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VENOUS DRAINAGE
OF UPPER LIMB
DR SANA YASEEN
ANATOMY DEPARTMENT
LCMD
◦ The venous system of the
upper limb drains
deoxygenated blood from the
arm, forearm and hand.
◦ It is subdivided into;
◦ superficial system
◦ deep system.
Superficial Veins
◦ The major superficial veins of the upper
limb are;
◦ cephalic vein
◦ basilic veins.
◦ Dorsal venous arch
◦ Median cubital vein
◦ Median vein of forearm
◦ They are located within the subcutaneous
tissue of the upper limb.
◦ Cephalic vein is longer than basilic vein
What is dorsal venous arch?
◦ Is a venous system arch lying in the
subcutaneous tissue proximal to
metacarpopharyngeal joints.
Afferents:
◦ 3 dorsol metacarpal veins
◦ 1 dorsal degital vein medial side of the finger
◦ 1 dorsal digital vein lateral side of index finger
◦ 2 dorsal digital vein of thumb
◦ Arch drains into cephalic vein on its lateral side
and into basilic vein in its medial side.
Basilic Vein
◦ The basilic vein originates from the dorsal
venous network of the hand and ascends
the medial aspect of the upper limb.
◦ Along the back of medial border of
winds around the medial border near the
elbow.
◦ Continues upward infront of the elbow
(medial epicondyle) along the medial
margin of the bicep brachii up to the
middle of the arm where
◦ It pierces the deep fascia
◦ Runs along the medial side of the brachial
artery up to the lower border of teres
major.
◦ Here, it combines with the brachial veins
from the deep venous system to form the
axillary vein.
Cephalic Vein
◦ The cephalic vein also arises from the dorsal venous
network of the hand. It ascends the antero-lateral aspect
the upper limb, passing anteriorly at the elbow.
◦ Runs upward through roof of the anatomical snuff box
◦ Winds around lateral border of the distal part of the
forearm.
◦ Continues upward infront of the elbow and along the
lateral border of the bicep brachii
◦ Pirces the deep fascia at the lower border of the pec
muscle.
◦ Runs in the deltopectoral groove between the pec major
and deltoid muscle up to the infraclavicular foosa
◦ Where it pierces the clavipectoral fascia and joins the
axillary vein.
◦ The cephalic and basilic veins are connected at the elbow
by the median cubital vein.
◦ Load of cephalic vein
is reduced by basilic
vein through median
cubital vein and
partialy from
perforating veins.
MEDIAN CUBITAL VEIN
◦ Is large communicating vein which shunt
the blood from cephalic to basilic vein.
◦ Begins: cephalic 2.5cm below the bend
of elbow
◦ End: basilic 2.5cm above medial
epicondyle
◦ It is connected to deep vein through
perforators
◦ These perforators fixes the vein and thus
makes it an ideal site for intravenous
injections
MEDIAN VEIN OF FOREARM
◦ Begins from
venous network in
the palm ends up
in one of the vein
in front of the
elbow.
◦ Sometimes it
divides into
median cephalic
and median basilic
vein which joins
respective veins.
DEEP VEINS
◦ The deep venous system of the upper limb is
situated underneath the deep fascia. It is
formed by paired veins, which accompany and
lie either side of an artery. In the upper
extremity, the deep veins share the name of
the artery they accompany.
◦ The brachial veins are the largest in size, and
are situated either side of the brachial artery.
The pulsations of the brachial artery assist the
venous return. Veins that are structured in this
way are known as vena comitantes.
◦ Perforating veins run between the deep and
superficial veins of the upper limb, connecting
the two systems.
◦ Venae comitantes of radial and
ulnar vein join to form brachial
vein on either side of the
brachial artery.
◦ Brachial veins join bacilic vein to
form axillary vein. It
accompanies the axillary artery.
◦ Its first part recieves cephalic
vein.
CLINICAL ANATOMY
◦ Median cubital vein is the vein of choice for IV injections
◦ Median cubital vein is use to draw the blood
Reason:
◦ Fixed by perforators
◦ Doesnt slip during piercing
Venous drainage of upper limb

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Venous drainage of upper limb

  • 1. VENOUS DRAINAGE OF UPPER LIMB DR SANA YASEEN ANATOMY DEPARTMENT LCMD
  • 2. ◦ The venous system of the upper limb drains deoxygenated blood from the arm, forearm and hand. ◦ It is subdivided into; ◦ superficial system ◦ deep system.
  • 3. Superficial Veins ◦ The major superficial veins of the upper limb are; ◦ cephalic vein ◦ basilic veins. ◦ Dorsal venous arch ◦ Median cubital vein ◦ Median vein of forearm ◦ They are located within the subcutaneous tissue of the upper limb. ◦ Cephalic vein is longer than basilic vein
  • 4. What is dorsal venous arch? ◦ Is a venous system arch lying in the subcutaneous tissue proximal to metacarpopharyngeal joints. Afferents: ◦ 3 dorsol metacarpal veins ◦ 1 dorsal degital vein medial side of the finger ◦ 1 dorsal digital vein lateral side of index finger ◦ 2 dorsal digital vein of thumb ◦ Arch drains into cephalic vein on its lateral side and into basilic vein in its medial side.
  • 5. Basilic Vein ◦ The basilic vein originates from the dorsal venous network of the hand and ascends the medial aspect of the upper limb. ◦ Along the back of medial border of winds around the medial border near the elbow. ◦ Continues upward infront of the elbow (medial epicondyle) along the medial margin of the bicep brachii up to the middle of the arm where ◦ It pierces the deep fascia ◦ Runs along the medial side of the brachial artery up to the lower border of teres major. ◦ Here, it combines with the brachial veins from the deep venous system to form the axillary vein.
  • 6. Cephalic Vein ◦ The cephalic vein also arises from the dorsal venous network of the hand. It ascends the antero-lateral aspect the upper limb, passing anteriorly at the elbow. ◦ Runs upward through roof of the anatomical snuff box ◦ Winds around lateral border of the distal part of the forearm. ◦ Continues upward infront of the elbow and along the lateral border of the bicep brachii ◦ Pirces the deep fascia at the lower border of the pec muscle. ◦ Runs in the deltopectoral groove between the pec major and deltoid muscle up to the infraclavicular foosa ◦ Where it pierces the clavipectoral fascia and joins the axillary vein. ◦ The cephalic and basilic veins are connected at the elbow by the median cubital vein.
  • 7. ◦ Load of cephalic vein is reduced by basilic vein through median cubital vein and partialy from perforating veins.
  • 8. MEDIAN CUBITAL VEIN ◦ Is large communicating vein which shunt the blood from cephalic to basilic vein. ◦ Begins: cephalic 2.5cm below the bend of elbow ◦ End: basilic 2.5cm above medial epicondyle ◦ It is connected to deep vein through perforators ◦ These perforators fixes the vein and thus makes it an ideal site for intravenous injections
  • 9. MEDIAN VEIN OF FOREARM ◦ Begins from venous network in the palm ends up in one of the vein in front of the elbow. ◦ Sometimes it divides into median cephalic and median basilic vein which joins respective veins.
  • 10. DEEP VEINS ◦ The deep venous system of the upper limb is situated underneath the deep fascia. It is formed by paired veins, which accompany and lie either side of an artery. In the upper extremity, the deep veins share the name of the artery they accompany. ◦ The brachial veins are the largest in size, and are situated either side of the brachial artery. The pulsations of the brachial artery assist the venous return. Veins that are structured in this way are known as vena comitantes. ◦ Perforating veins run between the deep and superficial veins of the upper limb, connecting the two systems.
  • 11. ◦ Venae comitantes of radial and ulnar vein join to form brachial vein on either side of the brachial artery. ◦ Brachial veins join bacilic vein to form axillary vein. It accompanies the axillary artery. ◦ Its first part recieves cephalic vein.
  • 12. CLINICAL ANATOMY ◦ Median cubital vein is the vein of choice for IV injections ◦ Median cubital vein is use to draw the blood Reason: ◦ Fixed by perforators ◦ Doesnt slip during piercing