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INTRODUCTION
In the hot, dusty stretches of the Thar Desert, Jodhpur may appear more vision than city. Its mighty fortress grows right out of a mountain,
over 400 feet straight up from the scrubby plain. At its base, a wash of buildings echoes the sky by day and lights up with blue pinpricks at
night. It’s hard to conceive of mere mortals creating this place.
Understanding Jodhpur requires diving into the streetside currents of cobalt. The shades not only mitigate blazing heat, they also
compliment green plants and jewel-toned saris, providing a respite from the bazaars’ chaos. Over the course of several days, we alternated
between Jodhpur’s monumental architecture and the everyday world of its blue walls and breezy rooftops.
HISTORICAL BACKGROUND
Jodhpur city was founded in 1459 by Rao Jodha, a Rajput chief of the Rathore clan. Jodha succeeded in conquering the surrounding territory
from the Delhi Sultanate and thus founded a kingdom that came to be known as Marwar. As Jodha hailed from the nearby town of Mandore,
that town initially served as the capital of this state; however, Jodhpur soon took over that role, even during the lifetime of Jodha. The city
was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat. This enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, copper, silk, sandalwood,
dates, and other tradeable goods.
ORIENTATION
Unlike other parts of the Thar Desert, the area around Jodhpur features dry dirt and rock instead of sand – more dust than dune. One might
wonder why anyone would choose to settle where temperatures exceed 90˚F (32˚C) for nine months a year. Some of the world’s oldest
settlements nearby give civilization here extremely deep roots – with thousands of years to develop water and climate management
techniques. The city of Jodhpur wasn’t officially founded until 1459, but the spot already formed part of a major trade route between Delhi
and the Arabian Sea.
Although it’s usually possible to spot Mehrangarh Fort’s looming presence, Jodhpur makes it easy for visitors to get lost. The old city sprawls
on and on in a snarl of lanes; random twists and ill-defined streets make following maps absurd, while the ubiquitous motorbikes and cows
keep traffic lively.
BASIC PLANNING CONCEPT:
• The walled city of Jodhpur is sited on a natural sloping ground, where the undulating terrains end and the plains begin.
• The walled city is fenced by 10 km long wall with eight Gates leading out of it. The entire region on the north and north-west, due to the
topography, is difficult for habitation. Responding to the topography and the climatic needs have resulted in a compact organization of
spaces.
• The forces of nature have resulted in a development of dense built fabric with narrow meandering streets, going up and down in order to
negotiate the topography, making space for socio-cultural and socio-religious activities in the form of open Chowks. Planning in such
climatic region is typical, where the layout is very compact and the only open space seen in such areas are Chowks, varying in scale from
the large one in the Mohallas to the one within the house.
• The map of this ancient city needed to capture a sense of fantasy and magical reality that included Jodhpur's key landmarks and
monuments as well as elements of Jodhpur's rich culture, architecture and landscape. Situated on the eastern edge of the Great Indian
Thar Desert, Jodhpur was founded in AD 1459 by the warrior Rathore Rajput Chief, Rao Jodha. The second largest of Rajasthan’s great
cities, it is a bustling microcosm watched over by the mighty colossus of Mehrangarh Fort.
JODHPUR OLD CITY PLAN
JODHPUR CITY PLAN
EVOLUTION OF JODHPUR CITY
• In 1459 there were no water bodies of consequence near Bhakurcheeria, and with the fort under construction the
settlement was largely undefended.
• The water problem was successfully tackled by Jodha'squeen RaniJasmadewho constructed a tank at the base of
Mehrangarh, today called RaniSar, The Queen's Lake.
• A year later another of Jodha'ssix wives built a baorior step-well in the city.
• However, it was only after the ragged lines of Bhakurcheeriaassumed a definite shape of fortification that people gradually
began to migrate to Jodhpur, the new seat of power and potential prosperity in the Thar.
• Like other medieval cities of consequence, Jodhpur was originally a walled city too.
• Jodha‘ swalled Jodhpur had four Polsor gates three of which still stand, though not in very good condition.
• Jodha‘ scapital was small indeed, for these gates stand almost in the shadow of Bhakurcheeria.
• The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat. This enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium,
copper, silk, sandals, date palms and coffee.
EXPANSION OF THE CITY BOUNDARIES
• The Afghan when announced his intentions of invading Marwar, then the Rathore ruler,
Rao Maldev, was compelled to complete the city's fortifications which once again
embraced Jodhpur.
• The walls were twenty four thousand feet long, nine feet thick and forty feet high.
• He built six gates-Chand Pol, which faced west in honour of the Lunar God's ascent,
was the first in that direction.
• The other five gates were named after the major Rathore forts they faced.
• The gates and walls were simple and functional in design, the walls punctuated with
platforms and towers for keeping watch and shooting and were ingeniously interrupted
with projections so that no elephant charge was possible upon the gates.
• The other five gates were named after the major Rathore forts they faced.
• During 1638 the state became a fief under the MughalEmpire, owing fealty to them
while enjoying some internal laws.
• During this period, the state furnished the Mughalswith several notable generals such
as Maharaja JaswantSingh.
• Jodhpur and its people benefited from this exposure to the wider world with new
styles of art and architecture made their appearance and opportunities opened up for
local tradesmen to make their mark across northern India.
• Maldev'swalls, formidable as SherShah found them, were not able to contain Jodhpur
for long and except for the gate in the east and in the west, all the other gates were
shifted outwards again in the reigns of the brothers, Maharajas AbhayaSingh and
BakhtaSingh (1724-1752).
FORTS AND DEFENCE SYSTEM
• Kautilyain his Arthasasthra has described a number of forts to be raised on certain places in different localities namely
Sthaniya, Dronamukha, Kharvatika, Sangarahanaetc.
• On all the four cardinal directions of the boundaries of the kingdom, defensive fortifications against an enemy in war was
constructed on grounds naturally best suited for the purpose.
v A water fortification ,such as an island in the midst of a river, or a plain surrounded by low ground.
v A mountainous fortification (parvata) such as a rocky tract or a cave.
v A desert fortification(dhanavana) such as a wild tract devoid of water and overgrown with thicket growing in barren soil.
v Or a forest fortification (vanadurga) full of wagtail (khajana) water and thickets.
BUILT FORM AND CITY COMPONENTS:
• Jodhpur is famous as blue city, as most of its old houses have painted blue. The traditional Mohallas in Jodhpur have
evolved over a period of 500 years, starting from the foothills; the Brahmpuri, Gundika Mohalla, and growing southwards,
towards Bamba Mohalla.
• The Mohallas were caste or profession based, for E.g. Sonaronkighati, Bohronki pol, Muthonka bas, Joshiyon ka bas. The
Mohalla comprised of houses/Havelis, religious buildings, community spaces and circulation area. The bazaars, traditions,
crafts and products, culture and value systems have also been reflected in the built form, existing in the walled city. Most
of the houses are planned in typical Rajasthani style with flat terraces and open courtyard, with decorated doors, windows
and balconies having elegant balustrades or perforated screens. Main roads have double storied houses built of stone with
shops at lower levels and residences above them.
• The houses have high plinth with projects platform facing the street, which is used as interaction spaces. The houses had
narrow openings in form of Jharokhas, and a small gateway for entry. Courtyard remained the central focus of the house in
response to the climatic consideration.
CLIMATIC CONSIDERATION:
The city of Jodhpur has a traditional urban character that comes out as a response to the climate, the
site conditions and the culture. Buildings of blue colour, carved stone facades, Jharokhas, meandering
streets, courtyard houses, Bazaars, open Chowks, community spaces, temples and water structures
make the blue fabric of the city. These open spaces are quite significant in the social lifestyle of the
people forming the meeting spaces and are centre of activities. The water bodies helps in keeping the
climate cool, and act as a node for the social and cultural activities.
While conceptualizing these walled cities, extreme climatic consideration was given for the planning of
open spaces, water bodies, construction material, built form and treatment of facades of buildings. The
open spaces are quite significant in the social lifestyle of the people forming the meeting spaces and are
centre of activities during the different times of the day. The water bodies thus became coherent with the
open spaces and the much required lung spaces for the city contributing in keeping the climate cool, and
acting as a node for their social and cultural activities. The built form is very compact in its structure and
suited to the hot dry climatic conditions. The houses or Havelis have an introvert plan around a courtyard.
The treatment of the facades and openings indicates a sensitive response to climatic conditions.
COMMUNITY STRUCTURE:
The societies are based on caste and economic groupings localities exist. However earlier it was the
cast system is much important than economy for example: Hindu – Shrimali Brahmin, Jains are middle
income group, Muslim communities as lower income group. Common Chowks (squares) exists in these
localities which are often the organization of these residential areas. New areas are based on economic
grouping.
MATERIALS:
Almost all the walled cities in Rajasthan is
constructed in various types of sandstone
depending on local availability. The basic
properties of sand stone is very climate
friendly, it is not only a good insulator but
also a poor conductor. Most of the sunlight
is reflected from sand stone, and it heats
up very slowly, allowing very little heat to
come inside.
OPENINGS:
All these traditional buildings are full of openings which is a
very important architectural feature. These opening vary in
size and character ranging from small Jali to big courtyards.
This porosity promotes very good cross ventilation. In this
technique, exposed surface of building to sun is minimized. It
is further shaded by overhangs, Jharokhas, projected
balconies etc.
COURTYARDS:
A courtyard is a very important element of the Havelis, it provides good
thermal insulation. These cities are compactly built, in which, the building
and streets are very close to each other. But it is very important to close
the house to the exterior and open it to the interior due to need of privacy
as well as thermal insulation. Here courtyard proves to be an extremely
important feature as it acts like a buffer between the outside heat and
internal environment.
JALIS:
The most important function of Jali is to block the direct rays of sun while permitting cross ventilation. It also
provided privacy to family member’s, especially to the ladies of house in old times.
JHAROKHAS:
The Jharokhas & Projected balconies on building’s facade draw cool air into the building which further circulates
through the rooms and then exits through other openings emitting hot air outside.
WATER SUPPLY & SANITATION:
Ground and surface water is there to sustain the population but this system mainly works on harvesting rainwater
and aquifers. There are number of water bodies of different scale from the huge tank to the community tanks.
These water bodies served the people of Jodhpur since the inception of the city and have sited some important
structures along them like the palaces of the king& temples. Sandstone is the prime material used in construction of
these water bodies. The surface drainage was through the open drains built on either side of streets, which carried
the rainwater. These drains ended up in reservoirs built outside the walled city and therefore not allowing the
contamination by them mixing with wastewater. Earlier sewage disposal was underground, but later it was collected
manually by scavengers from the city and disposed to the drains, which is still in practice. Garbage is collected
manually and the trams and trolleys disposed it outside the city.
CLUSTER:
• The street is oriented E-W. The west face of the street is
blocked by the houses and a perpendicular street (orienting
N-S) has some front faces of house.
• Narrow and winding streets make airflow slow.
• The streets would be shaded till 10:00 A.M. in the morning.
• The orientation E-W is privileged because of its high potential
of solar access indoors and outdoors needed in wind.
• There is an easier seasonal solar control for the buildings walls oriented N-S (i.e. E-W streets) as the walls are
protected in the summer and exposed in the winter.
• For the pedestrian, the orientation hardly affects the irradiations. for higher latitudes, the sun position is lower in
the winter and creates strong obstacles. The irradiances reduce for high latitudes. The sun position is lower in
the winter and creates strong obstacles. Thus, the irradiances reduce for high latitudes and this is especially
obvious for E-W orientation.
Below is the shadow analysis of the cluster showing the patterns on
the streets as well as neighbouring building
Blue City: Navchokiya
• Unlike Jaipur’s uniform pink, blues in Jodhpur are spontaneous and sporadic. In some streets, shades of blue coat every
building; others have none, and many fall somewhere in between.
• The greatest concentration of blue lies in a neighborhood called Navchokiya, but it’s not an easy area to navigate. Even those
who enjoy wandering are advised to start with a local walking tour. Our hotel recommended a private guide who grew up in
the area. Most itineraries start up near the back of the fort and descend into the lower reaches.
• The cooling effect of all the blue is striking; walking certain blocks feels like being underwater. Our guide mentioned the
principles of vastu-shastra, the ancient Sanskrit treatises on building in harmony with nature. Some homes have rows of
holes above head level, designed to house sparrows who make noise when strangers enter the premises.
• The neighborhood is full of old havelis (mansions) with screened balconies for women to catch breezes without being seen –
occasionally with so many layers of paint that the openings have shrunk to pinholes.
• Indians love a debate, and there are multiple competing theories about the origin of Jodhpur’s blue. Some say the color
comes from indigo, while others counter that the dye is saved for textiles and trade. We’d heard that the hue comes from
copper sulfate, which is added to plaster to repel termites – but our guide told us that powdered lime keeps bugs away and
cobalt makes the mix blue. He was non-committal about the claim that the priestly caste used ‘Brahmin blue’ to distinguish
their homes. Most locals agree that in spite of the benefits of blue, its prevalence is gradually fading from Jodhpur.
Toorji Ka Jhalra Stepwell:
• When the entire year’s rainfall comes at once, water management
assumes paramount importance. Jodhpur’s average monsoon season
yields less than a foot (32 cm) of rain, so every drop needs to be collected
and preserved. Hence the design of the region’s unique stepwells, or
baori: steps running along the sides allow for a steep drop, which
minimizes surface evaporation.
• After decades of neglect, many of Rajasthan’s and Gujarat’s stepwells are
finally getting more attention. The 2016 restoration of Jodhpur’s Toori Ka
Jhalra sets a positive example. We saw locals swimming in the clear
water, hanging out on the steps, and joining tourists in the café above.
Clock Tower & Sardar Market:
• During British rule in India, English architects inspired by the local
architecture developed a style known as Indo-Saracenic. Jodhpur’s clock
tower, or ghanta ghar, features a typical mix of European and Mughal
elements. Outsized bands on the corners and clock faces modeled on Big
Ben mingle with a bulbous dome and multi-lobed arches. Maharaja
Sardar Singh commissioned the structure sometime after succeeding his
father in 1895, but before his profligacy prompted the British to strip his
remaining powers in 1903.
• Sardar Market is pure sensory stimulation: color, noise and scent all
dance across one’s perception. Triple gateways at either end of the
market square look impressive but clog the already-formidable traffic. For
perspective, this is the one place during a two-week trip that our intrepid
driver threw up his hands and suggested we walk.
Jaswant Thada:
• Along with the clock tower, Sardar Singh also erected a memorial to his father Jaswant
Singh – but this is no ordinary kiosk. Hindus often honor their ancestors along with
deities, and Rajasthanis developed a distinctive form of cenotaph: the
chhatri (umbrella) with a dome topping a set of columns on an elevated base. After
witnessing massive and powerful white mausoleums such as the Taj Mahal, the
Rathores erected a few full-fledged temples dedicated to illustrious members of the
dynasty.
• The young maharaja mixed multiple styles at a new site overlooking the city of Jodhpur.
In a nod to the Mughals, his extravagant design uses pure white marble. The sheets are
cut so thin, they literally glow in the sun when one stands inside. The structure’s layout
resembles a European palace, while the roofs and carvings follow Rajathani traditions.
The garden’s more typical cenotaphs look restrained by comparison.
Mandore Gardens:
• The Mandore garden, situated 9 kilometres north of Jodhpur’s Blue City, serves as a
repository of Marwar dynasty memorials and temples.
• Initially established as the capital of the Pratiharas in the sixth century AD, it holds
historical significance in governing the region.
• Within its premises lie ancient temples, memorials, and impressive high-rock terraces,
each contributing to its grandeur.
• Notable among the attractions is the Maharaja Ajit Singh cenotaph, erected in 1793,
which stands out among the cenotaphs in Mandore Gardens.
• Additionally, the Government Museum housed within the Mandore Gardens premises
offers a glimpse into the region's history through its display of antiques and historical
relics.
Mehrangarh Fort:
• Founded in the mid-15th century by Rao Jodha, Mehrangarh Fort and its palaces
were constructed over 500 years, showcasing various architectural styles from
different centuries.
• With walls extending up to 10 kilometres in length, heights ranging from 20 to 120
feet, and widths from 12 to 70 feet, the fort presents an imposing sight.
• Inside, visitors encounter a series of courtyards and palaces adorned with the
regal embellishments typical of Indian royalty.
• Offering a breathtaking panorama of Jodhpur and neighboring Pakistan, the fort
provides a stunning vista.
• Today, Mehrangarh Fort houses a museum, hotel, restaurant, market, and other
amenities, making it a multifaceted destination.
Balsamand Lake:
• Constructed in 1159 AD as a water reservoir, this artificial lake is cherished by
both tourists and locals for its verdant surroundings and captivating natural allure,
perfect for leisurely picnics.
• Enhancing the area's charm is the Balsamand Lake Palace, a splendid
architectural creation commissioned by Maharaja Sur Singh, which offers
timeless elegance overlooking the lake.
• Set amidst breathtaking scenery and teeming wildlife, the palace adds to the
allure of the surroundings, creating an enchanting destination.
Umaid Bhawan Palace:
One of the largest private homes in the world, Umaid Bhawan has India’s first operational elevator palace. A portion of this
palace in Jodhpur is now a historic hotel and a museum. The palace was created to employ Jodhpur farmers and not for luxury.
It was built before independence, between 1928 and 1943, under Maharaja Umaid Singh’s reign. It is a palace, a hotel, and a
museum all rolled into one, making it one of the must-see palaces in Jodhpur.
The old city centre of Jodhpur is marked by the fabric of tiny alleyways, huddling of blue buildings, and Havelis on the slopes.
There is a pressing concern regarding the future of its past, as the area gains new urban inserts at a dizzying rate. Historic
cities are peaceful places caught between preservation and continuation ideals. The city of Jodhpur is growing along essential
highways such as Pal Road, Pali Road, Jaipur Road, Nagpur Road, and Jaisalmer Road. Over the last two decades, new
residential and business districts have sprouted up. Jodhpur, today is the intersection of the traditional and the upcoming
modern face of India, promising a positive future for the people of the city!

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urban design case study of old city Jodhpur

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  • 2. INTRODUCTION In the hot, dusty stretches of the Thar Desert, Jodhpur may appear more vision than city. Its mighty fortress grows right out of a mountain, over 400 feet straight up from the scrubby plain. At its base, a wash of buildings echoes the sky by day and lights up with blue pinpricks at night. It’s hard to conceive of mere mortals creating this place. Understanding Jodhpur requires diving into the streetside currents of cobalt. The shades not only mitigate blazing heat, they also compliment green plants and jewel-toned saris, providing a respite from the bazaars’ chaos. Over the course of several days, we alternated between Jodhpur’s monumental architecture and the everyday world of its blue walls and breezy rooftops. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND Jodhpur city was founded in 1459 by Rao Jodha, a Rajput chief of the Rathore clan. Jodha succeeded in conquering the surrounding territory from the Delhi Sultanate and thus founded a kingdom that came to be known as Marwar. As Jodha hailed from the nearby town of Mandore, that town initially served as the capital of this state; however, Jodhpur soon took over that role, even during the lifetime of Jodha. The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat. This enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, copper, silk, sandalwood, dates, and other tradeable goods. ORIENTATION Unlike other parts of the Thar Desert, the area around Jodhpur features dry dirt and rock instead of sand – more dust than dune. One might wonder why anyone would choose to settle where temperatures exceed 90˚F (32˚C) for nine months a year. Some of the world’s oldest settlements nearby give civilization here extremely deep roots – with thousands of years to develop water and climate management techniques. The city of Jodhpur wasn’t officially founded until 1459, but the spot already formed part of a major trade route between Delhi and the Arabian Sea. Although it’s usually possible to spot Mehrangarh Fort’s looming presence, Jodhpur makes it easy for visitors to get lost. The old city sprawls on and on in a snarl of lanes; random twists and ill-defined streets make following maps absurd, while the ubiquitous motorbikes and cows keep traffic lively.
  • 3. BASIC PLANNING CONCEPT: • The walled city of Jodhpur is sited on a natural sloping ground, where the undulating terrains end and the plains begin. • The walled city is fenced by 10 km long wall with eight Gates leading out of it. The entire region on the north and north-west, due to the topography, is difficult for habitation. Responding to the topography and the climatic needs have resulted in a compact organization of spaces. • The forces of nature have resulted in a development of dense built fabric with narrow meandering streets, going up and down in order to negotiate the topography, making space for socio-cultural and socio-religious activities in the form of open Chowks. Planning in such climatic region is typical, where the layout is very compact and the only open space seen in such areas are Chowks, varying in scale from the large one in the Mohallas to the one within the house. • The map of this ancient city needed to capture a sense of fantasy and magical reality that included Jodhpur's key landmarks and monuments as well as elements of Jodhpur's rich culture, architecture and landscape. Situated on the eastern edge of the Great Indian Thar Desert, Jodhpur was founded in AD 1459 by the warrior Rathore Rajput Chief, Rao Jodha. The second largest of Rajasthan’s great cities, it is a bustling microcosm watched over by the mighty colossus of Mehrangarh Fort.
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  • 11. EVOLUTION OF JODHPUR CITY • In 1459 there were no water bodies of consequence near Bhakurcheeria, and with the fort under construction the settlement was largely undefended. • The water problem was successfully tackled by Jodha'squeen RaniJasmadewho constructed a tank at the base of Mehrangarh, today called RaniSar, The Queen's Lake. • A year later another of Jodha'ssix wives built a baorior step-well in the city. • However, it was only after the ragged lines of Bhakurcheeriaassumed a definite shape of fortification that people gradually began to migrate to Jodhpur, the new seat of power and potential prosperity in the Thar. • Like other medieval cities of consequence, Jodhpur was originally a walled city too. • Jodha‘ swalled Jodhpur had four Polsor gates three of which still stand, though not in very good condition. • Jodha‘ scapital was small indeed, for these gates stand almost in the shadow of Bhakurcheeria. • The city was located on the strategic road linking Delhi to Gujarat. This enabled it to profit from a flourishing trade in opium, copper, silk, sandals, date palms and coffee.
  • 12. EXPANSION OF THE CITY BOUNDARIES • The Afghan when announced his intentions of invading Marwar, then the Rathore ruler, Rao Maldev, was compelled to complete the city's fortifications which once again embraced Jodhpur. • The walls were twenty four thousand feet long, nine feet thick and forty feet high. • He built six gates-Chand Pol, which faced west in honour of the Lunar God's ascent, was the first in that direction. • The other five gates were named after the major Rathore forts they faced. • The gates and walls were simple and functional in design, the walls punctuated with platforms and towers for keeping watch and shooting and were ingeniously interrupted with projections so that no elephant charge was possible upon the gates. • The other five gates were named after the major Rathore forts they faced. • During 1638 the state became a fief under the MughalEmpire, owing fealty to them while enjoying some internal laws. • During this period, the state furnished the Mughalswith several notable generals such as Maharaja JaswantSingh. • Jodhpur and its people benefited from this exposure to the wider world with new styles of art and architecture made their appearance and opportunities opened up for local tradesmen to make their mark across northern India. • Maldev'swalls, formidable as SherShah found them, were not able to contain Jodhpur for long and except for the gate in the east and in the west, all the other gates were shifted outwards again in the reigns of the brothers, Maharajas AbhayaSingh and BakhtaSingh (1724-1752).
  • 13. FORTS AND DEFENCE SYSTEM • Kautilyain his Arthasasthra has described a number of forts to be raised on certain places in different localities namely Sthaniya, Dronamukha, Kharvatika, Sangarahanaetc. • On all the four cardinal directions of the boundaries of the kingdom, defensive fortifications against an enemy in war was constructed on grounds naturally best suited for the purpose. v A water fortification ,such as an island in the midst of a river, or a plain surrounded by low ground. v A mountainous fortification (parvata) such as a rocky tract or a cave. v A desert fortification(dhanavana) such as a wild tract devoid of water and overgrown with thicket growing in barren soil. v Or a forest fortification (vanadurga) full of wagtail (khajana) water and thickets.
  • 14. BUILT FORM AND CITY COMPONENTS: • Jodhpur is famous as blue city, as most of its old houses have painted blue. The traditional Mohallas in Jodhpur have evolved over a period of 500 years, starting from the foothills; the Brahmpuri, Gundika Mohalla, and growing southwards, towards Bamba Mohalla. • The Mohallas were caste or profession based, for E.g. Sonaronkighati, Bohronki pol, Muthonka bas, Joshiyon ka bas. The Mohalla comprised of houses/Havelis, religious buildings, community spaces and circulation area. The bazaars, traditions, crafts and products, culture and value systems have also been reflected in the built form, existing in the walled city. Most of the houses are planned in typical Rajasthani style with flat terraces and open courtyard, with decorated doors, windows and balconies having elegant balustrades or perforated screens. Main roads have double storied houses built of stone with shops at lower levels and residences above them. • The houses have high plinth with projects platform facing the street, which is used as interaction spaces. The houses had narrow openings in form of Jharokhas, and a small gateway for entry. Courtyard remained the central focus of the house in response to the climatic consideration.
  • 15. CLIMATIC CONSIDERATION: The city of Jodhpur has a traditional urban character that comes out as a response to the climate, the site conditions and the culture. Buildings of blue colour, carved stone facades, Jharokhas, meandering streets, courtyard houses, Bazaars, open Chowks, community spaces, temples and water structures make the blue fabric of the city. These open spaces are quite significant in the social lifestyle of the people forming the meeting spaces and are centre of activities. The water bodies helps in keeping the climate cool, and act as a node for the social and cultural activities. While conceptualizing these walled cities, extreme climatic consideration was given for the planning of open spaces, water bodies, construction material, built form and treatment of facades of buildings. The open spaces are quite significant in the social lifestyle of the people forming the meeting spaces and are centre of activities during the different times of the day. The water bodies thus became coherent with the open spaces and the much required lung spaces for the city contributing in keeping the climate cool, and acting as a node for their social and cultural activities. The built form is very compact in its structure and suited to the hot dry climatic conditions. The houses or Havelis have an introvert plan around a courtyard. The treatment of the facades and openings indicates a sensitive response to climatic conditions. COMMUNITY STRUCTURE: The societies are based on caste and economic groupings localities exist. However earlier it was the cast system is much important than economy for example: Hindu – Shrimali Brahmin, Jains are middle income group, Muslim communities as lower income group. Common Chowks (squares) exists in these localities which are often the organization of these residential areas. New areas are based on economic grouping.
  • 16. MATERIALS: Almost all the walled cities in Rajasthan is constructed in various types of sandstone depending on local availability. The basic properties of sand stone is very climate friendly, it is not only a good insulator but also a poor conductor. Most of the sunlight is reflected from sand stone, and it heats up very slowly, allowing very little heat to come inside. OPENINGS: All these traditional buildings are full of openings which is a very important architectural feature. These opening vary in size and character ranging from small Jali to big courtyards. This porosity promotes very good cross ventilation. In this technique, exposed surface of building to sun is minimized. It is further shaded by overhangs, Jharokhas, projected balconies etc.
  • 17. COURTYARDS: A courtyard is a very important element of the Havelis, it provides good thermal insulation. These cities are compactly built, in which, the building and streets are very close to each other. But it is very important to close the house to the exterior and open it to the interior due to need of privacy as well as thermal insulation. Here courtyard proves to be an extremely important feature as it acts like a buffer between the outside heat and internal environment. JALIS: The most important function of Jali is to block the direct rays of sun while permitting cross ventilation. It also provided privacy to family member’s, especially to the ladies of house in old times. JHAROKHAS: The Jharokhas & Projected balconies on building’s facade draw cool air into the building which further circulates through the rooms and then exits through other openings emitting hot air outside.
  • 18. WATER SUPPLY & SANITATION: Ground and surface water is there to sustain the population but this system mainly works on harvesting rainwater and aquifers. There are number of water bodies of different scale from the huge tank to the community tanks. These water bodies served the people of Jodhpur since the inception of the city and have sited some important structures along them like the palaces of the king& temples. Sandstone is the prime material used in construction of these water bodies. The surface drainage was through the open drains built on either side of streets, which carried the rainwater. These drains ended up in reservoirs built outside the walled city and therefore not allowing the contamination by them mixing with wastewater. Earlier sewage disposal was underground, but later it was collected manually by scavengers from the city and disposed to the drains, which is still in practice. Garbage is collected manually and the trams and trolleys disposed it outside the city.
  • 19. CLUSTER: • The street is oriented E-W. The west face of the street is blocked by the houses and a perpendicular street (orienting N-S) has some front faces of house. • Narrow and winding streets make airflow slow. • The streets would be shaded till 10:00 A.M. in the morning. • The orientation E-W is privileged because of its high potential of solar access indoors and outdoors needed in wind. • There is an easier seasonal solar control for the buildings walls oriented N-S (i.e. E-W streets) as the walls are protected in the summer and exposed in the winter. • For the pedestrian, the orientation hardly affects the irradiations. for higher latitudes, the sun position is lower in the winter and creates strong obstacles. The irradiances reduce for high latitudes. The sun position is lower in the winter and creates strong obstacles. Thus, the irradiances reduce for high latitudes and this is especially obvious for E-W orientation.
  • 20. Below is the shadow analysis of the cluster showing the patterns on the streets as well as neighbouring building
  • 21. Blue City: Navchokiya • Unlike Jaipur’s uniform pink, blues in Jodhpur are spontaneous and sporadic. In some streets, shades of blue coat every building; others have none, and many fall somewhere in between. • The greatest concentration of blue lies in a neighborhood called Navchokiya, but it’s not an easy area to navigate. Even those who enjoy wandering are advised to start with a local walking tour. Our hotel recommended a private guide who grew up in the area. Most itineraries start up near the back of the fort and descend into the lower reaches. • The cooling effect of all the blue is striking; walking certain blocks feels like being underwater. Our guide mentioned the principles of vastu-shastra, the ancient Sanskrit treatises on building in harmony with nature. Some homes have rows of holes above head level, designed to house sparrows who make noise when strangers enter the premises. • The neighborhood is full of old havelis (mansions) with screened balconies for women to catch breezes without being seen – occasionally with so many layers of paint that the openings have shrunk to pinholes. • Indians love a debate, and there are multiple competing theories about the origin of Jodhpur’s blue. Some say the color comes from indigo, while others counter that the dye is saved for textiles and trade. We’d heard that the hue comes from copper sulfate, which is added to plaster to repel termites – but our guide told us that powdered lime keeps bugs away and cobalt makes the mix blue. He was non-committal about the claim that the priestly caste used ‘Brahmin blue’ to distinguish their homes. Most locals agree that in spite of the benefits of blue, its prevalence is gradually fading from Jodhpur.
  • 22. Toorji Ka Jhalra Stepwell: • When the entire year’s rainfall comes at once, water management assumes paramount importance. Jodhpur’s average monsoon season yields less than a foot (32 cm) of rain, so every drop needs to be collected and preserved. Hence the design of the region’s unique stepwells, or baori: steps running along the sides allow for a steep drop, which minimizes surface evaporation. • After decades of neglect, many of Rajasthan’s and Gujarat’s stepwells are finally getting more attention. The 2016 restoration of Jodhpur’s Toori Ka Jhalra sets a positive example. We saw locals swimming in the clear water, hanging out on the steps, and joining tourists in the café above. Clock Tower & Sardar Market: • During British rule in India, English architects inspired by the local architecture developed a style known as Indo-Saracenic. Jodhpur’s clock tower, or ghanta ghar, features a typical mix of European and Mughal elements. Outsized bands on the corners and clock faces modeled on Big Ben mingle with a bulbous dome and multi-lobed arches. Maharaja Sardar Singh commissioned the structure sometime after succeeding his father in 1895, but before his profligacy prompted the British to strip his remaining powers in 1903. • Sardar Market is pure sensory stimulation: color, noise and scent all dance across one’s perception. Triple gateways at either end of the market square look impressive but clog the already-formidable traffic. For perspective, this is the one place during a two-week trip that our intrepid driver threw up his hands and suggested we walk.
  • 23. Jaswant Thada: • Along with the clock tower, Sardar Singh also erected a memorial to his father Jaswant Singh – but this is no ordinary kiosk. Hindus often honor their ancestors along with deities, and Rajasthanis developed a distinctive form of cenotaph: the chhatri (umbrella) with a dome topping a set of columns on an elevated base. After witnessing massive and powerful white mausoleums such as the Taj Mahal, the Rathores erected a few full-fledged temples dedicated to illustrious members of the dynasty. • The young maharaja mixed multiple styles at a new site overlooking the city of Jodhpur. In a nod to the Mughals, his extravagant design uses pure white marble. The sheets are cut so thin, they literally glow in the sun when one stands inside. The structure’s layout resembles a European palace, while the roofs and carvings follow Rajathani traditions. The garden’s more typical cenotaphs look restrained by comparison. Mandore Gardens: • The Mandore garden, situated 9 kilometres north of Jodhpur’s Blue City, serves as a repository of Marwar dynasty memorials and temples. • Initially established as the capital of the Pratiharas in the sixth century AD, it holds historical significance in governing the region. • Within its premises lie ancient temples, memorials, and impressive high-rock terraces, each contributing to its grandeur. • Notable among the attractions is the Maharaja Ajit Singh cenotaph, erected in 1793, which stands out among the cenotaphs in Mandore Gardens. • Additionally, the Government Museum housed within the Mandore Gardens premises offers a glimpse into the region's history through its display of antiques and historical relics.
  • 24. Mehrangarh Fort: • Founded in the mid-15th century by Rao Jodha, Mehrangarh Fort and its palaces were constructed over 500 years, showcasing various architectural styles from different centuries. • With walls extending up to 10 kilometres in length, heights ranging from 20 to 120 feet, and widths from 12 to 70 feet, the fort presents an imposing sight. • Inside, visitors encounter a series of courtyards and palaces adorned with the regal embellishments typical of Indian royalty. • Offering a breathtaking panorama of Jodhpur and neighboring Pakistan, the fort provides a stunning vista. • Today, Mehrangarh Fort houses a museum, hotel, restaurant, market, and other amenities, making it a multifaceted destination. Balsamand Lake: • Constructed in 1159 AD as a water reservoir, this artificial lake is cherished by both tourists and locals for its verdant surroundings and captivating natural allure, perfect for leisurely picnics. • Enhancing the area's charm is the Balsamand Lake Palace, a splendid architectural creation commissioned by Maharaja Sur Singh, which offers timeless elegance overlooking the lake. • Set amidst breathtaking scenery and teeming wildlife, the palace adds to the allure of the surroundings, creating an enchanting destination.
  • 25. Umaid Bhawan Palace: One of the largest private homes in the world, Umaid Bhawan has India’s first operational elevator palace. A portion of this palace in Jodhpur is now a historic hotel and a museum. The palace was created to employ Jodhpur farmers and not for luxury. It was built before independence, between 1928 and 1943, under Maharaja Umaid Singh’s reign. It is a palace, a hotel, and a museum all rolled into one, making it one of the must-see palaces in Jodhpur. The old city centre of Jodhpur is marked by the fabric of tiny alleyways, huddling of blue buildings, and Havelis on the slopes. There is a pressing concern regarding the future of its past, as the area gains new urban inserts at a dizzying rate. Historic cities are peaceful places caught between preservation and continuation ideals. The city of Jodhpur is growing along essential highways such as Pal Road, Pali Road, Jaipur Road, Nagpur Road, and Jaisalmer Road. Over the last two decades, new residential and business districts have sprouted up. Jodhpur, today is the intersection of the traditional and the upcoming modern face of India, promising a positive future for the people of the city!