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This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020
research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 869993.
Uses and
advantages of
crystallization
Salt
• Crystallization of salt is probably
the oldest unit operation
known to mankind.
• On the coastal areas, the salt
was crystallized in large open
ponds, called salines.
• Nowadays salt is crystallized in
industrial continuous vacuum
crystallizers to guarantee faster
process and higher purity.
Sugar
• Sugar is extracted from plants
and then crystallized to reach a
specific particle size distribution,
typically in the range of 700-800
µm.
• Crystallization of sugar is a serial
process and it usually has three
crystallization steps A, B and C.
• Crystals and mother liquor are
separated in centrifuges.
• Overall recovery of sugar from
cane juice is 70-80 %.
Chocolate
• Cocoa fat is one of the main
components of chocolate.
• The cocoa fat need to be
crystallized to achieve the
special mouth taste of
chocolate.
• This certain crystal
modification is unstable
at room temperature and it is
achieved via melt
crystallization.
Pharmaceuticals
• Crystallization has a major role
in almost all processes in the
manufacturing of
pharmaceuticals.
• Crystallization is needed
in purification, separation and
formation of the product.
• In pharmaceuticals,
the maximum purity is often
needed, which sets extra
requirements for the processes.
Paper industry
• Many fillers and pigments used in
the paper industry are produced by
precipitation.
• For example, precipitated
calcium carbonate (PCC)
is prepared from calcium oxide by
precipitation.
• Particle size, particle size distribution
and particle morphology may have
significant influences on the
properties of the fillers and pigments.
Wastewater
treatment
• Crystallization is an effective
purification method in
wastewater treatment in the
industry.
• By freezing the wastewater at
low rate, extremely pure ice
crystals are formed.
• Those crystals can then
be transferred into pure water.
• No other treatment is needed to
purposes like process or cooling
water.
Other applications
• Crystallization has numerous other applications.
• One everyday life example is an orange juice
concentrate.
• Water has been freezed out to reduce the
volume. The process is called freeze
concentration.
• Crystallization can also be used in different
separation and purification processes that
would be difficult or expensive to carry out with
other methods.
Purification via crystallization
• Crystals with high purity are formed and impurities remain in the solution.
• The process can be repeated to get even purer product.
Advantages
• Crystallization may have many
advantages compared to alternative
processes:
• High purification in a single step
• Could be more economic than
alternative separation processes
• Lower temperatures make the
process safer.
• Lower energy requirements
compared to distillation
This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020
research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 869993.
References
Beckmann, W (ed.) 2013. Crystallization: Basic Concepts and Industrial Applications. Weinheim:
Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. pp. 1-5.
Singh, P. R. & Clarke, M. A. 2019. Sugar. Encyclopedia Britannica. Available at:
https://www.britannica.com/science/sugar-chemical-compound (Accessed: 4 December 2020)
Hullin, N. J. 2011. Crystallization. Available at: http://thermopedia.com/content/679/
Negi, B. 2012. Crystallization in the pharmaceutical industry. Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs.
India. Available at: https://www.hilarispublisher.com/conference-abstracts-files/2167-
7689_S1.008_008.pdf (Accessed: 15 July 2020)
Videos:
• Understanding recrystallization: https://youtu.be/04HWovMzkAk
• Recrystallization demonstration: https://youtu.be/Q1nKbx05IbM

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Uses and advantages of crystallization

  • 1. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 869993. Uses and advantages of crystallization
  • 2. Salt • Crystallization of salt is probably the oldest unit operation known to mankind. • On the coastal areas, the salt was crystallized in large open ponds, called salines. • Nowadays salt is crystallized in industrial continuous vacuum crystallizers to guarantee faster process and higher purity.
  • 3. Sugar • Sugar is extracted from plants and then crystallized to reach a specific particle size distribution, typically in the range of 700-800 µm. • Crystallization of sugar is a serial process and it usually has three crystallization steps A, B and C. • Crystals and mother liquor are separated in centrifuges. • Overall recovery of sugar from cane juice is 70-80 %.
  • 4. Chocolate • Cocoa fat is one of the main components of chocolate. • The cocoa fat need to be crystallized to achieve the special mouth taste of chocolate. • This certain crystal modification is unstable at room temperature and it is achieved via melt crystallization.
  • 5. Pharmaceuticals • Crystallization has a major role in almost all processes in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals. • Crystallization is needed in purification, separation and formation of the product. • In pharmaceuticals, the maximum purity is often needed, which sets extra requirements for the processes.
  • 6. Paper industry • Many fillers and pigments used in the paper industry are produced by precipitation. • For example, precipitated calcium carbonate (PCC) is prepared from calcium oxide by precipitation. • Particle size, particle size distribution and particle morphology may have significant influences on the properties of the fillers and pigments.
  • 7. Wastewater treatment • Crystallization is an effective purification method in wastewater treatment in the industry. • By freezing the wastewater at low rate, extremely pure ice crystals are formed. • Those crystals can then be transferred into pure water. • No other treatment is needed to purposes like process or cooling water.
  • 8. Other applications • Crystallization has numerous other applications. • One everyday life example is an orange juice concentrate. • Water has been freezed out to reduce the volume. The process is called freeze concentration. • Crystallization can also be used in different separation and purification processes that would be difficult or expensive to carry out with other methods.
  • 9. Purification via crystallization • Crystals with high purity are formed and impurities remain in the solution. • The process can be repeated to get even purer product.
  • 10. Advantages • Crystallization may have many advantages compared to alternative processes: • High purification in a single step • Could be more economic than alternative separation processes • Lower temperatures make the process safer. • Lower energy requirements compared to distillation
  • 11. This project has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 research and innovation programme under grant agreement No 869993. References Beckmann, W (ed.) 2013. Crystallization: Basic Concepts and Industrial Applications. Weinheim: Wiley‐VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA. pp. 1-5. Singh, P. R. & Clarke, M. A. 2019. Sugar. Encyclopedia Britannica. Available at: https://www.britannica.com/science/sugar-chemical-compound (Accessed: 4 December 2020) Hullin, N. J. 2011. Crystallization. Available at: http://thermopedia.com/content/679/ Negi, B. 2012. Crystallization in the pharmaceutical industry. Pharmaceutical Regulatory Affairs. India. Available at: https://www.hilarispublisher.com/conference-abstracts-files/2167- 7689_S1.008_008.pdf (Accessed: 15 July 2020) Videos: • Understanding recrystallization: https://youtu.be/04HWovMzkAk • Recrystallization demonstration: https://youtu.be/Q1nKbx05IbM