that volatiles from a reservoir in the inner main belt are present in the near-Earth
environment.

PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...

PART 1
The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromechanics, Electrodynamics, Electromagnetism and Electromagnetic Field Energy
PART 2
How Electromagnetic Field Energy is Created and
Destroyed (absorbed)
in a Current Carrying Conductor

Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation

This document provides an overview of phytoremediation, which uses plants to remove contaminants from soil, sediment, or water. It discusses the need for new remediation techniques, describes various phytoremediation processes like phytoextraction and rhizofiltration, and covers important concepts like hyperaccumulators, biotechnology applications, case studies, and advantages/limitations. The author aims to explain the mechanisms, history, types of plants used, and future research directions of this eco-friendly approach to environmental cleanup.

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.pdf

Introduction
Artificial Intelligence (AI) stands at the forefront of technological advancement, promising to reshape industries, economies, and daily life. This presentation delves into the transformative potential and ethical responsibilities associated with AI across diverse sectors. By examining current trends, opportunities for innovation, and emphasizing the imperative of responsible AI development, we navigate the complexities and possibilities of this rapidly evolving field.
The Evolution of AI: A Journey Through Time
AI's journey begins with foundational concepts in the 1940s, such as Warren McCulloch and Walter Pitts' model of artificial neurons and Alan Turing's seminal work on computing and intelligence. The term "Artificial Intelligence" was coined in 1956, marking the birth of formal AI research. From early symbolic reasoning to the boom and bust cycles of expert systems in the 1980s, AI has evolved through periods of innovation and skepticism, culminating in today's era of machine learning and deep neural networks.
Applications of AI in Key Industries
Healthcare: AI revolutionizes diagnostics through image analysis in medical imaging and pattern recognition in pathology, enhancing accuracy and efficiency. Personalized medicine leverages predictive analytics to tailor treatments based on individual patient data, promising better outcomes and reduced costs. Robotics assists surgeons in performing precise, minimally invasive procedures, improving patient recovery and surgical outcomes. AI-driven patient monitoring and administrative automation further streamline healthcare delivery, optimizing resource allocation and enhancing patient care.
Finance: In the financial sector, AI excels in fraud detection by analyzing transaction patterns and anomalies, bolstering security and trust. Algorithmic trading automates market decisions with speed and precision, optimizing investment strategies and liquidity management. Risk management benefits from AI's ability to analyze vast datasets, predicting market trends and mitigating financial risks. Customer service is enhanced through AI-powered chatbots, providing personalized support and financial advice, thereby improving customer satisfaction and retention. Additionally, AI fosters innovation in fintech, introducing new products and services that cater to evolving consumer needs.
Transportation: Autonomous vehicles represent a pinnacle of AI advancement, offering safer, more efficient transportation solutions that reduce traffic congestion and environmental impact. AI-enabled traffic management optimizes traffic flow through real-time analysis of traffic patterns, improving urban mobility and reducing travel times. Logistics benefits from AI's ability to optimize supply chain operations and delivery routes, enhancing efficiency and reducing costs. Ride-sharing services leverage AI algorithms to match drivers and passengers efficiently, improving service reliability and user experience.

Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions.pptx

Hypersensitivity as an immunological dysfunction is defined as exaggerated or inappropriate response of the immune system. Hypersensitivity can be classified into four types; namely, type I (Immediate), type II (antibody-mediated), type III (immune complex-mediated), and type IV (cell-mediated or delayed-type) hypersensitivity.
Type I hypersensitivity or allergy, the most common immune disorder, is mainly mediated by immunoglobulin (Ig)E and mast cells. It can cause anaphylaxis, food allergy, and asthma.
Type II hypersensitivity can lead to tissue damage by three main mechanisms: (1) direct cellular destruction (e.g., autoimmune hemolytic anemia and immune thrombocytopenia, (2) inflammation (e.g., Goodpasture's syndrome and acute rheumatic fever), and (3) disrupting cellular function (e.g., myasthenia gravis and Graves’ disease).
Type III hypersensitivity is caused by excess production of immune complexes or impaired clearance of them and includes serum sickness, systemic lupus erythematosus, and post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis.
Type IV hypersensitivity is mediated by T cells and macrophages, causing diseases like multiple sclerosis and rheumatoid arthritis.

El Nuevo Cohete Ariane de la Agencia Espacial Europea-6_Media-Kit_english.pdf

Europe must have autonomous access to space to realise its ambitions on the world stage and
promote knowledge and prosperity.
Space is a natural extension of our home planet and forms an integral part of the infrastructure
that is vital to daily life on Earth. Europe must assert its rightful place in space to ensure its
citizens thrive.
As the world’s second-largest economy, Europe must ensure it has secure and autonomous access to
space, so it does not depend on the capabilities and priorities of other nations.
Europe’s longstanding expertise in launching spacecraft and satellites has been a driving force behind
its 60 years of successful space cooperation.
In a world where everyday life – from connectivity to navigation, climate and weather – relies on
space, the ability to launch independently is more important than ever before. With the launch of
Ariane 6, Europe is not just sending a rocket into the sky, we are asserting our place among the
world’s spacefaring nations.
ESA’s Ariane 6 rocket succeeds Ariane 5, the most dependable and competitive launcher for decades.
The first Ariane rocket was launched in 1979 from Europe’s Spaceport in French Guiana and Ariane 6 will continue the adventure.
Putting Europe at the forefront of space transportation for nearly 45 years, Ariane is a triumph of engineering and the prize of great European industrial and political
cooperation. Ariane 1 gave way to more powerful versions 2, 3 and 4. Ariane 5 served as one of the world’s premier heavy-lift rockets, putting single or multiple
payloads into orbit – the cargo and instruments being launched – and sent a series of iconic scientific missions to deep space.
The decision to start developing Ariane 6 was taken in 2014 to respond to the continued need to have independent access to space, while offering efficient
commercial launch services in a fast-changing market.
ESA, with its Member States and industrial partners led by ArianeGroup, is developing new technologies for new markets with Ariane 6. The versatility of Ariane 6
adds a whole new dimension to its very successful predecessors

Simulations of pulsed overpressure jets: formation of bellows and ripples in ...

Jets from active nuclei may supply the heating which moderates cooling and accretion from the circum-galactic medium. While
steady overpressured jets can drive a circulatory flow, lateral energy transfer rarely exceeds 3 per cent of jet power, after the initial
bow shock has advanced. Here, we explore if pulses in high-pressure jets are capable of sufficient lateral energy transfer into
the surrounding environment. We answer this by performing a systematic survey of numerical simulations in an axisymmetric
hydrodynamic mode. Velocity pulses along low Mach jets are studied at various overpressures. We consider combinations of
jet velocity pulse amplitude and frequency. We find three flow types corresponding to slow, intermediate, and fast pulsations.
Rapid pulsations in light jets generate a series of travelling shocks in the jet. They also create ripples which propagate into the
ambient medium while a slow convection flow brings in ambient gas which is expelled along the jet direction. Long period pulses
produce slowly evolving patterns which have little external effect, while screeching persists as in non-pulsed jets. In addition,
rapid pulses in jets denser than the ambient medium generate a novel breathing cavity analogous to a lung. Intermediate period
pulses generate a series of bows via a bellows action which transfer energy into the ambient gas, reaching power efficiencies of
over 30 per cent when the jet overpressure issufficiently large. This may adequately inhibit galaxy gas accretion. In addition,such
pulses enhance the axial out-flow of jet material, potentially polluting the circum-galactic gas with metal-enriched interstellar
gas.

Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis

NASA’s new campaign of lunar exploration will see astronauts visiting sites of scientific or strategic
interest across the lunar surface, with a particular focus on the lunar South Pole region.[1] After landing
crew and cargo at these destinations, local mobility around landing sites will be key to movement of
cargo, logistics, science payloads, and more to maximize exploration returns.
NASA’s Moon to Mars Architecture Definition Document (ADD)[2] articulates the work needed to achieve
the agency’s human lunar exploration objectives by decomposing needs into use cases and functions.
Ongoing analysis of lunar exploration needs reveals demands that will drive future concepts and elements.
Recent analysis of integrated surface operations has shown that the transportation of cargo on the
surface from points of delivery to points of use will be particularly important. Exploration systems will
often need to support deployment of cargo in close proximity to other surface infrastructure. This cargo
can range from the crew logistics and consumables described in the 2023 “Lunar Logistics Drivers and
Needs” white paper,[3] to science and technology demonstrations, to large-scale infrastructure that
requires precision relocation.

antenna-fundamentals an introductions to basics

fundamentals of EM

LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory

limits of detection, quantification and blank

How Does TaskTrain Integrate Workflow and Project Management Efficiently.pdf

In today's dynamic business environment, managing project management workflows
efficiently is crucial for maintaining operational excellence and achieving strategic goals.
Workflow project management is two interconnected aspects of running a successful
business, and the right software solution can make all the difference. TaskTrain is a standout
tool that integrates workflow and project management seamlessly, offering a comprehensive
solution that enhances productivity, collaboration, and efficiency. In this blog, we’ll explore
how TaskTrain excels in integrating these critical functions, ensuring that your projects run
smoothly and your workflows are optimized.

A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...

The shape of the dark matter (DM) halo is key to understanding the
hierarchical formation of the Galaxy. Despite extensive eforts in recent
decades, however, its shape remains a matter of debate, with suggestions
ranging from strongly oblate to prolate. Here, we present a new constraint
on its present shape by directly measuring the evolution of the Galactic
disk warp with time, as traced by accurate distance estimates and precise
age determinations for about 2,600 classical Cepheids. We show that the
Galactic warp is mildly precessing in a retrograde direction at a rate of
ω = −2.1 ± 0.5 (statistical) ± 0.6 (systematic) km s−1 kpc−1 for the outer disk
over the Galactocentric radius [7.5, 25] kpc, decreasing with radius. This
constrains the shape of the DM halo to be slightly oblate with a fattening
(minor axis to major axis ratio) in the range 0.84 ≤ qΦ ≤ 0.96. Given the
young nature of the disk warp traced by Cepheids (less than 200 Myr), our
approach directly measures the shape of the present-day DM halo. This
measurement, combined with other measurements from older tracers,
could provide vital constraints on the evolution of the DM halo and the
assembly history of the Galaxy.

THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics

The essence of change,law, energy, conversion

Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...

This work assesses the potential of midsized and large human landing systems to deliver water from their exhaust
plumes to cold traps within lunar polar craters. It has been estimated that a total of between 2 and 60 T of surficial
water was sensed by the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Lyman Alpha Mapping Project on the floors of the larger
permanently shadowed south polar craters. This intrinsic surficial water sensed in the far-ultraviolet is thought to be
in the form of a 0.3%–2% icy regolith in the top few hundred nanometers of the surface. We find that the six past
Apollo Lunar Module midlatitude landings could contribute no more than 0.36 T of water mass to this existing,
intrinsic surficial water in permanently shadowed regions (PSRs). However, we find that the Starship landing
plume has the potential, in some cases, to deliver over 10 T of water to the PSRs, which is a substantial fraction
(possibly >20%) of the existing intrinsic surficial water mass. This anthropogenic contribution could possibly
overlay and mix with the naturally occurring icy regolith at the uppermost surface. A possible consequence is that
the origin of the intrinsic surficial icy regolith, which is still undetermined, could be lost as it mixes with the
extrinsic anthropogenic contribution. We suggest that existing and future orbital and landed assets be used to
examine the effect of polar landers on the cold traps within PSRs

Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...

Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...University of Maribor

Slides from talk:
Aleš Zamuda, Mark Dokter:
Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking Randomised Optimisation Algorithms.
2024 International Conference on Broadband Communications for Next Generation Networks and Multimedia Applications (CoBCom), 9--11 July 2024, Graz, Austria
https://www.cobcom.tugraz.at/A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....

Cosmic hydrogen reionization and cosmic production of the first metals are major phase transitions of the Universe
occurring during the first billion years after the Big Bang; however, these are still underexplored observationally.
Using the JWST/NIRSpec prism spectroscopy, we report the discovery of a sub-L* galaxy at zspec =
8.1623 ± 0.0007, dubbed RX J2129–z8He II, via the detection of a series of strong rest-frame UV/optical nebular
emission lines and the clear Lyman break. RX J2129–z8He II shows a pronounced UV continuum with an
extremely steep (i.e., blue) spectral slope of 2.53 0.07
0.06 b = - -
+ , the steepest among all spectroscopically confirmed
galaxies at zspec 7, in support of its very hard ionizing spectrum that could lead to a significant leakage of its
ionizing flux. Therefore, RX J2129–z8He II is representative of the key galaxy population driving the cosmic
reionization. More importantly, we detect a strong He II λ1640 emission line in its spectrum, one of the highest
redshifts at which such a line is robustly detected. Its high rest-frame equivalent width (EW = 21 ± 4 Å) and
extreme flux ratios with respect to UV metal and Balmer lines raise the possibility that part of RX J2129–z8He II’s
stellar population could be Pop III (Pop III)-like. Through careful photoionization modeling, we show that the
physically calibrated phenomenological models of the ionizing spectra of Pop III stars with strong mass loss can
successfully reproduce the emission line flux ratios observed in RX J2129–z8He II. Assuming the Eddington limit,
the total mass of the Pop III stars within this system is estimated to be 7.8 ± 1.4 × 105 Me. To date, this galaxy
presents the most compelling case in the early Universe where trace Pop III stars might coexist with metal-enriched
populations.

BIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptx

Interaction of molecules

Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...

Collaborative team recommendation involves selecting users with certain skills to form a team who will, more likely than not, accomplish a complex task successfully. To automate the traditionally tedious and error-prone manual process of team formation, researchers from several scientific spheres have proposed methods to tackle the problem. In this tutorial, while providing a taxonomy of team recommendation works based on their algorithmic approaches to model skilled users in collaborative teams, we perform a comprehensive and hands-on study of the graph-based approaches that comprise the mainstream in this field, then cover the neural team recommenders as the cutting-edge class of approaches. Further, we provide unifying definitions, formulations, and evaluation schema. Last, we introduce details of training strategies, benchmarking datasets, and open-source tools, along with directions for future works.

Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...

Probing the northern Kaapvaal craton root with mantle-derived xenocrysts from...

The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track

The Dynamical Origins of the Dark Comets and a Proposed Evolutionary Track

PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...

PART 1 & PART 2 The New Natural Principles of Newtonian Mechanics, Electromec...

Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation

Phytoremediation: Harnessing Nature's Power with Phytoremediation

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.pdf

Introduction to Artificial Intelligence.pdf

Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions.pptx

Types of Hypersensitivity Reactions.pptx

El Nuevo Cohete Ariane de la Agencia Espacial Europea-6_Media-Kit_english.pdf

El Nuevo Cohete Ariane de la Agencia Espacial Europea-6_Media-Kit_english.pdf

Simulations of pulsed overpressure jets: formation of bellows and ripples in ...

Simulations of pulsed overpressure jets: formation of bellows and ripples in ...

Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis

Lunar Mobility Drivers and Needs - Artemis

antenna-fundamentals an introductions to basics

antenna-fundamentals an introductions to basics

LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory

LOB LOD LOQ for method validation in laboratory

[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf

[1] Data Mining - Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed).pdf

How Does TaskTrain Integrate Workflow and Project Management Efficiently.pdf

How Does TaskTrain Integrate Workflow and Project Management Efficiently.pdf

A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...

A slightly oblate dark matter halo revealed by a retrograde precessing Galact...

THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics

THE ESSENCE OF CHANGE CHAPTER ,energy,conversion,life is easy,laws of physics

Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...

Possible Anthropogenic Contributions to the LAMP-observed Surficial Icy Regol...

Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...

Deploying DAPHNE Computational Intelligence on EuroHPC Vega for Benchmarking ...

A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....

A Strong He II λ1640 Emitter with an Extremely Blue UV Spectral Slope at z=8....

BIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptx

BIOPHYSICS Interactions of molecules in 3-D space-determining binding and.pptx

Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...

Collaborative Team Recommendation for Skilled Users: Objectives, Techniques, ...

- 1. Vibration Isolation of a LEGO® plate
- 2. Myphotonics The myphotonics project deals with the construction of opto-mechanical components and optical experiment implementation using modular systems such as LEGO®. Michelson-Interferometer Optische Pinzette Zweistrahl-Interferometer The components are low cost and the instructions that originated them are free to use OpenAdaptonik and myphotonics can work together sharing the same purpose.
- 3. OpenAdaptronik on myphotonics The purpose of my project in OpenAdaptronik is to isolate from environmental vibrations the platform on which the myphotonics experiments are mounted. This must be done with low cost instrumentation and a guide line to make it repeatable by your own.
- 4. Simple Vibration Problem Equation of motion: 𝑚 𝑑2 𝑥 𝑑𝑡2 + 𝑟 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑘𝑥 = 𝑟 𝑑𝑥 𝑝 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑘𝑥 𝑝 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑟𝑥 + 𝑘𝑥 = 𝑟𝑥 𝑝 + 𝑘𝑥 𝑝 Where: 𝑚𝑒 = 𝑚𝑎𝑠𝑠 𝑡𝑜 𝑏𝑒 𝑖𝑠𝑜𝑙𝑎𝑡𝑒𝑑 ; 𝑟 = 𝑑𝑎𝑚𝑝𝑖𝑛𝑔 ; 𝑘 = 𝑠𝑡𝑖𝑓𝑓𝑛𝑒𝑠𝑠 It is possible to have different behavior of the system depending on the damping with fixed mass and stiffness Effects of damping increasing: 1. Amplitude attenuation at the resonance frequency (𝜔0 = 𝑘 𝑚 𝑒 ) 2. Amplitude increase at frequencies higher then the resonance one • Passing in the Laplace domain is possible to find the transfer function of the system 𝐺𝑠𝑦𝑠 = 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘 𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘 = 𝑋 𝑋 𝑝 𝑟 ↑
- 5. Skyhook Solution (feedback control) Skyhook control is a feedback velocity control widely use in vibration isolation for a vehicle. It simply introduce into the system a force proportional to the speed of the mass to be isolated Equation of motion: 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑟𝑥 + 𝑘𝑥 = 𝒇 + 𝑟𝑥 𝑝 + 𝑘𝑥 𝑝 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑟𝑥 + 𝑘𝑥 = −𝑲𝑥 + 𝑟𝑥 𝑝 + 𝑘𝑥 𝑝 Choosing: 𝐾 = 2𝑚 𝑒 𝜔0 − 𝑟 the best attenuation at the resonance frequency is obtained 𝐺 𝑠𝑦𝑠𝐶 = 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘 𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + (𝑟 + 𝑲)𝑆 + 𝑘 1. Amplitude attenuation at the resonance frequency 2. Amplitude attenuation at frequencies higher then the resonance one
- 6. Skyhook Solution equivalent version It is possible to see the controlled system above mentioned as the product of two transfer functions. 𝐺𝑠𝑦𝑠𝐶 = 𝐺 𝐶 ∗ 𝐺𝑠𝑦𝑠 Where : 𝐺 𝐶 = 𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘 (𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘) + 𝑲𝑆 𝐺𝑠𝑦𝑠 = 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘 (𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘) ∗ 𝐺𝑠𝑦𝑠𝐶 = 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘 (𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + (𝑟 + 𝑲)𝑆 + 𝑘) =
- 7. + Introduction of the inertial mass actuator The mechanical behavior of the inertial mass actuator is exactly the same as the system discussed before plus: • The electrical behavior • The mechanical electrical coupling factor Equations of the system: 𝐿 𝑑𝑖 𝑑𝑡 + 𝑅𝑖 + 𝐶 𝑖𝑑𝑡 + 𝛹 𝑥 − 𝑥 𝑝 = 𝑉 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑟𝑥 + 𝑘𝑥 = 𝑓 + 𝑟𝑥 𝑝 + 𝑘𝑥 𝑝 𝑓 = 𝛹𝑖 Where : 𝑉 = 𝑖𝑛𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑣𝑜𝑙𝑡𝑎𝑔𝑒 𝑖 = 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑐𝑢𝑟𝑟𝑒𝑛𝑡 𝑥 = 𝑜𝑢𝑡𝑝𝑢𝑡 𝑑𝑖𝑠𝑝𝑙𝑎𝑐𝑒𝑚𝑒𝑛𝑡 In the Laplace domain the electrical system has the following expression : 𝐼 = 𝑆 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 𝑉 + 𝛹𝑆2 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 𝑋 𝑝 − 𝑋
- 8. Controller Selection (Proportional Integral Derivative Control) As for the ideal case (without actuator) it is chosen the velocity of the mass as feedback control variable. + The controller must be easy to implement 𝑃𝐼𝐷(𝑡) = 𝐾 𝑝 𝑥 + 𝐾𝐼 𝑥 𝑑𝑡 + 𝐾 𝑑 𝑑𝑥 𝑑𝑡 In the Laplace domain 𝑃𝐼𝐷 𝑆 = 𝐾 𝑝 + 𝐾𝐼 1 𝑆 + 𝐾 𝑑 𝑆 𝑋 Unfortunately is not possible to implement the PID controller with this type of configuration but must be write in a different way due to the derivative part. 𝑃𝐼𝐷 = 𝐾𝑝 + 𝐾𝐼 1 𝑆 + 𝐾 𝑑 𝑁 1 + 𝑁 1 𝑆 𝑃𝐼𝐷 = 𝑆2 𝐾1 + 𝑆𝐾2 + 𝐾3 𝑆(𝑆 + 𝑁) 𝐾 𝑎
- 9. Choice of the Gains The choice of the gains was done by trying to neglect in the control transfer function the contribution of the electrical behavior in order to not affect the electrical part of the system but influencing only the mechanical part. 𝐾1 = 1 ; 𝐾2 = 𝑅 𝐿 ; 𝐾3 = 𝐶 𝐿 ; 𝐾 𝑎 = 𝑁 𝛼𝛹 𝑁 = 𝑲 = 2𝑚 𝑒 𝜔0 − 𝑟 ; 𝛼 = 5 If the inductance L is sufficiently small (generally true for an inertial mass actuator) the control transfer function con be simplified as: Where : 𝐺 𝐶 = 𝛼𝐿(𝑆 + 𝑁)(𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘) 𝛼𝐿(𝑆 + 𝑁)(𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘) + 𝑁𝑆 𝐺 𝐶𝑖𝑑𝑒𝑎𝑙 = 𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘 (𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘) + 𝑲𝑆 That is really close to:
- 10. Results on 1 d.o.f. system Frequency response Time response for simulation of 10 seconds
- 11. 2 degrees of freedom Problem Preliminary hypothesis and assumptions: • Rigid body • Same actuators on both sides • Co-located control - - Each actuator is controlled by the same PID control and each one of them has the same gains as the 1 d.o.f. problem excluding the N parameter that for now on will be expressed as: 𝑁 = 2𝑚 𝑒 𝜔01 − 𝑛𝑟 ; 𝜔01 = 𝑛𝑘 𝑚 𝑒 Where n is the number of the springs present in the system and 𝜔01 is the first resonance frequency due to the translating mode 𝑚 𝑒 ; 𝐽𝑒 1 2
- 12. Results on 2 d.o.f. system Due to the symmetry of the problem the response from the system from the input disturbance in 1 and the output velocity in 1 is the same as the behavior of the system from 2 and 2 The choice of the regulators is working well also for the 2 d.o.f. system making each point (1 or 2) behaves similar to a single d.o.f. system.
- 13. Finally the Plate – the 3 degrees of freedom Problem ϕ 𝑚 𝑒 ; 𝐽φ ; 𝐽ϑ 1 4 3 2 Preliminary hypothesis and assumptions: • Rigid body • 4 equal actuators • Co-located control • 4 equal PID control We should see 3 resonance picks in the transfer function but, being the two mass moment of inertia really close to each other for the LEGO® plate, they are confused.
- 14. Conclusions and future developments • For the PID control tuned in the way shown no modification of the control gains (a part from N) is necessary to pass from a 1 d.o.f. problem to a 3 d.o.f. problem as long as the hypothesis are valid. • The solution found sims to have positive effect on the problem. Conclusions Future developments • A more precise theory should be carried out in order to demonstrate appropriately the effectiveness of the control found. • Introduction of non rigid body in the system. • Experimental test on the platform must be done to find the vibration modes of the structure. • Find a sensor for the purpose of the control. • Identify the real reliability of the control with low cost control board study the effects of the digitalization of the signal on the control and find if it is possible to implement in a low cost board. • Finally build the experiment and demonstrate if it works.
- 18. 𝐼 = 𝑆 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 𝑉 + 𝛹𝑆2 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 𝑋 𝑝 − 𝑋 𝑉 = − 𝑁 𝛼𝛹 ∗ 𝑆2 + 𝑅 𝐿 𝑆 + 𝐶 𝐿 𝑆 𝑆 + 𝑁 ∗ 𝑋 = − 𝑁 𝛼𝛹 ∗ 𝑆2 + 𝑅 𝐿 𝑆 + 𝐶 𝐿 𝑆 + 𝑁 ∗ 𝑋 𝑆 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 𝑉 = 𝑆 𝐿 𝑆2 + 𝑅 𝐿 𝑆 + 𝐶 𝐿 ∗ 𝑁 𝛼𝛹 ∗ 𝑆2 + 𝑅 𝐿 𝑆 + 𝐶 𝐿 𝑆 + 𝑁 = 𝑁𝑆 𝛼𝛹𝐿(𝑆 + 𝑁) 𝐼 = 𝛹𝑆2 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 𝑋 𝑝 − 𝛹𝑆2 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 + 𝑁𝑆 𝛼𝛹𝐿(𝑆 + 𝑁) 𝑋 𝛹𝑆2 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 + 𝑁𝑆 𝛼𝛹𝐿(𝑆 + 𝑁) = 𝑆 𝛼𝛹2 𝐿𝑆 𝑆 + 𝑁 + 𝑁 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 𝛼𝛹𝐿(𝑆 + 𝑁) 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 = 𝑆𝑁 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 𝛼𝛹𝐿(𝑆 + 𝑁) 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 = 𝑁𝑆 𝛼𝛹𝐿(𝑆 + 𝑁)
- 19. 𝑋 = 1 𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘 𝛹𝐼 + 𝑆𝑟 + 𝑘 𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘 𝑋 𝑝 = 𝐺 𝑥 𝛹𝐼 + 𝐺 𝑥𝑝 𝑋 𝑝 𝑋 = 𝐺 𝑥 𝛹 𝛹𝑆2 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 𝑋 𝑝 − 𝐺 𝑥 𝛹 𝑁𝑆 𝛼𝛹𝐿 𝑆 + 𝑁 𝑋 + 𝐺 𝑥𝑝 𝑋 𝑝 1 + 𝐺 𝑥 𝛹 𝑁𝑆 𝛼𝛹𝐿 𝑆 + 𝑁 𝑋 = 𝐺 𝑥 𝛹 𝛹𝑆2 𝐿𝑆2 + 𝑅𝑆 + 𝐶 + 𝐺 𝑥𝑝 𝑋 𝑝 1 + 𝐺 𝑥 𝛹 𝑁𝑆 𝛼𝛹𝐿 𝑆 + 𝑁 = 1 + 𝑆𝑁 𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘 (𝑆 + 𝑁)𝛼𝛹𝐿 𝛹 = 𝛼𝐿(𝑆 + 𝑁)(𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘) 𝛼𝐿(𝑆 + 𝑁)(𝑚 𝑒 𝑆2 + 𝑟𝑆 + 𝑘) + 𝑁𝑆