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Mohammad Asim
+919953194659
Vaccine delivery system
A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A
vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often
made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent
stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and to further
recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that it may encounter in
the future. Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a
future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against cancer are being
investigated).
The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccination is the most effective method of
preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for
the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles,
and tetanus from much of the world. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and
verified; for example, the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. The World
Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently available for twenty-five
different preventable infections.
The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term
devised by Edward Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 in the long title of his Inquiry into the
Variolae vaccinae known as the Cow Pox, in which he described the protective effect of cowpox
against smallpox. In 1881, to honour Jenner, Louis Pasteur proposed that the terms should be
extended to cover the new protective inoculations then being developed.
Vaccines have historically been the most effective means to fight and eradicate infectious diseases.
Limitations to their effectiveness, nevertheless, exist. Sometimes, protection fails because the host's
immune system simply does not respond adequately or at all. Lack of response commonly results from
clinical factors such as diabetes, steroid use, HIV infection or age. It also might fail for genetic reasons
if the host's immune system includes no strains of B cells that can generate antibodies suited to
reacting effectively and binding to the antigens associated with the pathogen.
Even if the host does develop antibodies, protection might not be adequate; immunity might develop
too slowly to be effective in time, the antibodies might not disable the pathogen completely, or there
might be multiple strains of the pathogen, not all of which are equally susceptible to the immune
reaction. However, even a partial, late, or weak immunity, such as a one resulting from cross-immunity
to a strain other than the target strain, may mitigate an infection, resulting in a lower mortality rate,
lower morbidity, and faster recovery.
Adjuvants commonly are used to boost immune response, particularly for older people (50–75 years
and up), whose immune response to a simple vaccine may have weakened.
The efficacy or performance of the vaccine is dependent on a number of factors:
 the disease itself (for some diseases vaccination performs better than for others)
 the strain of vaccine (some vaccines are specific to, or at least most effective against, particular
strains of the disease)
 whether the vaccination schedule has been properly observed.
 idiosyncratic response to vaccination; some individuals are "non-responders" to certain vaccines,
meaning that they do not generate antibodies even after being vaccinated correctly.
 assorted factors such as ethnicity, age, or genetic predisposition.
If a vaccinated individual does develop the disease vaccinated against (breakthrough infection), the
disease is likely to be less virulent than in unvaccinated victims.
The following are important considerations in the effectiveness of a vaccination program:
Mohammad Asim
+919953194659
1. careful modelling to anticipate the effect that an immunization campaign will have on the
epidemiology of the disease in the medium to long term
2. ongoing surveillance for the relevant disease following introduction of a new vaccine
3. maintenance of high immunization rates, even when a disease has become rare.
In 1958, there were 763,094 cases of measles in the United States; 552 deaths resulted. After the
introduction of new vaccines, the number of cases dropped to fewer than 150 per year (median of
56). In early 2008, there were 64 suspected cases of measles. Fifty-four of those infections were
associated with importation from another country, although only 13% were actually acquired outside
the United States; 63 of the 64 individuals either had never been vaccinated against measles or were
uncertain whether they had been vaccinated.
Vaccines have contributed to the eradication of smallpox, one of the most contagious and deadly
diseases in humans. Other diseases such as rubella, polio, measles, mumps, chickenpox,
and typhoid are nowhere near as common as they were a hundred years ago. As long as the vast
majority of people are vaccinated, it is much more difficult for an outbreak of disease to occur, let alone
spread. This effect is called herd immunity. Polio, which is transmitted only between humans, is
targeted by an extensive campaignthat has seen endemic polio restricted to only parts of three
countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan). However, the difficulty of reaching all children as well
as cultural misunderstandings have caused the anticipated eradication date to be missed several
times.
Vaccines also help prevent the development of antibiotic resistance. For example, by greatly reducing
the incidence of pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, vaccine programs have greatly
reduced the prevalence of infections resistant to penicillin or other first-line antibiotics.
Adverse effects
Vaccination given during childhood is generally safe. Adverse effects if any are generally mild. The
rate of side effects depends on the vaccine in question. Some common side effects include fever, pain
around the injection site, and muscle aches. Additionally, some individuals may be allergic to
ingredients in the vaccine. MMR vaccine is rarely associated with febrile seizures.
Severe side effects are extremely rare. Varicella vaccine is rarely associated with complications
in immunodeficient individuals and rotavirus vaccines are moderately associated with intussusception.
Types
Vaccines are dead or inactivated organisms or purified products derived from them.
There are several types of vaccines in use. These represent different strategies used to try to reduce
the risk of illness while retaining the ability to induce a beneficial immune response.
Inactivated Vaccine
Some vaccines contain inactivated, but previously virulent, micro-organisms that have been destroyed
with chemicals, heat, or radiation. Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies
vaccine and some influenza vaccines.
Attenuated Vaccine
Some vaccines contain live, attenuated microorganisms. Many of these are active viruses that have
been cultivated under conditions that disable their virulent properties, or that use closely related but
less dangerous organisms to produce a broad immune response. Although most attenuated vaccines
are viral, some are bacterial in nature. Examples include the viral diseases yellow
fever, measles, mumps, and rubella, and the bacterial disease typhoid. The
live Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine developed by Calmette and Guérin is not made of
a contagious strain but contains a virulently modified strain called "BCG" used to elicit an immune
response to the vaccine. The live attenuated vaccine containing strain Yersinia pestis EV is used for
Mohammad Asim
+919953194659
plague immunization. Attenuated vaccines have some advantages and disadvantages. They typically
provoke more durable immunological responses and are the preferred type for healthy adults. But they
may not be safe for use in immunocompromised individuals, and on rare occasions mutate to a virulent
form and cause disease.
Toxoid
Toxoid vaccines are made from inactivated toxic compounds that cause illness rather than the micro-
organism. Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria. Toxoid vaccines are
known for their efficacy. Not all toxoids are for micro-organisms; for example, Crotalus atrox toxoid is
used to vaccinate dogs against rattlesnake bites.
Subunit
Protein subunit – rather than introducing an inactivated or attenuated micro-organism to an immune
system (which would constitute a "whole-agent" vaccine), a fragment of it can create an immune
response. Examples include the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus that is composed of only the
surface proteins of the virus (previously extracted from the blood serum of chronically infected patients,
but now produced by recombination of the viral genes into yeast) or as an edible algae vaccine,
the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) that is composed of the viral
major capsid protein, and the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunits of the influenza virus.
Subunit vaccine is being used for plague immunization.
Conjugate
Conjugate – certain bacteria have polysaccharide outer coats that are poorly immunogenic. By linking
these outer coats to proteins (e.g., toxins), the immune system can be led to recognize the
polysaccharide as if it were a protein antigen. This approach is used in the Haemophilus
influenzae type B vaccine.

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Vaccine Delivery System

  • 1. Mohammad Asim +919953194659 Vaccine delivery system A vaccine is a biological preparation that provides active acquired immunity to a particular disease. A vaccine typically contains an agent that resembles a disease-causing microorganism and is often made from weakened or killed forms of the microbe, its toxins, or one of its surface proteins. The agent stimulates the body's immune system to recognize the agent as a threat, destroy it, and to further recognize and destroy any of the microorganisms associated with that agent that it may encounter in the future. Vaccines can be prophylactic (example: to prevent or ameliorate the effects of a future infection by a natural or "wild" pathogen), or therapeutic (e.g., vaccines against cancer are being investigated). The administration of vaccines is called vaccination. Vaccination is the most effective method of preventing infectious diseases; widespread immunity due to vaccination is largely responsible for the worldwide eradication of smallpox and the restriction of diseases such as polio, measles, and tetanus from much of the world. The effectiveness of vaccination has been widely studied and verified; for example, the influenza vaccine, the HPV vaccine, and the chicken pox vaccine. The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that licensed vaccines are currently available for twenty-five different preventable infections. The terms vaccine and vaccination are derived from Variolae vaccinae (smallpox of the cow), the term devised by Edward Jenner to denote cowpox. He used it in 1798 in the long title of his Inquiry into the Variolae vaccinae known as the Cow Pox, in which he described the protective effect of cowpox against smallpox. In 1881, to honour Jenner, Louis Pasteur proposed that the terms should be extended to cover the new protective inoculations then being developed. Vaccines have historically been the most effective means to fight and eradicate infectious diseases. Limitations to their effectiveness, nevertheless, exist. Sometimes, protection fails because the host's immune system simply does not respond adequately or at all. Lack of response commonly results from clinical factors such as diabetes, steroid use, HIV infection or age. It also might fail for genetic reasons if the host's immune system includes no strains of B cells that can generate antibodies suited to reacting effectively and binding to the antigens associated with the pathogen. Even if the host does develop antibodies, protection might not be adequate; immunity might develop too slowly to be effective in time, the antibodies might not disable the pathogen completely, or there might be multiple strains of the pathogen, not all of which are equally susceptible to the immune reaction. However, even a partial, late, or weak immunity, such as a one resulting from cross-immunity to a strain other than the target strain, may mitigate an infection, resulting in a lower mortality rate, lower morbidity, and faster recovery. Adjuvants commonly are used to boost immune response, particularly for older people (50–75 years and up), whose immune response to a simple vaccine may have weakened. The efficacy or performance of the vaccine is dependent on a number of factors:  the disease itself (for some diseases vaccination performs better than for others)  the strain of vaccine (some vaccines are specific to, or at least most effective against, particular strains of the disease)  whether the vaccination schedule has been properly observed.  idiosyncratic response to vaccination; some individuals are "non-responders" to certain vaccines, meaning that they do not generate antibodies even after being vaccinated correctly.  assorted factors such as ethnicity, age, or genetic predisposition. If a vaccinated individual does develop the disease vaccinated against (breakthrough infection), the disease is likely to be less virulent than in unvaccinated victims. The following are important considerations in the effectiveness of a vaccination program:
  • 2. Mohammad Asim +919953194659 1. careful modelling to anticipate the effect that an immunization campaign will have on the epidemiology of the disease in the medium to long term 2. ongoing surveillance for the relevant disease following introduction of a new vaccine 3. maintenance of high immunization rates, even when a disease has become rare. In 1958, there were 763,094 cases of measles in the United States; 552 deaths resulted. After the introduction of new vaccines, the number of cases dropped to fewer than 150 per year (median of 56). In early 2008, there were 64 suspected cases of measles. Fifty-four of those infections were associated with importation from another country, although only 13% were actually acquired outside the United States; 63 of the 64 individuals either had never been vaccinated against measles or were uncertain whether they had been vaccinated. Vaccines have contributed to the eradication of smallpox, one of the most contagious and deadly diseases in humans. Other diseases such as rubella, polio, measles, mumps, chickenpox, and typhoid are nowhere near as common as they were a hundred years ago. As long as the vast majority of people are vaccinated, it is much more difficult for an outbreak of disease to occur, let alone spread. This effect is called herd immunity. Polio, which is transmitted only between humans, is targeted by an extensive campaignthat has seen endemic polio restricted to only parts of three countries (Afghanistan, Nigeria, and Pakistan). However, the difficulty of reaching all children as well as cultural misunderstandings have caused the anticipated eradication date to be missed several times. Vaccines also help prevent the development of antibiotic resistance. For example, by greatly reducing the incidence of pneumonia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, vaccine programs have greatly reduced the prevalence of infections resistant to penicillin or other first-line antibiotics. Adverse effects Vaccination given during childhood is generally safe. Adverse effects if any are generally mild. The rate of side effects depends on the vaccine in question. Some common side effects include fever, pain around the injection site, and muscle aches. Additionally, some individuals may be allergic to ingredients in the vaccine. MMR vaccine is rarely associated with febrile seizures. Severe side effects are extremely rare. Varicella vaccine is rarely associated with complications in immunodeficient individuals and rotavirus vaccines are moderately associated with intussusception. Types Vaccines are dead or inactivated organisms or purified products derived from them. There are several types of vaccines in use. These represent different strategies used to try to reduce the risk of illness while retaining the ability to induce a beneficial immune response. Inactivated Vaccine Some vaccines contain inactivated, but previously virulent, micro-organisms that have been destroyed with chemicals, heat, or radiation. Examples include the polio vaccine, hepatitis A vaccine, rabies vaccine and some influenza vaccines. Attenuated Vaccine Some vaccines contain live, attenuated microorganisms. Many of these are active viruses that have been cultivated under conditions that disable their virulent properties, or that use closely related but less dangerous organisms to produce a broad immune response. Although most attenuated vaccines are viral, some are bacterial in nature. Examples include the viral diseases yellow fever, measles, mumps, and rubella, and the bacterial disease typhoid. The live Mycobacterium tuberculosis vaccine developed by Calmette and Guérin is not made of a contagious strain but contains a virulently modified strain called "BCG" used to elicit an immune response to the vaccine. The live attenuated vaccine containing strain Yersinia pestis EV is used for
  • 3. Mohammad Asim +919953194659 plague immunization. Attenuated vaccines have some advantages and disadvantages. They typically provoke more durable immunological responses and are the preferred type for healthy adults. But they may not be safe for use in immunocompromised individuals, and on rare occasions mutate to a virulent form and cause disease. Toxoid Toxoid vaccines are made from inactivated toxic compounds that cause illness rather than the micro- organism. Examples of toxoid-based vaccines include tetanus and diphtheria. Toxoid vaccines are known for their efficacy. Not all toxoids are for micro-organisms; for example, Crotalus atrox toxoid is used to vaccinate dogs against rattlesnake bites. Subunit Protein subunit – rather than introducing an inactivated or attenuated micro-organism to an immune system (which would constitute a "whole-agent" vaccine), a fragment of it can create an immune response. Examples include the subunit vaccine against Hepatitis B virus that is composed of only the surface proteins of the virus (previously extracted from the blood serum of chronically infected patients, but now produced by recombination of the viral genes into yeast) or as an edible algae vaccine, the virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine against human papillomavirus (HPV) that is composed of the viral major capsid protein, and the hemagglutinin and neuraminidase subunits of the influenza virus. Subunit vaccine is being used for plague immunization. Conjugate Conjugate – certain bacteria have polysaccharide outer coats that are poorly immunogenic. By linking these outer coats to proteins (e.g., toxins), the immune system can be led to recognize the polysaccharide as if it were a protein antigen. This approach is used in the Haemophilus influenzae type B vaccine.