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1 
Verbeteren en Herbestemmen 
Platform bouwmaterialen & innovatie 
Zelfherstel van 
verouderende 
materialen en constructies 
Klaas van Breugel, Erik Schlangen, Henk Jonkers 
Delft University of Technology 
Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences / Materials & Environment 
30 
oktober 
2014
2 
Ageing: “The inconvenient truth” 
Time 
Performance 
• Cracking 
• Time dependent behaviour 
• Penetration of aggressive substances
3 
Why bothering about Ageing? 
 As never before, modern societies rely on technology 
 All technological artefacts are subject to ageing 
 Infrastructure makes out 50% of the country’s national wealth 
 Reliable infrastructure is crucial for a country’s mobility and economy 
 Ageing causes loss of performance 
• Loss of performance implies risk 
• Loss of performance affects the service life of our assets 
• Loss of performance implies larger ecological footprint
Architecture: The city planner 
Basic Building Blocks: Skyscrapers etc. 
New York, USA 
4 
Ageing cities
Hong Kong's Ageing Towers (German Michael 5 
Wolf) 
Ageing building 
stock
6 Chemiepark Delfzijl – photo Gouwenaar 
Ageing plants
7 
Increasing scale of chemical plants 
Rotterdam (NL), 5 refineries – Storage of hazardous chemicals 
Ageing plants
8 
November 7, 2014 8 
Donghai Bridge, Shanghai, 2005, 32.5 km 
Ageing 
infrastructure
9 
Ageing bridges 
November 7, 2014 9 
Fremont Av. S. north of Lake Street in Minneapolis. gstubbe@startribune.com
Collapse of Interstate 35W bridge, Minneap1o0lis, 2011 
Ageing 
substructure
Value of infrastructure – Global Perspective 
11 
 Global Gross National Wealth (GNW) € 180 trillion 
 Global Infrastructure (50% of GNW) € 90 trillion 
• Houses € 50 trillion 
• Civil Infrastructure € 40 trillion 
- Roads, Rail, Ports, Airports € 20 trillion 
million = 106; billion = 109; trillion = 1012
12 
Key figures – Global and per capita 
€ * 1012 k€/cap Comment 
Global Gross National Wealth 
(GNW) 
180.7 25.1 Australia: k€ 213 /cap 
China: k€ 12/cap 
Global Fixed Assets 
(50% of GNW) 
90.4 12.5 
Global civil infrastructure 40.0 5.5 Rich countries: k€ 23/cap 
Poor countries: k€ 0.14/cap 
Global civil infrastructure for 
mobility 
20.0 2.8 
Global Gross Domestic 
Product 
(GDP) 
53.4 7.4 10 rich countries: k€ 53.8 /cap 
10 poor countries: k€ 0.3 /cap 
Needed global investment in 
infrastructure per year to 
enable economic growth 
2.3 0.3 Note: the amount of k€ 0.3/cap 
per year is about the GDP/cap in 
the 10 poorest countries! 
World population: 7,2 billion
13 
Ageing of our assets 
McKinsey Global Institute (2013) 
“The world needs to spent $ 57 trillion (1012) on infrastructure in the 
next 18 years simply to keep up with projected growth” 
For The Netherlands this would mean: $ 7.4 109 per year 
“Small” underground infrastructure in The Netherlands: 
Piping (sewage, drinking water), electricity, etc:  $ 150 109 (vervangingswaarde) 
Renewal every 50 years: $ 3 109 per year. 
Actually spent in NL: $ 1.4 109 per year.
14 
The urgency of the ageing issue 
Intensive repair and 
new built of structures 
1950 1970 1990 2010 1030 2050 
100 
Intensive 
building 
activities 
Service life: 50 – 80 years 
year
Characteristics of the ageing curve 
15 
Point determined by 
•Initial quality 
•Actions/Loads 
•Maintenance 
time 
Period of ‘top level sport’ of the system 
Period of ‘rest’?
16 
What is Ageing? 
• Change of performance with elapse of time, but …… 
• Time ‘as such’ is not a “mechanism of change” 
 At atomic scale there is motion all the time 
 Gradients are driving forces of change 
 External energy required to bring basic 
building blocks to together in a material or 
system is potentially available to let the 
material or system age (entropy)
17 
Chemical plants 
Plant incidents: ≈ 50% due to ageing 
Mars study, in Horrocks et al. 2010
Balloon model 
18 
Nuclear Power Plants - Lessons 
learned 
 Existing Nuclear Power Plants 20-30 years old 
 New ageing phenomena are emerging as a 
result of more severe service conditions 
associated with increased plant performance 
(“technology-risk paradox”) 
IAEA, Report No. 62, 2009
19 
Coping with ageing – Materials 
level 
 Preventive approach 
• Avoid heterogeneity and stress concentrations 
 Reactive approach 
• Promote self-healing 
• Autonomous self-healing 
• Autogenous self-healing 
 Adaptive approach 
• Ageing unavoidable 
• Controlled ageing 
BioBeton 
Self-Healing 
asphalt
20 
Bacteria: ‘Concrete-compatible’ 
Endospore 
Alkali-resistant spore-forming 
bacteria: 
1. > 50 years viable 
2. Concrete compatible 
Endolithic communities Soda-lake communities 
Wadi Natrun, Playa, rock Egypt pH ~ 10 
H. Jonkers
Two-component self-healing agent: 
21 
1. Bacteria (catalyst) 
2. Mineral precursor compound (chemical / 'food') 
Reservoir for healing agents (bacteria + chemicals) 
Bacteria food 
H. Jonkers
November 7, 2014 22 
22 
'Bio-minerals‘, precipitated in cracks 
Thijssen 
Microlab 
CaCO3
23 
Procedure permeability testing 
Glue in ring 
To permeability setup 
Automated permeability determination 
H. Jonkers
24 
Bio-based self-healing of cracks in 
concrete 
Control concrete before healing Control concrete after healing 
Bio-concrete before healing Bio-concrete before healing 
H. Jonkers
25 
“Paviljoen Galder”, Breda 
Jonkers, Wiktor
ZOAB: zeer open asfalt beton 
(very porous asphalt concrete) 
26
27 
27 
Ravelling
28 
28 
Ravelling
Conductive fibre 
Induction 
heating 
Melted 
bitumen 
29 
Induction heating approach 
+ 
Zoom heating 
Induction 
conductive fibers bitumen 
aggregates microcack 
Opening of 
microcracks 
Crack closed 
Post-Doc: Dr. Alvaro Garcia, PhD-student: Dr. Quantao Liu
30 
Healing the test track
Procedure: 50,000 cycles loading – (heating to 85 ºC and) rest 18 hours-repeat 
31 
Multiple times healing 
– final fatigue test 
2.5E+03 
2.0E+03 
1.5E+03 
1.0E+03 
5.0E+02 
Without rest periods 
With rest periods 
With rest periods and induction heating 
0.0E+00 5.0E+04 1.0E+05 1.5E+05 2.0E+05 2.5E+05 3.0E+05 
Fatigue loading cycles 
Flexual stiffness [MPa] 
With 4 times heating, modified fatigue life is 3 times of the original fatigue life
32 
Annual savings for Dutch society - 
M€/year
Required investment for generating savings 
Global fixed capital goods 
50% of Global National Wealth 
€ 90 1012 
€ 1.8 1012 
Annual replacement cost 
of assets based on mean 
lifetime of 50 years 
Annual savings if service 
life is increased by 10%: 
€ 240 109 /year 
Required research investment 
20% of generated savings: 
€ 48 109 /year 
Investment in fundamental 
materials research: 
€ 24 109 /year 
10% of materials research 
to be spent on ageing: 
€ 2.4 109 /year 
Value of fixed assets (global) 
For Netherlands: 
€ 33 106 /year
The Delft answer to ageing 
Mechanical, Maritime and 
Materials Engineering 
34 
Südholter 
Applied sciences 
Vlugt 
Sluijs 
Civil Engineering and 
Geosciences 
Spitas 
Industrial Design 
Van Loosdrecht 
Applied sciences 
Jongbloed 
Electrical Engineering, 
Mathematics and 
Computers Sciences
35 
In summary … 
 Infrastructure is the physical “hardware” of our society 
 Ageing is, globally, a “trillion dollars issue” 
 Ageing requires a multidisciplinary approach: 
 Technology 
 Engineering 
 Science 
 Investing in a Multidisciplinary Master Plan on ageing is needed: 
 It is ecologically a must 
 It is economically justified 
 Our infrastructure is a “product of the mind” 
 Caring for our infrastructure is a matter of responsible stewardship! 
Thank 
you!
36 
Civil 
Engineering 
Applied 
Mathematics 
Materials 
Science 
at the 
TU Delft 
Aerospace 
Engineering 
Applied 
Sciences 
Architecture 
Mechanical 
Inter Engineering 
Faculty 
Reactor 
Industrial 
Design 
Delft Centre for Materials 
The Delft answer to ageing

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Verbeteren en herbestemmen final

  • 1. 1 Verbeteren en Herbestemmen Platform bouwmaterialen & innovatie Zelfherstel van verouderende materialen en constructies Klaas van Breugel, Erik Schlangen, Henk Jonkers Delft University of Technology Faculty of Civil Engineering and Geosciences / Materials & Environment 30 oktober 2014
  • 2. 2 Ageing: “The inconvenient truth” Time Performance • Cracking • Time dependent behaviour • Penetration of aggressive substances
  • 3. 3 Why bothering about Ageing?  As never before, modern societies rely on technology  All technological artefacts are subject to ageing  Infrastructure makes out 50% of the country’s national wealth  Reliable infrastructure is crucial for a country’s mobility and economy  Ageing causes loss of performance • Loss of performance implies risk • Loss of performance affects the service life of our assets • Loss of performance implies larger ecological footprint
  • 4. Architecture: The city planner Basic Building Blocks: Skyscrapers etc. New York, USA 4 Ageing cities
  • 5. Hong Kong's Ageing Towers (German Michael 5 Wolf) Ageing building stock
  • 6. 6 Chemiepark Delfzijl – photo Gouwenaar Ageing plants
  • 7. 7 Increasing scale of chemical plants Rotterdam (NL), 5 refineries – Storage of hazardous chemicals Ageing plants
  • 8. 8 November 7, 2014 8 Donghai Bridge, Shanghai, 2005, 32.5 km Ageing infrastructure
  • 9. 9 Ageing bridges November 7, 2014 9 Fremont Av. S. north of Lake Street in Minneapolis. gstubbe@startribune.com
  • 10. Collapse of Interstate 35W bridge, Minneap1o0lis, 2011 Ageing substructure
  • 11. Value of infrastructure – Global Perspective 11  Global Gross National Wealth (GNW) € 180 trillion  Global Infrastructure (50% of GNW) € 90 trillion • Houses € 50 trillion • Civil Infrastructure € 40 trillion - Roads, Rail, Ports, Airports € 20 trillion million = 106; billion = 109; trillion = 1012
  • 12. 12 Key figures – Global and per capita € * 1012 k€/cap Comment Global Gross National Wealth (GNW) 180.7 25.1 Australia: k€ 213 /cap China: k€ 12/cap Global Fixed Assets (50% of GNW) 90.4 12.5 Global civil infrastructure 40.0 5.5 Rich countries: k€ 23/cap Poor countries: k€ 0.14/cap Global civil infrastructure for mobility 20.0 2.8 Global Gross Domestic Product (GDP) 53.4 7.4 10 rich countries: k€ 53.8 /cap 10 poor countries: k€ 0.3 /cap Needed global investment in infrastructure per year to enable economic growth 2.3 0.3 Note: the amount of k€ 0.3/cap per year is about the GDP/cap in the 10 poorest countries! World population: 7,2 billion
  • 13. 13 Ageing of our assets McKinsey Global Institute (2013) “The world needs to spent $ 57 trillion (1012) on infrastructure in the next 18 years simply to keep up with projected growth” For The Netherlands this would mean: $ 7.4 109 per year “Small” underground infrastructure in The Netherlands: Piping (sewage, drinking water), electricity, etc: $ 150 109 (vervangingswaarde) Renewal every 50 years: $ 3 109 per year. Actually spent in NL: $ 1.4 109 per year.
  • 14. 14 The urgency of the ageing issue Intensive repair and new built of structures 1950 1970 1990 2010 1030 2050 100 Intensive building activities Service life: 50 – 80 years year
  • 15. Characteristics of the ageing curve 15 Point determined by •Initial quality •Actions/Loads •Maintenance time Period of ‘top level sport’ of the system Period of ‘rest’?
  • 16. 16 What is Ageing? • Change of performance with elapse of time, but …… • Time ‘as such’ is not a “mechanism of change”  At atomic scale there is motion all the time  Gradients are driving forces of change  External energy required to bring basic building blocks to together in a material or system is potentially available to let the material or system age (entropy)
  • 17. 17 Chemical plants Plant incidents: ≈ 50% due to ageing Mars study, in Horrocks et al. 2010
  • 18. Balloon model 18 Nuclear Power Plants - Lessons learned  Existing Nuclear Power Plants 20-30 years old  New ageing phenomena are emerging as a result of more severe service conditions associated with increased plant performance (“technology-risk paradox”) IAEA, Report No. 62, 2009
  • 19. 19 Coping with ageing – Materials level  Preventive approach • Avoid heterogeneity and stress concentrations  Reactive approach • Promote self-healing • Autonomous self-healing • Autogenous self-healing  Adaptive approach • Ageing unavoidable • Controlled ageing BioBeton Self-Healing asphalt
  • 20. 20 Bacteria: ‘Concrete-compatible’ Endospore Alkali-resistant spore-forming bacteria: 1. > 50 years viable 2. Concrete compatible Endolithic communities Soda-lake communities Wadi Natrun, Playa, rock Egypt pH ~ 10 H. Jonkers
  • 21. Two-component self-healing agent: 21 1. Bacteria (catalyst) 2. Mineral precursor compound (chemical / 'food') Reservoir for healing agents (bacteria + chemicals) Bacteria food H. Jonkers
  • 22. November 7, 2014 22 22 'Bio-minerals‘, precipitated in cracks Thijssen Microlab CaCO3
  • 23. 23 Procedure permeability testing Glue in ring To permeability setup Automated permeability determination H. Jonkers
  • 24. 24 Bio-based self-healing of cracks in concrete Control concrete before healing Control concrete after healing Bio-concrete before healing Bio-concrete before healing H. Jonkers
  • 25. 25 “Paviljoen Galder”, Breda Jonkers, Wiktor
  • 26. ZOAB: zeer open asfalt beton (very porous asphalt concrete) 26
  • 29. Conductive fibre Induction heating Melted bitumen 29 Induction heating approach + Zoom heating Induction conductive fibers bitumen aggregates microcack Opening of microcracks Crack closed Post-Doc: Dr. Alvaro Garcia, PhD-student: Dr. Quantao Liu
  • 30. 30 Healing the test track
  • 31. Procedure: 50,000 cycles loading – (heating to 85 ºC and) rest 18 hours-repeat 31 Multiple times healing – final fatigue test 2.5E+03 2.0E+03 1.5E+03 1.0E+03 5.0E+02 Without rest periods With rest periods With rest periods and induction heating 0.0E+00 5.0E+04 1.0E+05 1.5E+05 2.0E+05 2.5E+05 3.0E+05 Fatigue loading cycles Flexual stiffness [MPa] With 4 times heating, modified fatigue life is 3 times of the original fatigue life
  • 32. 32 Annual savings for Dutch society - M€/year
  • 33. Required investment for generating savings Global fixed capital goods 50% of Global National Wealth € 90 1012 € 1.8 1012 Annual replacement cost of assets based on mean lifetime of 50 years Annual savings if service life is increased by 10%: € 240 109 /year Required research investment 20% of generated savings: € 48 109 /year Investment in fundamental materials research: € 24 109 /year 10% of materials research to be spent on ageing: € 2.4 109 /year Value of fixed assets (global) For Netherlands: € 33 106 /year
  • 34. The Delft answer to ageing Mechanical, Maritime and Materials Engineering 34 Südholter Applied sciences Vlugt Sluijs Civil Engineering and Geosciences Spitas Industrial Design Van Loosdrecht Applied sciences Jongbloed Electrical Engineering, Mathematics and Computers Sciences
  • 35. 35 In summary …  Infrastructure is the physical “hardware” of our society  Ageing is, globally, a “trillion dollars issue”  Ageing requires a multidisciplinary approach:  Technology  Engineering  Science  Investing in a Multidisciplinary Master Plan on ageing is needed:  It is ecologically a must  It is economically justified  Our infrastructure is a “product of the mind”  Caring for our infrastructure is a matter of responsible stewardship! Thank you!
  • 36. 36 Civil Engineering Applied Mathematics Materials Science at the TU Delft Aerospace Engineering Applied Sciences Architecture Mechanical Inter Engineering Faculty Reactor Industrial Design Delft Centre for Materials The Delft answer to ageing