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UNWTO Annual Report
A year of recovery
2010
Chapter 1
International tourism in 2010
Chapter 2
Mainstreaming tourism in the global agenda
Chapter 3
Building a more competitive tourism sector
Chapter 4
Sustainable tourism development
Chapter 5
UNWTO Technical Cooperation: fostering tourism as a tool for development and poverty alleviation
Chapter 6
Advancing tourism education and skills
Chapter 7
Partnerships for tourism
Chapter 8
Regional Programmes - a direct support to Member States
Annexes
06
10
16
24
34
44
50
56
64
Contents
World Tourism Organization
The World Tourism Organization is a Specialized
Agency of the United Nations
Design & Print
www.detectivegrafico.com
Many of the images used throughout are entries from the
UNWTO World Tourism Day 2010 Photo Competition.
© 2011 / All rights UNWTO.
www.flickr.com/photos/unwto
2
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
2010 will be remembered as the year of recovery for the
global economy – following one of the most testing periods
of recent history – but also the year of persistent uncertainties
and challenges. This has also been true for international
tourism.
International tourist arrivals grew by 7% in 2010 to
a record 940 million, with positive growth reported in all
world regions. Reflecting global economic trends, growth
was driven largely by emerging economies, a development
that looks set to continue over the coming years.
The recovery of international tourism has confirmed the
sector’s extraordinary capacity to bounce back time and
again from external shocks. Tourism is an extremely resilient
sector and given its contribution to global economic growth,
job creation and development, its faster-than-expected
recovery in 2010 was welcome news.
The global economic downturn in 2008-2009 has
demonstrated more than ever the need for political
recognition and support of the tourism sector. Throughout
2010, UNWTO worked to mainstream tourism in the
global agenda by promoting its significant contribution to
global prosperity, development and well-being.
In 2010, UNWTO presented its Roadmap for Recovery
– conveying the message that tourism means jobs, trade,
economic growth and development – to leaders and decision
2010: A year of recovery
makers around the globe. In response to the Roadmap,
a number of member-driven initiatives emerged to draw
attention to tourism’s contribution to global challenges. The
T.20, for example, gathered the tourism ministers of major
economies who committed to intensify collaboration towards
mainstreaming tourism in the global agenda.
Alongside the challenge of global economic uncertainty,
the longer-term challenges of competitiveness and
sustainability have remained at the heart of UNWTO
action during 2010.
Competition remains fiercer than ever, especially in the
wake of the global economic storm. UNWTO has continued
to provide its Members with the strategic guidance and
assistance necessary to compete in the global marketplace,
with up-to-date market trends and analysis, support in crisis
management, marketing planning, product development
and the advancement of Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSA)
worldwide. UNWTO has also been leading the call
against tax hikes on travel which seriously impacts
upon the competitiveness of the sector and its
capacity to deliver on economic growth and job
creation.
In 2010, UNWTO joined the global campaign to protect
biodiversity as part of the United Nations International
Year of Biodiversity. World Tourism Day (WTD) 2010 was
celebrated under the theme ‘Tourism and Biodiversity’
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
3
Taleb Rifai
UNWTO Secretary-General
and recommendations coming out of WTD were presented
to delegates at the 10th Meeting of the Conference of the
Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, calling on all
Parties to recognize the opportunities inherent in sustainable
tourism for safeguarding biodiversity.
UNWTO has undertaken a strong role in the tourism sector’s
response to climate change. At the UN climate change
conference in Cancun (COP16), UNWTO expressed the
need for decision making on mitigation measures affecting
tourism to take the positive impacts of the sector into
account, particularly in developing countries and island states
dependent on long-haul travel. UNWTO is also advancing
measures to mitigate tourism’s environmental impact, in
particular through improving energy efficiency and increasing
the use of renewable energies. On-going testing of the Hotel
Energy Solutions e-toolkit, which will help hoteliers assess
their energy use and take decisions on investment, took
place throughout the year.
From Burundi to Panama, UNWTO tourism development
projects continue to make a difference to the lives of
local communities around the world. In 2010, over 60
development projects were underway in some of the world’s
poorest countries. UNWTO also presented its first Technical
Assistance Portfolio, detailing the products and services on
offer to those countries looking to develop a more sustainable
and competitive tourism sector.
Tourism has proven to be one of the world’s leading
job creators. Numerous specialized training courses have
been given by the UNWTO.Themis Foundation, the body
responsible for UNWTO’s work in the field of education
and training, improving the quality and efficiency of tourism
programmes worldwide.
Ours is one of the world’s largest sectors, but it is also
one of the most complex, impacting on and impacted
by countless actors and actions. As the UN specialized
agency for tourism, UNWTO offers a common platform
from which the different stakeholders involved both directly
and indirectly in the sector – governments, the private
sector, academia, international organizations and the UN
family – can coordinate and move the tourism agenda
forward.
I would like to thank all those that have partnered with UNWTO
in 2010 to maximize and raise awareness of tourism’s
important role in the global economic and development
agenda and to make of tourism work as a true force to attain
our common goals of development and growth.
2010 has broken tourism records, with more people
travelling the world than ever before. 2011 looks set to
beat the impressive numbers seen so far and the one
billion mark is not far off. I am confident that despite the
challenges we continue to face, the next few years will be
the best ever for the tourism sector.
4
The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), a specialized
agency of the United Nations, is the leading international
organization in the field of tourism.
Recognizing tourism’s important role in the global economic
and development agenda, UNWTO provides leadership
and support to the tourism sector in the advancement of
sustainable policies and practices.
The Organization encourages the implementation of the
Global Code of Ethics for Tourism with a view to ensuring
that member countries, destinations and businesses
maximize the positive economic, social and cultural effects
of tourism and fully reap its benefits.
UNWTO is committed to the United Nations Millennium
Development Goals, MDGs geared towards reducing
poverty and fostering sustainable development, and aims to
use tourism as a tool for their achievement.
Our Objectives
Through the promotion of responsible, sustainable and
universally accessible tourism, UNWTO endeavours to
maximize tourism’s contribution to socio-economic growth,
job creation, development, environmental conservation,
cultural enrichment, peace and international understanding,
while minimizing its potential socially or environmentally
negative impacts.
As the UN specialized agency for the promotion and
development of a competitive and sustainable tourism
sector, the work of UNWTO is focused on six priorities:
Mainstreaming tourism in the global agenda: Advocating
the value of tourism as a driver of socio-economic growth
and development and its inclusion as a priority in national
and international development policies.
Improving tourism competitiveness: Improving UNWTO
Members’ tourism products and destinations through
knowledge, human resources capacitation and the promotion of
quality and excellence in areas such as statistics, market trends,
marketing, destination management and crisis management.
Promoting sustainable tourism development:
Supporting sustainable tourism - one which makes optimal
use of environmental resources, respects the socio-cultural
authenticity of host communities and provides socio-
economic benefits to all stakeholders.
Advancing tourism’s contribution to poverty reduction
and development: Maximizing the contribution of tourism to
eliminate poverty and achieve the MDGs by making tourism
work as a tool for development and promoting the inclusion
of tourism in the development agenda.
Fostering knowledge, education and capacity building:
Supporting countries to assess and address their needs in
education and training, as well as providing networks for
knowledge exchange.
Building partnerships: Engaging with the private sector,
regional and local tourism organizations, academia and
research institutions, civil society and the UN system to build a
more sustainable, responsible and competitive tourism sector.
UNWTO works to position tourism higher in the global agenda
and enhance competitiveness within the sector by providing
comparable international tourism statistics, identifying
market trends and improving Members’ tourism products
and marketing techniques. Work is also carried out to assist
tourism destinations in assessing, mitigating and managing
risks and crises. UNWTO, particularly in response to climate
change challenges, promotes sustainable tourism, in order for
the sector to make optimal use of environmental resources,
respect the socio-cultural authenticity of destinations and
provide socio-economic benefits.
UNWTO, through its Themis Foundation, supports countries
to assess and address their needs in education and training,
as well as providing training and capacity building on various
key issues. Direct actions that strengthen and support the
efforts of National Tourism Administrations are carried out
by UNWTO`s technical cooperation and by the Regional
Programmes: Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific,
Europe and the Middle East.
Understanding UNWTO
1970
On 27 September, the IUOTO Special General Assembly meeting in Mexico City adopts the Statutes of the World
Tourism Organization (WTO). From 1980 onwards, this day will be celebrated as ‘World Tourism Day’.
1975
The first WTO Secretary-General is appointed and the General Assembly decides to establish its headquarters in
Madrid.
1976
The WTO General Secretariat is set up in Madrid on 1 January.
The agreement is signed for WTO to become an executing agency of the United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP), carrying out technical co-operation with Governments.
1997
XII WTO General Assembly in Istanbul (Turkey) approves a White Paper to define WTO strategy in confronting the
challenges of the 21st century.
1998
The WTO.THEMIS Foundation is created in Andorra, to promote quality and efficiency in tourism education and
training.
1999
The World Conference on the Measurement of the Economic Impact of Tourism, held in Nice (France), approves
the Tourism Satellite Account.
XIII WTO General Assembly in Santiago (Chile) adopts the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism.
2000
World Leaders meet at UN Headquarters to adopt the United Nations Millennium Declaration, committing their
nations to the Millennium Development Goals with a deadline of 2015.
The United Nations Statistics Commission approves the international standards included in the Tourism Satellite
Account (TSA).
2001
The UN General Assembly officially recognizes the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism and encourages WTO to
promote an effective follow-up of the Code.
2002
WTO takes part in the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, South Africa), during which the
initiative Sustainable Tourism – Eliminating Poverty (ST-EP) is presented.
2003
UNWTO joins the United Nations system, becoming the UN Specialized Agency for Tourism.
The 1st International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism is held in Djerba (Tunisia).
2005
The office of UNWTO’s ST-EP Foundation is opened in Seoul, following the agreement signed between UNWTO
and the Government of the Republic of Korea in 2004.
2007
The 2nd International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism, Davos (Switzerland), adopts the Davos
Declaration, endorsed by the London Ministerial Summit on Tourism and Climate Change.
2008
The Tourism Resilience Committee (TRC) is established to respond to the economic downturn.
UNWTO launches the awareness campaign Protect Children from Exploitation in Travel and Tourism.
The Permanent Secretariat of World Committee on Tourism Ethics is inaugurated in Rome (Italy).
2009
The XVIII UNWTO General Assembly approves the Roadmap for Recovery, which offers guidance on how tourism
can support global economic growth.
Our history
Note: UNWTO used the acronym WTO until 2003.
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
5
6
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
International tourism recovered strongly in 2010. International tourist
arrivals were up by 7% to 940 million, following the 4% decline in 2009,
and receipts grew by 5% to reach US$ 919 billion. The majority of
destinations posted positive figures, sufficient to offset the 2009 losses.
However, recovery came at different speeds and was primarily driven by
emerging economies. Growth is expected to continue for the tourism
sector in 2011 but at a slower pace. UNWTO forecasts international
tourist arrivals to grow at 4% to 5% in 2011.
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
7
Chapter 1
International tourism in 2010
2009: challenges without precedent
2009 marked a significant decline in tourism activity, under
the impact of the 2008-2009 global economic crisis and the
uncertainty around the A(H1N1) pandemic. Following four
years of strong, above-trend growth, international tourism
suffered one of its toughest years in decades, reflected in
significant declines in international tourist arrivals (-4%) and
international tourism receipts (-6%). Recovery began half-way
through the year in Asia and the Pacific and the Middle East,
and was evident across other regions by the last quarter of
the year, the only period to record positive growth in 2009.
2010: strong recovery
2010 brought more challenges for the tourism sector;
economic uncertainty, natural disasters and political and
social unrest threatened to weaken the recovery which began
at the end of 2009. However, international tourism recovered
strongly and faster than expected. International tourist arrivals
increased by almost 7% to a record 940 million, while earnings
from international tourism grew slightly slower at 5% to reach
US$ 919 billion (euro 693 billion), a result of increased price
competition and tendencies to travel closer to home and for
shorter periods, common consumer behaviour in periods
of recovery. All regions posted growth in both international
tourist arrivals and receipts, with the exception of Europe
where receipts stagnated in 2010.
Multi-speed growth
The strong recovery of the tourism sector in 2010 is
evidence of its resilience and capacity for rapid recovery.
Nonetheless, recovery came at different speeds. Emerging
economies proved to be the primary drivers of the
international tourism rebound, posting an average growth in
international tourist arrivals of around 8% in 2010 whereas
advanced economies recovered at a much slower pace of
around 5%. A similar trend can be seen in tourism receipts
and expenditure. Growth in expenditure continued to be led
by emerging markets in 2010 – major growth rates came
from China (+25%), the Russian Federation (+27%) or Brazil
(+51%). The multi-speed nature of tourism recovery widely
reflected the broader economic situation and the dynamism
of emerging economies.
Regional overview
Asia and the Pacific (+13%), the first region to rebound from the
crisis in 2009 continued to grow strongly in 2010. The Middle
East (+14%) also experienced rapid growth in 2010, though in
1
UNWTO©
8
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
Chapter 1 / International tourism in 2010
comparison to the particularly depressed figures in the
previous year. The signs of economic recovery in the Americas
favoured a fairly strong rebound in tourism (+6%). Africa (+7%)
was the only region to experience positive tourism results in
2009, and continued to grow throughout 2010 benefiting
from the FIFA World Cup in South Africa. In Europe (+3%), the
region most seriously affected by the global economic crisis,
the average growth in international tourist arrivals was lower
than in other regions due to the air traffic disorder caused by
the eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano and the economic
uncertainty affecting the euro zone.
2011: consolidating growth
UNWTO predicts continued growth in international tourism
for 2011, though at a slower and more moderate rate
than the previous year, at 4%-5%. In line with trends of
recent years, this development is expected to be driven by
emerging economies. Destinations that rebounded from the
economic crisis during 2010 are expected to continue and
grow further throughout 2011. Advanced economies, on
the other hand, are likely to face major challenges, including
high unemployment rates, public deficit constraints and
weak consumer confidence, which may cause growth to
be slower.
World: Inbound Tourism
International Tourist Arrivals (million)
528
551
585
603
625
674 673
693 662
753
797
842
897
916
881
940
1000
950
900
850
800
750
700
650
600
560
500
1995 2000 2005 2010
World: Inbound Tourism
International Tourism Receipts (billion)
403
437 435 443 457 475 466 485
533
634
679
743
857
940
851
344
308
384 395
429
515 520 513
471
510
545 582
625 639
610
693
1000
900
800
700
600
500
400
300
200
100
0
US$
EURO
919
1995 2000 2005 2010
BradleymIstockphoto©
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
9
Trend analysis provided by UNWTO
affirms the changing face of tourism and
highlights the impact of demographic
changes in the sector. Demographics
ultimately impact where, why and how
people travel. A report released in 2010
by UNWTO and the European Travel
Commission (ETC), Demographic
Change and Tourism, outlines the
impact of global demographic trends
such as rising populations, increased
life expectancy, urbanization, migration
and changing family structures on
tourism. The report suggests that travel
will become further fragmented and
includes recommendations on how the
tourism sector can adapt to an ageing,
multiethnic population.
UNWTO evaluates the impact of demographic change on tourism
UNWTO is currently embarking on a
major update of its long-term outlook for
tourism. The project Tourism Towards
2030 will provide global and regional
forecasts for international tourism
throughout 2030 and identify major
tourism trends in areas such as product
development, market segments,
marketing, hospitality or transport. Due
for release at the end of 2011 on the
occasion of the 19th session of UNWTO
General Assembly (Gyeongju, Republic
of Korea, October 2011), Tourism
Towards 2030 follows the landmark
UNWTO report Tourism Vision 2020.
New UNWTO long term forecast: Tourism Towards 2030
•	 ‘Understanding Tourism: Basic Glossary’
media.unwto.org/en/content/
understanding-tourism-basic-glossary
•	 ‘UNWTO World Tourism Barometer’
mkt.unwto.org/en/barometer
•	 ‘Demographic Change and Tourism’
publications.unwto.org/
Further reading and resources
International Tourism Receipts, 2010
Asia and the
Pacific,
249 $ bn, (27%)
Americas,
182 $ bn, (20%)
Africa,
32 $ bn, (3%)
Middle East
50 $ bn, (6%)
Europe,
406 $ bn, (44%)
International Tourist Arrivals, 2010
Asia and the
Pacific,
204 mn, (22%)
Americas,
150 mn, (16%)
Africa,
49 mn, (5%)
Europe,
477 mn, (51%)
204 mn, (22%)
49 mn, (5%)
477 mn, (51%)
Middle East
60 mn, (6%)
10
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
It is undeniable that in spite of its growing relevance and proven
contribution to GDP, jobs and exports, tourism still lacks due political
and economic recognition. During 2010, UNWTO strengthened its
advocacy work to promote the value of tourism as a driver of socio-
economic growth and development and to encourage its inclusion as a
priority in national and international development policies. The message
that tourism means jobs, trade, economic growth and development
was taken throughout the year to the highest levels of government and
international organizations.
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
11
Chapter 2
Mainstreaming tourism
in the global agenda
Representing 5% of the world’s GDP and 30% of the global
exports of services at over US$ 1 trillion, tourism is one of the
world’s largest and fastest growing economic sectors.
Tourism creates millions of jobs, accounting for 1 in
12 worldwide. Creating jobs diverse in their level of skill
requirement and regional distribution, tourism provides a fast
entry point into the workforce for many, particularly for young
people and women. As countries across the globe face the
challenge of unemployment, tourism can play a leading role
in fighting a jobless recovery.
Tourism also has an important part to play in fostering
development and fighting poverty. Recent trends show
that travel towards developing and least developed countries
(LDCs) is growing faster than in the developed world. Tourism
is one of the major economic sectors of developing countries
and the primary source of foreign exchange earnings in a vast
majority of these.
At the same time, tourism has the power to deliver
significant international earnings for environmental
protection as well as giving economic value to cultural
heritage. Tourism is a proven instrument for raising public
awareness of environmental issues and a sustainable tool
for cultivating natural resources and preserving biodiversity.
It is also a sector built on bringing people together in order
to learn about and understand each other, fostering mutual
respect and tolerance.
Tourismisalsooneofthemostfragmentedeconomicactivities,
comprising countless service providers and stakeholders
along the value chain including a high proportion of small and
medium enterprises (SMEs). As a result, coordinated sector-
wide action and positioning can be challenging.
The Roadmap for Recovery
The UNWTO Roadmap for Recovery, approved at the 18th
Session of the UNWTO General Assembly (Astana, Kazakhstan,
October 2009) emerged in direct response to the global
economic crisis. As the world faced the challenges of economic
recovery, issues such as job creation, poverty alleviation and
climate change remained top on the agenda. During 2010,
UNWTO promoted the principles of the Roadmap calling upon
world leaders to include tourism in recovery strategies
and encouraging public policies which support tourism’s
economic and development potential.
The Roadmap conveyed UNWTO’s core message: tourism
means jobs, trade, economic growth and development.
Representing a major step towards enhancing tourism’s central
position as an economic and socio-cultural tool, the Roadmap
sets out in three key areas – resilience, stimulus and the green
economy – how tourism can support global economic growth.
2
President Jacob Zuma of South Africa adressing the International Summit on
Tourism, Sport and Mega Events, February 2010.
12
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
The importance and challenge of
mainstreaming tourism was the focus
of the 2010 UNWTO Ministers’ Summit
at the World Travel Market (London,
UK, November 2010). The Summit,
held under the theme Shaping a
Stronger Travel and Tourism Industry,
offered ministers and the private sector
a platform to discuss how to increase
recognition and visibility of tourism’s
role in job creation, economic growth
and development, how to bring public
and private sectors together to create a
more competitive business environment
and how to integrate climate change
concerns and the Green Economy in the
tourism sector. Participants suggested
that closer analysis of the economic
value of tourism would help to highlight
its significance and mainstream the
sector. The importance of private
sector participation in globalizing the
message that tourism has significant
economic and development benefits
was stressed as was the need for
sustainable tourism, in its broadest
definition, to be prioritized.  
UNWTO Ministers’ Summit at the World Travel Market calls upon governments to
place tourism higher on the agenda
Throughout 2010 UNWTO Secretary-General,
Taleb Rifai, presented the Roadmap for Recovery
and the cause of tourism as a driver of growth and
development to a number of world leaders. He raised
the issue of tourism and its sustainability potential
among the highest authorities to ensure that tourism
receives the necessary political support to allow the
maximization of its benefits.
UNWTO Secretary-General presents the
Roadmap for Recovery to world leaders
Chapter 2 / Mainstreaming tourism in the global agenda
UNWTO©
President Leonel Fernández of the Dominican Republic and UNWTO
Secretary-General Taleb Rifai
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
13
“
”
Tourism is well-positioned to be a major
generator of revenue and is fundamental for
the generation of employment in this country.
This activity deserves its own portfolio which
will allow it to maintain and increase the
growth we’ve seen since 2003.
Cristina Fernández de Kirchner,
President of Argentina
Positioning tourism higher in national
and international agendas
UNWTO supports and promotes the mainstreaming of
tourism in global, national and regional agendas. 2010 has
shown many UNWTO Member States considering tourism
policy not only as a sector priority but also as an essential
instrument for key policies such as employment, regional
development, poverty alleviation, competitiveness and
sustainability.
UNWTO commends all countries which have acknowledged
the potential of tourism and prioritized the sector as part of
their national policies.
The T.20 Initiative
The launch of the T.20 initiative, in close connection with
the UNWTO Roadmap for Recovery, was a strategic
response to the global economic crisis and a major step
towards enhancing the profile of tourism as a driver of
economic growth and development. Recognizing the need
for international cooperation and dialogue in the face of
the crisis, the T.20 emerged to provide tourism ministers
with an opportunity to speak in a coordinated manner on
a number of global issues.
The T.20 is a member-driven initiative, with the full support
of UNWTO and other international organizations such as the
International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations
Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the
International Trade Centre (ITC). It offers a ministerial platform
for sharing best practices and discussing common challenges.
The T.20 strives to mainstream tourism’s voice in the global
agenda, through exploration of its potential regarding economic
growth and transformation to the Green Economy and through
better articulation and communication of the case for tourism.
2nd T20 Ministers’ Meeting, Republic of Korea, October 2010
14
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
The adoption of three resolutions
emphasizing the role of tourism in
sustainable development by the 65th
Session of the UN General Assembly
(December 2010) marked a significant
advancement in the positioning
of tourism in the development
agenda. The three resolutions, on
the implementation of the Global
Code of Ethics for Tourism, the
promotion of ecotourism and the
importance of sustainable tourism
for Small Island Developing
States, stress the significance of the
sector for the development agenda in
terms of sustainability, employment
and poverty alleviation.
The UN General Assembly recognizes the role of tourism in sustainable development
The T.20 is not formally linked to the G.20 or its institutional
structure, but there is strong synergy between their
agendas with priority issues such as economic growth,
employment, trade and investment. The T.20 is committed
to channelling its key message of tourism as a driver of
growth and development to high level discussions such
as the G.20.
In 2010, the T.20 met in South Africa in February and in the
Republic of Korea in October. Both meetings set a clear
commitment among members to intensify collaboration
between countries and engage with the international
community including the G.20, UN agencies, governments
and the private sector to mainstream tourism in the global
agenda and promote the socio-economic case for tourism.
Moving tourism higher in the development
agenda – Tourism as a tool for sustainable
development and poverty reduction
UNWTO has been working with the UN system as well as
with governments, private sector leaders and civil society
to move tourism higher on the sustainable development
and poverty reduction agendas.
Efforts have been strengthened ahead of Rio+20, the UN
Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD), to take
place in 2012 with a focus on the Green Economy in the
context of poverty eradication and sustainable development.
In this framework, in 2010, UNWTO came together with
seven UN agencies and programmes: ILO, UNCTAD,
UNDP, UNIDO, UNESCO, the World Trade Organization
(WTO) and the International Trade Centre (ITC), to
create the UN Steering Committee on Tourism for
Development (SCTD).
By harnessing the strengths and expertise of each agency
and creating synergies between UN organizations, the
Committee aims to deliver a more coordinated, effective
and efficient technical assistance and support to
developing countries.
UNWTO©
Chapter 2 / Mainstreaming tourism in the global agenda
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
15
•	 UNWTO Roadmap for Recovery
www.unwto.org/pdf/roadmap_
EN.pdf
•	 The T.20 Initiative
t20.unwto.org
•	 Positioning Tourism in Economic
Policy: Evidence and Some Proposals
statistics.unwto.org/sites/all/files/
docpdf/t20.pdf
•	 65th Session of the UN General
Assembly
www.un.org/en/ga/65/meetings
•	 UNWTO Media
media.unwto.org
•	 UN Steering Committee an Tourism
for Development
www.unwto.org/en/event/
promoting-tourism-sustainable-
development-and-poverty-reduction
Further reading and resources
The role of the media in mainstreaming tourism
In 2010, UNWTO reinforced its
commitment to raise media awareness
of the value of tourism as an economic,
employment and development
opportunity.
Several workshops and media trips took
place to encourage a balanced and
differentiated approach to reporting on
tourism, whilst emphasizing the need
for media coverage which promotes a
greater awareness of the socio-economic
value of tourism and its potential to
contribute to sustainable development.
Included in UNWTO activities was the
Deutsche Welle Global Media Forum
(Bonn, Germany, June 2010) on Climate
Change Reporting. A main focus of the
forum was the encouragement of public
awareness and the stimulation of policy
debate on the global issue of climate
change which can be achieved through
media exposure. UNWTO represented a
tourism-related perspective and delivered
a workshop about reporting on water
scarcity issues, discussing case study
examples of efficient water use in tourism.
In August, UNWTO visited the Dominican
Republic to discuss effective crisis
communications from an institutional
perspective and later organized a media
visit to Guatemala to introduce the media
to the country’s national tourism as a
harnesser of development. With this
central theme, the media group was
actively involved in a communications
seminar in the framework of the Central
American Travel Market (CATM) and
visited a UNWTO ST-EP (Sustainable
Tourism – Eliminating Poverty) project
implemented to strengthen community-
based tourism and build on the capacities
of local indigenous people. The visit,
which included an exclusive working
meeting with the President of Guatemala,
Álvaro Colom, served as an informative
experience on the value of tourism for
development and brought awareness
of the necessary measures authorities
should take in order to gain media
coverage which can contribute to building
a lasting reputation for their destination.  
UNWTO©
16
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
The success of a sustainable tourism sector which fulfills its potential
as a driver of employment, development and economic growth lies in
making destinations and companies more competitive. The capacity
to compete in tourism, particularly in an ever-globalized world, is at the
heart of national and industry efforts to attract international and domestic
visitors. UNWTO works to improve its Members’ tourism products
and destinations through knowledge building and exchange, human
resources development and the promotion of quality and excellence
in areas such as statistics, market trends, marketing, destination
management and risk and crisis management.
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
17
Chapter 3
Building a more competitive tourism sector
Market trends and marketing strategies:
improving market knowledge and acting
effectively
Competitive advantages in tourism depend on several factors,
including the investments made to create an attractive
product or destination, quality standards, levels of access,
adequacy of supply to demand, but also on appropriate
market intelligence and effective promotional strategy.
Adequate qualitative and quantitative knowledge of tourism
markets and identifiable trends are the foundation for informed
decision-making on key issues such as product development
and tourism promotion. On a regular basis, UNWTO provides
its Members, and the sector at large, with key data, market
trends, short and long term forecasts and know-how on
specific market segments and generating markets. In 2010,
UNWTO improved its monitoring by increasing the frequency
of publication of the UNWTO World Tourism Barometer.
Research on important trends was also carried out on issues
including religious tourism in Asia and demographic changes
and tourism. UNWTO activities in this area during 2010
also included direct assistance to Members and a series of
capacity building workshops in several regions focusing on
topics such as tourism in the news, destination management,
marketing and destination branding.
3
The UNWTO World Tourism Barometer
monitors short term trends, providing
tourism stakeholders with up-to-
date data and analysis in a relevant
and timely manner. The Barometer
contains three regular sections: an
overview of monthly data from over
100 destinations and generating
countries and air transport; the UNWTO
Confidence Index, providing the results
of the latest survey among the UNWTO
Panel of Tourism Experts evaluating the
last four months and prospects for the
following four months performance;
and selected economic data relevant
for tourism.
The global economic crisis and the
consequent market volatility highlighted
the need for closer market monitoring.
In response, in 2010, the publication
of the Barometer was strengthened to
include an advance release in January,
two full issues in June and October,
and two interim updates in April, and
August. UNWTO is now able to provide
more accurate, updated and useful
information for UNWTO Members and
the wider tourism community.  
The UNWTO World Tourism Barometer – improving market monitoring
Participants at the Risk and Crisis Management in the Tourism Sector
Workshop, Brazil, September 2010.
18
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
edge by ensuring tourism sustainability, by building a strong
brand identity and by spreading the benefits of tourism across
the local community.
Statistics and Tourism Satellite Account:
measuring the impact of tourism
Statistics provide the backbone to understanding tourism and
its role in the economy; they are vital for business analysis,
marketing strategy and public policy. The mission of UNWTO
in this area is to foster the development of national Systems
of Tourism Statistics (STS), the international comparability of
tourism statistics and the macroeconomic analysis of tourism.
Mandated by the United Nations as “the appropriate
organization to analyse, publish, standardize and improve the
statistics of tourism”1
, UNWTO has coordinated the international
community’s effort towards forging a consensus on what
Destination Management: good practices
in effective governance models to improve
destination performance
Improving the competitive advantages of tourism destinations
requires a coordinated management based on a collective
vision and strong partnerships. This can be realized through
effective strategies and governance structures which
respond to changing market trends, needs and interests. In
recent times, the pursuit of competitiveness has become a
major policy objective for National Tourism Administrations
(NTAs) at the central government level and a strategic
issue for Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) at
regional and local levels. UNWTO works to provide strategic
guidance in response to the growing need for a systematic
and multidisciplinary outlook for tourism. It supports and
assists destinations in their efforts to establish a competitive
Chapter 3 / Building a more competitive tourism sector
In response to requests from national
governments on behalf of tourism
administrations, provincial governments,
destination management organizations,
local communities or the private sector,
UNWTO provides technical assistance
in several areas including marketing
and promotion. In 2010, a Tourism
Marketing Development Plan was
completed for Tibet. An assessment of
tourism marketing and promotion was
carried out through consultations with
local officials, community leaders and
academics for the preparation of a new
marketing plan. The plan evaluated the
current conditions for tourism promotion
and identified the necessary marketing
resources for the long-term promotion of
Tibet as a tourism destination. Alongside
these recommendations, a strategy was
devised for the use of Tibetan culture
with a focus on ensuring that local
communities benefited directly from
tourism. The project was financed by the
China International Centre for Economic
Technical Exchanges (CICETE), the
Ministry of Commerce of China and the
UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramme
(UNDP). Other participating agencies
included the Department of Commerce
of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR),
Tibet Tourism Bureau (TTB) and Lhasa
Tourism Bureau (LTB).
Technical assistance on marketing planning: a marketing plan for Tibet
Adequate strategic marketing planning, including market research, branding and
auditing, can add significant competitive value to tourism destinations or companies.
In 2010, UNWTO and the European Travel Commission (ETC) published Budgets
of National Tourism Organizations, 2008-2009, a benchmarking reference tool on
inbound tourism marketing. The report analyses information on the budgets allocated
by National Tourism Organizations (NTOs) for the promotion of inbound tourism,
focusing on trends and developments. The report, which covers 62 countries
worldwide, also includes a special focus on the use of e-marketing, a key area for
the development of a modern, competitive approach to tourism marketing.  
Budgets of National Tourism Organizations, 2008-2009
1
Agreement between the United Nations and the World Tourism Organization, 2003.
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
19
Following the ratification of the
International Recommendations for
Tourism Statistics 2008 (IRTS 2008)
by the UN Statistical Commission
in February 2008, and the
concurrent adoption of the Tourism
Satellite Account: Recommended
Methodological Framework 2008 (TSA:
RMF 2008), UNWTO has implemented
a major Statistics Capacity Building
Programme (SCBP) in different regions
around the world.
The programme involves twelve to
fourteen Member countries in each
region participating in a series of three
or four workshops, at approximately
six month intervals. The workshops
are hosted in countries which are
considered to have the most advanced
Systems of Tourism Statistics (STS) in
the region and aim to assist countries
in improving and expanding their STSs.
An integral part of the programme
is the undertaking, by participating
countries, of preliminary in-house work
prior to each workshop. This work is
designed so as to establish the stage
at which each country’s STS is and
later to encourage the countries to
implement what they have learnt at
the workshops. In addition, regional
seminars are held where participants
are invited to share the knowledge
gained through the programme with
other countries in the region.
The SCBP has been implemented in
Central and Eastern Europe, hosted by
Austria and in English-speaking African
countries, hosted by South Africa. In
2010, UNWTO initiated the SCBP in the
South Asia-Pacific region.
The UNWTO Statistics Capacity-Building Programme
tourism is and how to measure it. This was achieved in 2008
with the approval by the UN Statistical Commission of a) the
International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008
(IRTS 2008), the conceptual framework of concepts, definitions
and classifications for compiling basic tourism statistics; and b)
the Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological
Framework 2008 (TSA: RMF 2008), the framework for the
economic measurement of tourism, consistent with existing
economic accounting standards.
Together, they form the conceptual framework for the
production of basic tourism data and indicators and the
basis for an adequate measurement of tourism activity which
is in accordance with the macroeconomic framework and
enables a credible measurement of tourism’s contribution
to the national economy.
BothrecommendationsarepartoftheUNofficialdocumentation
on international statistical standards and are supported by the
UN Statistics Division (UNSD), the World Trade Organization
(WTO), the European Union (Eurostat), the International Labour
Organization (ILO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the
Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development
(OECD), and World Bank, among others.
UNWTO©
20
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
In 2010, UNWTO completed a two-
year project for the development of a
TSA in Oman, collaborating closely with
the Government of Oman to produce
the first TSA for the period 2005-
2009 and to strengthen the national
System of Tourism Statistics (STS).
Through the application of international
recommendations on tourism statistics
and revising tourism data, particularly
for inbound and outbound tourism
expenditure and supply-side data
for tourism products and services,
the STS in Oman has been greatly
improved. UNWTO provided technical
recommendations to the Government on
improving data collection methodologies,
increasing the provision of statistics by
establishing new surveys in key sub-
sectors. A series of workshops was
organized to provide training to officials
on tourism statistics and on the TSA
methodological framework. UNWTO’s
assistance has enabled further analysis
of the different forms of tourism in Oman
and their contribution to the economy of
the Sultanate. This project was funded
by the Ministry of Tourism of Oman, with
the Ministry of National Economy as a
key partner. 
Technical assistance: Implementing the TSA in Oman
INRouTe, the
International
N e t w o r k
on Regional
E c o n o m i c s ,
Mobility and Tourism, is a non-profit
project that works to contribute to
informed and effective policy design
by bringing together international
experts to share information and
build on concrete research areas:
flows of visitors, tourism and territory,
and economic contributions.
INRouTe’s principal aim is to provide
guidance to entities involved with the
regional and local tourism destinations
in order to develop policy-oriented
measurement systems and the
analysis of tourism activity and the
tourism sector.
The network became operational in
the first quarter of 2010 and by the
end of the year consisted of over
60 Associate Partners in over 20
countries.  
INRouTe: Promoting tourism measurement at regional and local level
Advancing the Tourism Satellite Account
For the first time, in their most recent revisions of 2008, the
UN and IMF official standards on economic measurement
(the National Accounts and Balance of Payments)
explicitly identify tourism as a specific area of economic
activity and point to the Tourism Satellite Account (TSA)
as the appropriate tool for deriving key aggregates and
internationally comparable indicators on the macro-
economic contribution of the sector worldwide.
UNWTO is committed to advancing the development and
implementation of the TSA, a strategic statistical instrument.
The TSA is key for tourism policy and planning while providing
a useful tool for NTAs to advocate the cause of tourism and
contribute to mainstreaming it in the national agendas.
Chapter 3 / Building a more competitive tourism sector
UNWTO©
UNWTO©
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
21
By 2010, over 60 countries worldwide were identified as
having already produced or currently developing a TSA
exercise. UNWTO offers assistance to countries wishing to
improve their system of tourism statistics and develop a TSA.
Risk and crisis management – building a
more resilient tourism sector
The tourism sector is highly vulnerable to natural and man-
made incidents, often because the perception alone of risk
and disruption can effect tourist decisions and movements
and thus have a serious impact on the sector and the lives
of those who depend on the visitors’ economy. Therefore,
the sector requires risk management strategies and tools
to improve its readiness and resilience in time of crisis.
Market research and communications in
times of crisis
UNWTO works to assist its Members in assessing and
mitigating risks where travel and tourism is concerned
through capacity building and the development, planning
and implementation of crisis management systems.
An essential element of effective crisis management is
market research, which provides key information to ensure
crisis responses are efficient, timely and suitable. During
2010, UNWTO worked on the preparation of an easy-to-
use practical framework on market intelligence in
times of crisis. The manual, to be published in 2011, will
count on the input of Member States which have agreed
to share their views and identify the forms of intelligence
they consider critical in dealing with those crises which
effect tourism.
Recognizing the need to convey messages quickly and
accurately to assist travelers and the tourism sector
impacted by a crisis, another focus of UNWTO in
terms of risk and crisis management during 2010 was
communication. UNWTO started the preparation of a
Toolbox for Crisis Communications which will include
relevant definitions, step-by-step protocols, check lists,
templates, guidelines and best practices.
Advancements in technology provide an
ever-increasingnumberoftoolstofacilitate
crisis communication, including social
media and hand-held communications
technology. UNWTO held a meeting
on Crisis Communications and Social
Media in April 2010, focused on how
social media can help to mitigate the
negative effects of a crisis and influence
the safe behaviour of travelers. The
session’s results will be factored into the
Communications Toolbox. A workshop
on Roaming Messages for Effective
Risk Protection was also held in January
2010 in cooperation with the Spanish
Police (Comisaría General de Seguridad
Ciudadana de la Dirección General de
la Policía Española), which provided the
opportunity to analyse the challenges and
possibilities of mplementing roaming and
SMS technologies for risk prevention.
Mastering technology in crisis situations
GorferIstockphoto©
22
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
During 2010, UNWTO participated in
various activities held in the framework
of the UN initiative to capture and
apply lessons learned from the 2009
Pandemic (H1N1).
Although the impact of the pandemic
itself was mild, the consequences for the
tourism sector were significant in many
countries. UNWTO therefore considered
it important to collect, discuss and review
experiences with major travel and tourism
stakeholders. In May 2010, UNWTO held
an event on Travel and Tourism under
Challenging Circumstances, the Role of
Coordination, Market Intelligence and
Communications During the Pandemic
(H1N1) to address the challenges and
opportunities the pandemic brought onto
the tourism sector, and in December
2010 a workshop, Towards a Safer
World: Lessons Learned for the Travel
and Tourism Sector from the Pandemic
2009, to promote the lessons learned
from the pandemic and ensure that
these lead to a global approach to future
hazards of any kind. The results of these
meetings will contribute to a UN report
designed to improve regional and global
efforts in general disaster preparedness.  
Lessons learned for building a safer world
Chapter 3 / Building a more competitive tourism sector
Integrating tourism into national
emergency structures
To protect tourism, an important economic and
development pillar, national emergency structures require
a robust yet flexible design with a clear understanding of
the travel and tourism sector. Yet, studies show a lack
of consideration for the sector in national emergency
plans. Tourism is often only included in such plans as a
result of an incident which has affected the country and
caused major losses to the tourism sector. To improve
this situation, UNWTO initiated a research project on
the Integration of Tourism into National Emergency
Structures and Processes. The study, supported by the
Government of the Netherlands, will provide guidance
on the special needs and concerns of the tourism sector
while addressing forms of effective integration of tourism
in the national emergency systems through National
Tourism Organizations (NTOs), Destination Management
Organizations (DMOs) and the private sector.
UNWTO also ran a regional capacity building workshop in
Brazil in September 2010 on Risk and Crisis Management
in the Tourism Sector, convened in collaboration with the
Brazilian Ministry of Tourism. The workshop addressed
core issues for managing risks and crises, including
necessary organizational structures, accountability,
policies and procedures.
Risk and Crisis Management in the Tourism Sector Workshop, Brazil,
September 2010.
Risk and Crisis Management in the Tourism Sector Workshop, Brazil,
September 2010.
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
23
•	 UNWTO World Tourism Barometer
mkt.unwto.org/en/barometer
•	 International Recommendations for
Tourism Statistics 2008 (IRTS 2008)
statistics.unwto.org/en/content/
tourism-statistics-irts-2008-0
•	 Tourism Satellite Account:
Recommended Methodological
Framework 2008 (TSA:RMF 2008)
statistics.unwto.org/en/content/
tourism-satellite-account-
tsarmf-2008
•	 Commission of the European
Communities, International Monetary
Fund, Organization for Economic
Cooperation and Development,
United Nations and World Bank
joint publication System of National
Accounts 2008 (SNA 2008)
unstats.un.org/unsd/
nationalaccount/sna2008.asp
•	 Statistics Capacity-Building
Programme (SCBP)
statistics.unwto.org/en/content/
statistics-capacity-building-
programme-scbp
•	 Tourism Satellite Account statistics.
unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/
factsheet.pdf
•	 Understanding Tourism: Basic
Glossary
media.unwto.org/en/content/
understanding-tourism-basic-
glossary
•	 International Network on Regional
Economics, Mobility and Tourism
(INRouTe)
www.inroutenetwork.org/
•	 Tourism Emergency Response
Network (TERN)
rcm.unwto.org/en/content/about-
tourism-emergency-response-
network-tern-0
•	 Travel and Tourism under
Pandemic Conditions – Review and
Preparation Exercise
publications.unwto.org
•	 Travel and Tourism under Pandemic
Conditions – Second Review and
Preparation Exercise
publications.unwto.org
•	 Communications and Incentives:
The Importance of Fast and Sincere
Reporting
publications.unwto.org
Further reading and resources
The Tourism Emergency Response
Network (TERN) is a group of the
leading tourism associations, first
convened during the emergence of
the avian flu virus in 2006. Although
its initial purpose was to act as an
advisory and participatory body on
this particular crisis, the TERN is now
functioning for various other crisis
situations. During 2009, the TERN
was convened during the A(H1N1)
pandemic and in April 2010 due to the
closing of European airspace following
volcanic activity in Iceland.
UNWTO has recognized the need for
close collaboration among decision
makers and stakeholders in the
tourism public and private sectors
with a common goal of making travel
and destinations safer for tourists. The
TERN, an independent mechanism
hosted and managed by UNWTO,
works closely with other relevant
UN agencies in sharing real time
information, providing accurate public
messages and liaising with the media.
It also underscores the responsibility
of each institution involved to help
improve traveler wellbeing and
mitigate impacts of natural and man-
made disasters on tourism.
The Tourism Emergency Response Network (TERN)
Dirk Glaesser, UNWTO manager, Risk and Crisis
Management, speaks at the workshop and Travel
and Tourism Under Challenging Circumstances,
Malaysia, May 2010.
24
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
The advancement of sustainable tourism, one which establishes a
suitable balance between the environmental, economic and socio-
cultural aspects of tourism, lies at the heart of UNWTO mandate.
Whilst contributing to the generation of income and employment and
the conservation of local ecosystems, sustainable tourism attempts to
minimize its impact on the environment and local communities. In 2010,
UNWTO advanced its work in the areas of climate change, biodiversity,
the promotion of a more ethical tourism sector and the protection of
consumers and tourists.
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
25
Chapter 4
Sustainable tourism development
4
The imperative of a fair and balanced growth and
increased consumer awareness has contributed to the
rise of environmentally-aware tourism. More visitors can
mean further employment and income opportunities and
more funds for conservation. In fact, many areas of natural
beauty and diversity are preserved and protected thanks
to funds from the tourism sector.
Sustainable tourism development, including the potential
of the sector to facilitate intercultural understanding and
tolerance, requires the engagement and respect of all
relevant stakeholders, in particular of local communities,
as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide
participation and consensus building. Sustainable tourism
should maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and
ensure a meaningful experience to travellers, raising their
awareness about sustainability issues and promoting
sustainable tourism practices.
The UN acknowledged the role of tourism in sustainable
development and poverty eradication by adopting three
resolutions on sustainable tourism by consensus at its
65th
General Assembly in 2010. The resolutions further
welcome the efforts and work of UNWTO in this area.
UNWTO Committed to the Global
Sustainable Tourism Criteria
UNWTO is a founding member, and a permanent
member of the Board of the Council, of the Global
Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC), established in
2010 as a body for the dissemination and application of
the Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria.
The Criteria are a set of 37 voluntary standards
representing the minimum requirements tourism
businesses should aspire to reach in order to protect
and sustain natural and cultural resources while ensuring
tourism meets its potential as a tool for poverty alleviation.
Developed as part of an initiative led by UNWTO, the UN
Environmental Programme (UNEP), the UN Foundation
and the Rainforest Alliance in 2008, they cover four
concrete objectives:
a) maximizing tourism’s benefits to local
communities, b) reducing negative effects on
cultural heritage, c) reducing harm to local
environments and d) planning for sustainability.
The GSTC is currently working on an accreditation
process. In 2010, an Accreditation Manual was under
development, to give recognition to credible standards
used by certification programmes, national standardization
bodies, hotel chains and tour operators.
UNWTO©
26
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
UNWTO has joined the UN Industrial
Development Organization (UNIDO) to
promote sustainable tourism in coastal
areas of Africa. The COAST project aims
to reduce the degradation of marine
and coastal environments resulting
from tourism and enhance sustainable
tourism practices in nine West and East
African countries: Cameroon, Gambia,
Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria,
Senegal, Seychelles and Tanzania.
UNWTO is responsible for the
implementation of two tourism-specific
components of the project: ‘Eco-
tourism and Livelihoods’ and
‘Mechanisms for Sustainable Tourism
Governance and Management.’
Within the framework of the first
component, small ecotourism projects
will be executed in Cameroon, Gambia,
Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and
Tanzania, using the philosophy of
the ST-EP Initiative. To this end, in
2010, key stakeholders from these
beneficiary countries participated in ST-
EP training seminars. In the last quarter
of the year, UNWTO launched a study
on Sustainable Tourism Governance
in Coastal Areas, which will provide a
vision and recommendations for the
most appropriate type of mechanisms
for sustainable tourism governance in
coastal areas, based on which capacity
building seminars will be organized for
the COAST beneficiary countries.
The project, which began in January
2009 and will run to the end of 2013, is
funded by the Global Environment Facility
(GEF) and coordinated by UNIDO with
UNWTO as an Associated Agency.
UNWTO joins UNIDO to promote sustainable tourism in Africa
Chapter 4 / Sustainable tourism development
In order to help policy makers,
planners and tourism managers to
strengthen their institutional capacities
for information management and
monitoring, UNWTO launched, in 2004,
the concept of the Global Observatory
of Sustainable Tourism (GOST) based
on its methodology for sustainable
tourism indicators.
The initiative intends to facilitate
the establishment of a network of
observatories, using a systematic set of
monitoring, evaluation and information
management techniques as key tools for
the formulation and implementation of
sustainable tourism policies, strategies,
plans and management processes.
In September 2010, during the
celebrations of World Tourism Day
in Guangzhou, China, UNWTO and
the Sun Yat-Sen University agreed
to collaborate on the establishment
of a Monitoring Centre for UNWTO
Sustainable Tourism Observatories.
This initiative has the overarching aim
to use the information gathered on the
social, environmental and economic
impacts of tourism to help policy
makers decide on future developments
whilst improving coordination between
the public and private sectors. This
cooperation is consistent with UNWTO’s
commitment to continuing and
broadening its collaboration with SYSU on
developing existing and future sustainable
tourism observatories in China. While
SYSU will publish and communicate
monitoring reports and other relevant
research outcomes, UNWTO will provide
technical assistance and guidance for
the Monitoring Centre and its activities.
Both parties are dedicated to promoting
the Monitoring Centre as a platform for
networking and knowledge exchange on
sustainable tourism in the region.  
UNWTO Sustainable Tourism Observatories
UNWTO and Sun yat-Sen University sign agreement on UNWTO Sustainable Tourism Observatories during World Tourism Day Celebrations, China, September 2010.
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
27
Tourism: responding to climate change
Climate change is one of the most serious threats to
society, the economy and the environment, and is an issue
of increased international concern. The tourism sector is
highly climate sensitive as climate defines the length and
quality of tourism seasons, affects tourism operations and
influences the environmental conditions that have potential
for attracting and deterring visitors. The effects of a changing
climate will have considerable impacts on tourism business
and in some parts of the world, these consequences are
already increasingly evident.
Too often, decisions on climate change are taken in isolation
from the broader tourism framework, a consequence of the
limited understanding and recognition of tourism’s farreaching
potential. Measures directed towards air transport, for
example, singled out for separate mitigation treatment
under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate
Change (UNFCCC), can have detrimental knock-on effects
on many countries, particularly developing countries which
are highly dependent on tourism for income and employment.
Climate change is now firmly established in the global agenda
and critical negotiations for a greenhouse gas emissions
framework continue. The tourism sector has an interest
and an obligation to address the climate change challenge.
UNWTO has embraced this challenge by establishing
collaborative partnerships, raising awareness, developing
guidance and providing support on possible adaptation and
mitigation strategies for the tourism sector.
UNWTO has been working to raise awareness on climate
change issues in the tourism sector for many years, namely
through the Djerba and the Davos Process of 2007. The
Organization also developed and disseminated a unique
report on the subject in 2008, assessing the tourism´s
contribution to climate change at 5% of global CO2
emissions.
Tourism in the COP16
The Conference of the Parties (COP16) of the UNFCC was
held in Mexico, offering a platform from which to formalise
pledges and promises made to limit emissions and provide
clarity on the continuation of the Kyoto protocol.
UNWTO, jointly with the Ministry of Tourism of Mexico, held
a side event at the COP16 entitled Tourism’s Response to
Climate Change: What Next? which allowed for the exchange
of experiences on actions undertaken by the public and
private sector to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. It
focused on areas such as investment in new technologies
and the importance of providing support to developing
countries through adequate financing mechanisms.
For UNWTO, it was also an important opportunity to
continue advocating the integration of tourism as a whole
within the evolving UN framework, and to ensure that the
sector’s positive effects on economic growth, development
and poverty alleviation provide the context for debate. The
conference underlined the vulnerability of certain tourism
destinations in developing countries to the devastating
impacts of climate change on rising sea levels, destruction
of coral reefs and the loss of basic tourism services such as
water supply and food security.
Secretary of Tourism, Gloria Guevara, and President of Mexico, Felipe Calderón,
at the tourism side event held at COP16, November/December 2010.
28
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
In 2008, UNWTO initiated the Hotel
Energy Solutions (HES) project to drive
the competitiveness and sustainability of
the accommodation industry across the
27 European Union Member States by
helping small and medium-sized (SME)
hotels to reduce operational costs and
increase the use of energy efficiency (EE)
and renewable energy (RE) technologies.
Recognizing that the use of fossil fuels for
energy is the main source of greenhouse
gases and therefore of climate change,
and that the hotel industry is one of the
tourism sector’s most energy intensive
industries, the project is a response to
the climate imperatives in line with EU
targets and UNWTO’s Davos Process.
The project has identified as an initial
objective to achieve a 20% increase in
energy efficiency and a 10% rise in the
use of renewable energy technologies
within SMEs hotels in Europe. The
outputs include developing an e-toolkit
and supporting materials to assist
establishments in assessing their current
energy needs and planning for and
investing in EE and RE technologies. The
e-toolkit, to be available in August 2011,
is an innovative software application
that offers a carbon footprint
calculator, data analysis,
decision-making support
and recommendations to
improve energy use. Once
completed, the e-toolkit will be
disseminated and promoted in hotels in
Europe, highlighting practical solutions
and enabling hotels to benchmark their
energy performance and prioritize the
most cost-effective investments.
In January 2010, the first Hotel Energy
Solutions Annual Conference took
place, combining a specialized forum
and interactive workshops giving the
energy and tourism sectors a unique
opportunity to meet, exchange ideas
and collaborate. Later in the year, the
test phase of the e-toolkit began, with
the support of local authorities, in two
pilot destinations: the rural destination of
the Nature Park of Strandja in Bulgaria
and the coastal destination of the Palma
de Mallorca in Spain. Plans were also
developed for the testing of the e-toolkit
in the urban destination of Bonn in
Germany and the mountain destination
of Haute-Savoie in France for 2011.
In addition to the e-toolkit, the Hotel
Energy Solutions project also includes
research on energy efficiency and
renewable energy and promotional
materials for use by hotels as awareness
raising tools for their customers on
energy saving. Future expansion of
the e-toolkit will include its availability
in other languages, the development
of tools for specific regions and the
adaptation of the tool to water and
waste consumption.
The Hotel Energy Solutions project
is a European Commission co-
funded venture bringing together key
organizations in tourism and energy
technologies: UNWTO, UNEP, the
International Hotel and Restaurant
Association (IH&RA), the European
Renewable Energy Council (EREC),
the French Environment and Energy
Management Agency (ADEME). The
project is endorsed by the Sustainable
Energy Europe Campaign.  
Hotel Energy Solutions – fostering innovation to fight climate change in the
accomodation industry
Chapter 4 / Sustainable tourism development
UNWTO©
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
29
As part of the efforts to create a
model destination for sustainable
tourism in Kho Khao, Thailand, the
UNWTO Consulting Unit on Tourism
and Biodiversity implemented the
PEEK project. The project aimed to
reduce up to 20% of the greenhouse
gases generated by the hotel industry
on the island by inducing the island,
previously supplied with electricity from
mainland Thailand, to switch over to a
regenerative energy supply.
After offering detailed audit reports on
consumption profiles and individual
energy-saving recommendations, the
project assisted hotels in the tenders
for the installation of renewable energy
technologies. Furthermore, the project
provided guidance in the analysis
of tender results, the selection and
the installation of the most adequate
technologies. After the construction
process was completed in June
2010, the equipment was tested for
performance and handed over for
ownership to the hotels.
In addition to the practical on-site
work, efforts were made to raise
awareness of energy saving measures
in the area, including the creation
of an Energy Efficiency Handbook
for Hotels in Thailand providing
guidance on how to use energy more
efficiently and cut down energy costs.
Workshops and training were held for
the people of the Kho Khao island
which resulted in increased interaction
between stakeholders and a growing
recognition of the competitive
advantage of adopting energy efficient
ways. Following the successful
implementation of the PEEK project,
it was further decided in 2010 that
the project would be expanded to
the Khao Lak region, one of the areas
hardest hit by the tsunami in 2004.
The project was financed by the
German Federal Ministry for the
Environment, Nature Conservation
and Nuclear Safety under the
International Climate Protection
Initiative and implemented by the
UNWTO Consulting Unit on Tourism
and Biodiversity, in collaboration with
Adelphi, Berlin, and with the support of
the Ministry of Tourism and Sports of
Thailand.
Promoting Energy Efficiency in Thailand
Tourism and biodiversity
The Convention on Biological Diversity defines biodiversity
as “the variability among living organisms from all sources
including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic
ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they
are part; this includes diversity within species, between
species and of ecosystems.”
The loss of biodiversity at an alarming rate is largely
attributed to unsustainable human activities such
as climate change, pollution and uncontrolled land
conversion. Therefore, rising tourism numbers bring
complex challenges to biodiversity conservation which
UNWTO is committed to address, while encouraging its
Member States to also do so.
Many popular tourism attractions such as beaches,
coral reefs and wildlife viewing are strongly linked with,
and dependent on, biodiversity and this is therefore key
to the sustained growth of tourism. Undeniably, healthy
ecosystems attract millions of tourists, which in turn bring
income and employment to locals. In tackling poverty
alleviation and development, biodiversity-based tourism
represents an important source of income for the world’s
poorer countries, around 70% of whom live in rural areas
and depend directly on biodiversity for their survival and
wellbeing. Biodiversity also provides developing countries
with a competitive advantage in regard to tourism, as
they possess the largest proportion of global biodiversity.
Tourism can moreover be an important vehicle in raising
awareness and fostering positive behaviour change for
biodiversity conservation among millions of travellers.
UNWTO©
30
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
The project Upgrading Local
Facilities to Promote Community-
based Elephant Tourism and Nature
Conservation in the Hongsa District
of Lao PDR was designed to provide
alternative forms of income for the
Mahouts and local people, previously
involved in logging activities, through
the development of community-
based tourism.
The project addressed the continuing
increase in deforestation and
habitat loss and the decline in
endangered domesticated Asian
elephant populations caused by
the unsustainable logging industry
common across the country, by using
tourism as a tool for development and
environment conservation. During
a twelve month period, tourism
facilities were upgraded, including
the construction of an Elephant
Information Center, the provision of
multilingual environmental education
materials, the promotion of local
products for sale and the supply of
basic elephant trekking equipment.
To ensure the sustainability of the
tourism attraction, the first civil society
Mahout Association was established
to manage the community-based
enterprise independently. This
network is composed of over 30
elephant owners and workers, who
can now collectively organize, design
and develop tourism activities in the
local district, as a result of capacity-
building activities, the establishment
of association statues and the
appointment of representatives.
Completed in August 2010, the
project was implemented within the
ST-EP Initiative with the support
of the International Union for
Conservation of Nature (IUCN)
Netherlands, Elephant Adventures
– Green Discovery, ElephantAsia, the
Viengkeo Village Community and the
Hongsa Mahout Community.
This and other success stories
on tourism and biodiversity were
promoted as part of the 2010 World
Tourism Day celebrations. The World
Tourism Day website launched
several examples of Inspiring
Stories, a selection of initiatives
which demonstrated how to apply
the principles of sustainable tourism
to biodiversity conservation. Stories
were contributed by website visitors
from across the globe. The case
studies serve as models for future
tourism development, demonstrating
how the tourism community is
working to protect biodiversity.
Consistent in all initiatives are
endeavours to educate tourists
about biodiversity conservation and
sustainable travel.   
Tourism and biodiversity: Inspiring stories
World Tourism Day 2010: Tourism and
Biodiversity
2010 was declared by the UN as the Year of Biodiversity,
consistent with UN Millennium Development Goal 7 -
Ensure Environmental Sustainability - and coinciding with
the deadline set in 2002 by governments to achieve a
significant reduction in rates of biodiversity loss by 2010.
World Tourism Day (WTD) is celebrated every year on 27
September, with the purpose of fostering awareness of the
importance of tourism and its social, cultural, political and
economic value.
WTD 2010 was celebrated in the Guangdong Province,
China, under the theme Tourism and Biodiversity, chosen by
the UNWTO General Assembly to coincide with the UN Year
of Biodiversity and to raise public awareness of the close
relationship between tourism development, biodiversity and
poverty reduction. Celebrations, organized by UNWTO,
Chapter 4 / Sustainable tourism development
the China National Tourism Administration (CNTA) and the
Guangdong Provincial Government, in collaboration with
the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA), included a High
Level Dialogue on Tourism, Biodiversity and Sustainable
Development.
Conclusions of the World Tourism Day High Level Dialogue
on Tourism and Biodiversity:
•	 Biodiversity and its ecosystem services are among
tourism’s most valuable assets;
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
31
In January 2010, UNWTO, with the
support of the Federal Republic of
Germany, established the UNWTO
Consulting Unit on Tourism and
Biodiversity. The Unit is a direct
evolution of the Consulting Unit
on Tourism and Biodiversity for
Tsunami Affected Countries, created
in 2006 to provide expertise and
support to affected countries in
the redevelopment of tourism
infrastructure.
The Unit, now with a wider mandate,
provides support services to
UNWTO Member States on issues
of biodiversity-based tourism,
participatory tourism planning and
linkages of biodiversity policy issues
with sustainable tourism. Building on
strong technical capacity, lessons
learned, accumulated experience and
well-established networks, the Unit
is involved in the cooperation of the
Convention on Biological Diversity.
In 2010, the Unit cooperated with
the UN Environment Programme
(UNEP) in assisting the parties to the
Carpathian Convention (the seven
countries which are home to one of
Europe’s largest mountain ranges,
the Carpathians) in finalising the
tourism protocol of the convention,
the development of the sustainable
tourism strategy and the elaboration
of follow-up projects. In doing so, the
Unit also participated in the Carpathian
Convention’s Working Group on
Tourism and the convention’s
Implementation Committee in 2010.
The Unit also cooperated with the
Slovak Government to facilitate the
development of a model destination
management platform in the UNESCO
World Heritage site of the town of
Banska Stiavnica.
UNWTO Consulting Unit on Tourism and Biodiversity, Bonn, Germany
UNWTO©
•	 This is especially the case for developing countries,
where the largest proportion of global biodiversity can be
found and where biodiversity-based tourism can make a
valuable contribution to socio-economic development;
•	 The tourism sector must assume collective
responsibility for sustainability;
•	 The public sector must establish a policy framework and
conditions for the sustainable development of tourism by
integrating tourism into national diversity plans;
•	 The private sector must implement sustainable
objectives and assess their performance;
•	 It is only through involving and engaging with the local
community that tourism can be truly sustainable.
Income generated from biodiversity-based products
must be shared at a local level, as an additional incentive
for communities to protect their natural heritage.
Recommendations from the High Level Dialogue were
presented by UNWTO to the 10th
Meeting of the Conference
of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity
(COP10) in Nagoya, Japan at which delegates shaping a
global strategy to save the world’s ecosystems took note of
tourism’s role in safeguarding biodiversity.
32
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
Chapter 4 / Sustainable tourism development
UNWTO©
Tourism in the Convention on Biological
Diversity (COP10)
UNWTO participated actively in the 10th
Meeting of Conference
of Parties (COP10), held in Japan (October 2010). UNWTO
used this opportunity to raise awareness of the importance
of biodiversity for the sustainable development of tourism
and to promote the recommendations of the WTD High Level
Dialogue which highlight that conserving biodiversity is a
collective responsibility of the tourism sector. On the basis of this
participation and of the previous work developed by UNWTO, a
paragraph on tourism and biodiversity outlining the Convention’s
commitment to continue collaborating with UNWTO, namely on
the review of the application of the Convention on Biodiversity
Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development, was
included in Decision X/20 of the COP10.
In 1999, the UNWTO General Assembly adopted the Global
Code of Ethics for Tourism as a framework to tackle
these issues. The Code, adopted in 2001 by the UN General
Assembly, is a comprehensive set of principles designed to
guide stakeholders, such as governments, local communities,
the tourism sector and professionals, as well as visitors, in the
responsible and sustainable development of tourism. Drawing
inspiration from similar declarations and industry codes, the
Global Code of Ethics for Tourism adds new thinking that
reflects the changing society, the threats it faces and the tools
it provides, at the beginning of the 21st
century.
The World Committee on Tourism Ethics:
fostering facilitation of tourist travel
The World Committee on Tourism Ethics met for its ninth
meeting in Luxor, Egypt, in April 2010. This independent
and impartial body was established in 2004 to promote and
disseminate the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, evaluate
and monitor its implementation and offer conciliation for the
settlement of disputes concerning the Code’s application
and interpretation. In Luxor, pursuant to the UNWTO General
Assembly Resolution on Facilitation of Tourist Travel (2009),
the Committee expressed concerns regarding the delays
and rising costs of visas, the reluctance of some countries
to remove entry restrictions for people affected by HIV/AIDS,
and the need to improve the accessibility of tourism services
and facilities for people with disabilities.
Child protection in tourism: preventing
exploitation
In March 2010, the 25th
Meeting of the UNWTO Task Force
on the Protection of Children in Tourism took place at ITB
Berlin, as a forum for tourism’s key players to share innovative
and inspiring initiatives undertaken to protect children. For
over a decade, UNWTO has coordinated the activities of
the Task Force, a multi-stakeholder open-ended network
comprising private sector representatives, governments,
international organizations and specialized media outlets.
Its mission is to contribute to the prevention of all forms
of child exploitation related to the tourism sector, including
sexual exploitation, child labour and child trafficking.
The 25th
Meeting of the Task Force focused on preventative
training tools presented by the International Labour
Organization (ILO) and ECPAT (End Child Prostitution
Tourism and ethics: towards a more
responsible tourism sector
Tourism, far from being solely an economic activity, is a form
of human interaction with substantial impacts on everyday
life. The direct and spontaneous contact between cultures
encouraged by tourism raises a series of ethical issues and
highlights the important responsibilities of tourism operators,
governments, individual travellers and local communities.
Sustainable tourism development aims to address these
ethical questions and reconcile potential tensions between
development and environment, openness to international
trade and protection of socio-cultural identities. Ensuring
the development and implementation of sustainable
tourism means that its benefits can reach travellers, host
communities and their surroundings.
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
33
•	 UNWTO Sustainable Development
sdt.unwto.org
•	 COAST project:
www.coast.iwlearn.org
•	 Global Sustainable Tourism Council
www.gstcouncil.org
Climate Change and Tourism
www.unwto.org/climate/index.php
•	 Djerba Declaration on Climate Change
and Tourism
publications.unwto.org
•	 Davos Declaration:Climate Change and
Tourism,Responding to Global Challenges
www.unwto.org/pdf/pr071046.pdf
•	 Hotel Energy Solutions (HES)
www.hotelenergysolutions.net
•	 Convention on Biological Diversity
www.cbd.int
•	 UNWTO Consulting Unit on Tourism
and Biodiversity
biodiv.unwto.org
•	 UNWTO World Tourism Day 2010
www.unwto.org/worldtourismday
•	 Tourism and Biodiversity: Achieving
Goals Towards Sustainability
publications.unwto.org
•	 Practical Guide for the Development
of Biodiversity-based Tourism
Products
publications.unwto.org
•	 UNWTO Global Code of Ethics for
Tourism
ethics.unwto.org/en/content/global-
code-ethics-tourism
•	 Workshop on the Protection of
Tourists/ Consumers and Travel
Organizers
unwto.org/en/event/workshop-
protection-tourists-consumers-and-
travel-organizers
Further reading and resources
Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual
Purposes). The reporting session featured contributions from
the governments of Brazil, India and Indonesia, and from
several NGOs, travel agents, the Organization for Security
and Cooperation in Europe (OCSE) and the UN Children’s
Fund (UNICEF).
In collaboration with ILO, UNICEF and various partners from
the public and private sectors, including NGOs and the
media, UNWTO launched an international child protection
campaign in November 2008 under the slogan ‘Don’t Let
Child Abuse Travel’. The campaign is part of UNWTO’s on-
going work on child protection in tourism and includes video
spots and other awareness-raising materials continually
disseminated among tourism stakeholders, and providing
specific recommendations for the protection of children and
adolescents in the sector.
Consumer/tourist protection
The closure of European airspace due to volcanic activity
in Iceland in April 2010 highlighted the absence of
international guidelines on the rights and responsibilities
of tourists and tourism stakeholders. UNWTO’s Executive
Council, the organization’s governing body, therefore
recognized the need for a global legal framework for the
protection of both parties. The Council decided at its 89th
UNWTO©
session in October 2010 to initiate a study on a possible
international text for safeguarding tourists and tour
operators. A proposal was approved to start preparations,
and a working group was established to define the scope
of the document. In 2011, the first workshop on the
Protection of Tourists/ Consumers and Travel Organizers
will take place to enable preliminary discussion.
34
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
As one of the major export sectors and sources of employment in many
leastdevelopedanddevelopingcountries,duetoitsgeographicalspread
and labour intense nature, sustainable tourism can play a decisive role
in the fight against poverty.
Development is at the core of UNWTO’s agenda. According to its
statutes UNWTO shall, in pursuing the promotion of tourism, “pay
particular attention to the interests of the developing countries”. The
Organization supports its Members, 75% of which are recipients of
Official Development Assistance, in their efforts to sustainably develop
and promote their tourism sectors as a tool for socio-economic growth
and development.
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
35
Chapter 5
UNWTO Technical Cooperation:
fostering tourism as a tool for
development and poverty alleviation
UNWTO Technical Cooperation
Tourism is today the main source of foreign exchange for one
third of developing countries and among the top three sources
of exports earnings for almost half of the least developed
countries (LDCs). As international and domestic tourism
continues to grow there is stronger evidence that the sector,
when developed and managed in a sustainable manner, can
make a significant contribution to poverty reduction.
Technical Cooperation is at the very heart of UNWTO work. For
more than thirty years, UNWTO has been providing technical
assistance to its Members covering a wide range of issues from
tourism planning, marketing and promotion, human resources,
to specific issues such as tourism legislation, tourism satellite
account, and quality standards, among others.
UNWTO Technical Cooperation includes also the
implementation of projects within the framework of the
Sustainable Tourism – Alleviating Poverty (ST-EP)
initiative. These micro-level projects focus on developing
tourism as a means of sustainable livelihood at the local
community level. The ST-EP projects further aim to improve
the capacities of national tourism administrations and local
authorities in least developed and developing countries to
The wide range of products and
services which constitute UNWTO’s
technical assistance has been gathered
and presented in the first Technical
Assistance Portfolio in 2010.
The portfolio, an easy-to-use guide
and a reference to Member States on
the products and services provided
by UNWTO, outlines in detail the
assistance provided in the areas of
a) Policy Planning and Economic
Development, b) Human Resource
Development, c) Product Development,
Marketing & Promotion and d) Statistics
and Quality Standards.
The UNWTO Technical Cooperation Portfolio
5
ST-EP Project: The Canapy Walkway and Zip Line: a new tourist attraction at
Dong Hua Sao National Protected Area Lao PDR.
devise and implement poverty reduction policies, plans and
projects, through the development of sustainable forms of
tourism.
Furthermore, UNWTO Technical Cooperation includes the
implementation of projects under the Spanish Millennium
Development Goals Achievement Fund (MDG-F) in
collaboration with other UN Agencies and Programmes
under the aegis of the UN Development Programme (UNDP).
36
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
In 2010, following the formulation of a
Tourism Development Master Plan for
the State of Punjab in 2008, UNWTO
was actively engaged in ensuring that
tourism development and promotion
follows the right path and that the
adequate capacities are developed for
overseeing and managing sustainable
tourism in the State.
The Master Plan acknowledges
the potential of Punjab to become
a competitive tourism destination
based on its rich cultural, religious
and natural heritage. UNWTO is
assisting the Government of Punjab
in establishing a well-structured and
coordinated implementation of the
plan’s recommendations. In doing so,
major outputs of the project include
the recruitment of technical advisers,
capacity building in tourism operations
and management, enactment of the
Tourism Industry Development bill,
establishment of the Punjab Tourism
Authority, development of a tourist
information centre network, formulation
of a marketing plan and the branding of
Punjab.
The project is run in partnership with
the Tourism and Culture Department of
the Government of Punjab, the Punjab
Heritage and Tourism Promotion Board
and the Punjab Tourism Development
Corporation. The current phase of the
project is due to be completed in 2011.  
Implementing the Punjab Tourism Development Master Plan, India
Chapter 5 / UNWTO Technical Cooperation:
Fostering Tourism as a Tool for Development and Poverty Alleviation
In 2010, the formulation of a National
Strategy for the Sustainable Development
of Tourism for Burundi was completed.
The strategy, led by UNWTO with
the support of UNDP, includes the
identification of Burundi’s key tourism
resources and their development
into attractions and possible ways
to improve the economic impact
of tourism in the country, and
provides guidelines for institutional
strengthening and public-private
partnership in tourism development
and promotion.
Furthermore, UNWTO has prepared
a draft Tourism Law, established a
preliminary system of tourism statistics
including new Entry/Exit cards and
conducted pre-feasibility studies for the
development of two tourism pilot projects.
The programme was initiated at the
request of the Government of Burundi
which identified tourism as a priority for
development, given its potential to create
sustainable livelihoods.
Additional partners included the Ministry
of Trade, Industry, Post and Tourism and
the National Tourism Organization, along
with other Government institutions and
representatives of the private sector.
Technical Assistance in Burundi: National Sustainable Development Strategy
UNWTO©
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
37
The MDG Achievement Fund Projects
The MDG Achievement Fund (MDG-F) is an international
cooperation mechanism whose aim is to accelerate progress
on the MDGs worldwide. Established in December 2006 with
a generous contribution of US$ 710 million from the Spanish
Government to the UN system, the MDG-F supports national
governments, local authorities and citizen organizations in
their efforts to tackle poverty and inequality.
In 2010, UNWTO was actively involved in eleven tourism
development projects in the framework of the MDG-F in
nine countries: Ecuador, Egypt, Honduras, Nicaragua,
Panama, Peru, Senegal, Serbia and Turkey. The formulation
and implementation of the projects, which cover various
areas, such as environment and climate change, culture and
development, youth employment and migration and private
The MDG-F project Sustainable Tourism
for Rural Development in Serbia was
launched in January 2010. UNWTO is
to develop, with FAO, UNDP, the UNEP
and the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF),
the legal and policy frameworks
to support the diversification of
rural economy and improve local
stakeholders’ capacities for developing
services and products.
UNWTO is working on the formulation
of a National Rural Tourism Master
Plan which will be led by a national-
level working group consisting of
various partners and stakeholders.
UNWTO is also responsible for
facilitating the establishment of tourism
governance organizations and regional
destination management activities,
coordinating regional and municipal
tourism investments, supporting pilot
projects and providing training courses
on various aspects of rural tourism
development.
The project is operating in coordination
with the Ministry of Economy and
Regional Development, the Ministry
of Agriculture, Forestry and Water
Management and the Tourism
Organization of Serbia. The Concept
Note of the joint programme was
recognized by the MDG-F Secretariat in
New York as a document of “exceptional
quality” and will be highlighted as an
example of best practice.
Sustainable Tourism for Rural Development in Serbia
sector and development, was done in collaboration with
several UN agencies and programmes, including UNESCO,
UNDP, FAO, UN HABITAT, UNIFEM, UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO,
UNHCHR, ILO, UNIDO, UNV, UNCTAD and UNEP.
The MDG-F project Entrepreneurial
Opportunities Network for Poor
Families was initiated in Panama in
January 2010. UNWTO is working
alongside four other UN agencies (UNDP,
FAO, UNIDO and the UN Conference on
Trade and Development (UNCTAD)), with
the objective of reducing poverty levels
through adequate public policies, access
to productive resources, cost and risk
reduction, and greater productivity and
better working conditions.
UNWTO is supporting the poor
population, especially in rural and
indigenous zones, through initiating
new sustainable micro-ventures with
emphasis in the tourism sector, and
creating policies targeted at developing
tourism initiatives that benefit the poor
through training and technical assistance.
The project is operating in coordination
with the Ministry of Agricultural
Development, the Panamanian Tourist
Board, the Ministry of Commerce and
Industry, the Ministry of Economy and
Finance, the Small and Medium-Sized
Business Authority and the provincial and
local governments of Coclé, Herrera,
Veraguas and Chiriqui.  
Entrepreneurial Opportunities Network for Poor Families in Panama
GuentergniIstockphoto©
38
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
The Sustainable Tourism – Eliminating
Poverty (ST-EP) Initiative
Although tourism has a huge potential for poverty alleviation,
often poor segments of the population in developing countries
and LDCs do not benefit from its economic advantages. The
UNWTO Sustainable Tourism – Eliminating Poverty
(ST-EP) Initiative promotes poverty alleviation through the
provision of assistance in sustainable development projects.
Through the ST-EP Initiative, UNWTO links its efforts towards
tackling poverty with its longstanding pursuit of sustainable
tourism, the MDGs and the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism.
Following the launch of the ST-EP Initiative at the
Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development
in 2002, and the establishment of the UNWTO ST-
EP Foundation in Seoul, Republic of Korea, the
implementation of ST-EP projects began towards the end
of 2005 with a training programme for local guides in the
village of Ebogo in Cameroon. Since then, the portfolio of
ST-EP projects has rapidly expanded and now includes 95
projects in a total of 33 countries, ranging from developing
ecotourism products with local communities in Guatemala
to developing and promoting the Great Himalaya Trail in
Nepal with a view to enhance the local economic impact
from tourism in the country. All beneficiary countries are
Official Development Assistance (ODA) recipients and of
these, half are LDCs.
AlexSavaIstockphoto©
Chapter 5 / UNWTO Technical Cooperation:
Fostering Tourism as a Tool for Development and Poverty Alleviation
The MDG-F Project Alliances for Culture
Tourism in Eastern Anatolia aims at
contributing to community cohesion,
employment creation and the reduction
of socio-economic differences through
enhancing cultural tourism.
UNWTO is responsible for various
aspects of tourism development at a
local level, including the formulation
of a Cultural Tourism Strategy and
capacity building programmes in
tourism entrepreneurship development.
The project includes the creation of
a visitor information center and the
organization of tour operator and media
familiarization trips.
The local communities are involved
in the development of tourism
advancements, specifically through
a Volunteers Programme conducted
by UNWTO.
The project is being carried out by
four UN agencies: UNDP, UNESCO,
UNICEF and UNWTO, in coordination
with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism
of Turkey, and the provincial and local
governments of the Kars Region.  
Alliances for Culture Tourism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
39
ST-EP projects worldwide, 2006-2010
•	 Over 150 pilot projects
identified
•	 95 projects approved for
implementation in 33
countries and 3 regions
(West and Southern Africa
and Central America)
•	 Total project portfolio valued
at over USD 10 million
AMERICAS
Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador,
Guatemala, Honduras,
Nicaragua, Peru
AFRICA
Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana,
Guinea, Keny Lesotho, Madagascar,Mali, Mozambique,
Namibia, Niger, Rwar, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania
EUROPE
Albania
ASIa
Bhutan.
Cambodia,
China,
Lao PDR,
Nepal,
Vietnam
MIDDLE EAST
Yemen
The ST-EP Initiative is based on seven different mechanisms
through which the poor can benefit directly or indirectly
from tourism. These channels of action are incorporated
into ST-EP projects and have been widely disseminated.
The seven ST-EP mechanisms:
1.	 Employment of the poor in tourism enterprises
2.	 Supply of goods and services to tourism
enterprises by the poor or by enterprises
employing the poor
3.	 Direct sales of goods and services to visitors
by the poor (informal economy)
4.	 Establishment and running of tourism
enterprises by the poor, e.g. micro, small
and medium sized enterprises or community
based enterprises (formal economy)
5.	 Tax or levy on tourism income or profits with
proceeds benefiting the poor
6.	 Voluntary giving / support by tourism
enterprises and tourists
7.	 Investment in infrastructure stimulated by
tourism also benefiting the poor in the locality,
directly or through support to other sectors
In 2010, 49 ST-EP projects were under implementation in
Africa, Asia and the Pacific, the Americas, Europe and the
Middle East. The project in Al-Mahweet, Yemen was the
first ST-EP project to be undertaken in the Middle East and
focuses on promotion and diversification of handicrafts and
improving the opportunities for women to participate in the
tourism sector. Fourteen ST-EP projects were successfully
completed during 2010, and funding for five new projects
40
UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery
was approved. The UNWTO. Themis volunteers, young
professionals trained in tourism and development by
UNWTO, have been actively involved in projects in Burkina
Faso, Ghana, Guatemala, Mozambique, Nicaragua and
Senegal, while new volunteers were being recruited in
Cameroon and Niger.
The focus of the ST-EP projects lies in increasing the local
economic impact from tourism which can be achieved,
for example, through the training of local workers such as
guides, hotel employees and workers of connected sectors.
Facilitating the involvement of local people in tourism
development around natural and cultural heritage sites is also
a priority, as well as establishing business linkages between
poor producers and tourism enterprises, and providing
business and financial services to micro, small, medium and
community-based tourism enterprises.
UNWTO worked in partnership with
Green Discovery, the UNWTO ST-
EP Foundation, the Netherlands
Committee of the International Union
for Conservation of Nature (IUCN-NL),
the Government of the Champasak
Province and local communities to
complete a new tourist attraction in the
Dong Hua Sao National Protected Area
(DHS), in Laos.
The project, concluded in August 2010,
included the construction of a zip-line
and canopy walkway, the preparation
of trails and rest places, the erection
of tree houses including a forest
restaurant and the establishment of a
tourist information house, all within the
forest area. The new tourism facilities
aim to attract visitors and local people
to enjoy the natural surroundings and
enhance their knowledge about the
benefits of environmental conservation.
Rather than creating an isolated
tourism product, the project sought
to encourage long periods of travel to
the entire district, therefore spreading
the socio-economic benefits of tourism
across the region. The attractions were
also designed to appeal to visitors with
a wide scope of interests, for example
through team building seminars for
businesses and ecological studies for
educational institutions.
In addition to the development
of this new tourism product,
the project incorporated human
resource development through the
hiring and training of villagers for all
construction work, and as guides
and guards. Capacity building
opportunities were provided in the
principles of ecotourism, wildlife and
environment protection, intercultural
exchange, hospitality and more,
with a wider objective of equipping
local communities with transferable
expertise in the field of tourism. The
project and its facilities are marketed
via the internet (www.treetoplaos.com)
and on printed materials.  
The Canopy Walkway and Zip-line: a new tourist attraction at Dong Hua Sao
National Protected Area, Lao PDR
ST-EP Project: The Canapy Walkway and Zip Line: a new tourist attraction at
Dong Hua Sao National Protected Area Lao PDR.
Chapter 5 / UNWTO Technical Cooperation:
Fostering Tourism as a Tool for Development and Poverty Alleviation
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Unwto2010

  • 1. UNWTO Annual Report A year of recovery 2010
  • 2. Chapter 1 International tourism in 2010 Chapter 2 Mainstreaming tourism in the global agenda Chapter 3 Building a more competitive tourism sector Chapter 4 Sustainable tourism development Chapter 5 UNWTO Technical Cooperation: fostering tourism as a tool for development and poverty alleviation Chapter 6 Advancing tourism education and skills Chapter 7 Partnerships for tourism Chapter 8 Regional Programmes - a direct support to Member States Annexes 06 10 16 24 34 44 50 56 64 Contents World Tourism Organization The World Tourism Organization is a Specialized Agency of the United Nations Design & Print www.detectivegrafico.com Many of the images used throughout are entries from the UNWTO World Tourism Day 2010 Photo Competition. © 2011 / All rights UNWTO. www.flickr.com/photos/unwto
  • 3. 2 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 2010 will be remembered as the year of recovery for the global economy – following one of the most testing periods of recent history – but also the year of persistent uncertainties and challenges. This has also been true for international tourism. International tourist arrivals grew by 7% in 2010 to a record 940 million, with positive growth reported in all world regions. Reflecting global economic trends, growth was driven largely by emerging economies, a development that looks set to continue over the coming years. The recovery of international tourism has confirmed the sector’s extraordinary capacity to bounce back time and again from external shocks. Tourism is an extremely resilient sector and given its contribution to global economic growth, job creation and development, its faster-than-expected recovery in 2010 was welcome news. The global economic downturn in 2008-2009 has demonstrated more than ever the need for political recognition and support of the tourism sector. Throughout 2010, UNWTO worked to mainstream tourism in the global agenda by promoting its significant contribution to global prosperity, development and well-being. In 2010, UNWTO presented its Roadmap for Recovery – conveying the message that tourism means jobs, trade, economic growth and development – to leaders and decision 2010: A year of recovery makers around the globe. In response to the Roadmap, a number of member-driven initiatives emerged to draw attention to tourism’s contribution to global challenges. The T.20, for example, gathered the tourism ministers of major economies who committed to intensify collaboration towards mainstreaming tourism in the global agenda. Alongside the challenge of global economic uncertainty, the longer-term challenges of competitiveness and sustainability have remained at the heart of UNWTO action during 2010. Competition remains fiercer than ever, especially in the wake of the global economic storm. UNWTO has continued to provide its Members with the strategic guidance and assistance necessary to compete in the global marketplace, with up-to-date market trends and analysis, support in crisis management, marketing planning, product development and the advancement of Tourism Satellite Accounts (TSA) worldwide. UNWTO has also been leading the call against tax hikes on travel which seriously impacts upon the competitiveness of the sector and its capacity to deliver on economic growth and job creation. In 2010, UNWTO joined the global campaign to protect biodiversity as part of the United Nations International Year of Biodiversity. World Tourism Day (WTD) 2010 was celebrated under the theme ‘Tourism and Biodiversity’
  • 4. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 3 Taleb Rifai UNWTO Secretary-General and recommendations coming out of WTD were presented to delegates at the 10th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity, calling on all Parties to recognize the opportunities inherent in sustainable tourism for safeguarding biodiversity. UNWTO has undertaken a strong role in the tourism sector’s response to climate change. At the UN climate change conference in Cancun (COP16), UNWTO expressed the need for decision making on mitigation measures affecting tourism to take the positive impacts of the sector into account, particularly in developing countries and island states dependent on long-haul travel. UNWTO is also advancing measures to mitigate tourism’s environmental impact, in particular through improving energy efficiency and increasing the use of renewable energies. On-going testing of the Hotel Energy Solutions e-toolkit, which will help hoteliers assess their energy use and take decisions on investment, took place throughout the year. From Burundi to Panama, UNWTO tourism development projects continue to make a difference to the lives of local communities around the world. In 2010, over 60 development projects were underway in some of the world’s poorest countries. UNWTO also presented its first Technical Assistance Portfolio, detailing the products and services on offer to those countries looking to develop a more sustainable and competitive tourism sector. Tourism has proven to be one of the world’s leading job creators. Numerous specialized training courses have been given by the UNWTO.Themis Foundation, the body responsible for UNWTO’s work in the field of education and training, improving the quality and efficiency of tourism programmes worldwide. Ours is one of the world’s largest sectors, but it is also one of the most complex, impacting on and impacted by countless actors and actions. As the UN specialized agency for tourism, UNWTO offers a common platform from which the different stakeholders involved both directly and indirectly in the sector – governments, the private sector, academia, international organizations and the UN family – can coordinate and move the tourism agenda forward. I would like to thank all those that have partnered with UNWTO in 2010 to maximize and raise awareness of tourism’s important role in the global economic and development agenda and to make of tourism work as a true force to attain our common goals of development and growth. 2010 has broken tourism records, with more people travelling the world than ever before. 2011 looks set to beat the impressive numbers seen so far and the one billion mark is not far off. I am confident that despite the challenges we continue to face, the next few years will be the best ever for the tourism sector.
  • 5. 4 The World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), a specialized agency of the United Nations, is the leading international organization in the field of tourism. Recognizing tourism’s important role in the global economic and development agenda, UNWTO provides leadership and support to the tourism sector in the advancement of sustainable policies and practices. The Organization encourages the implementation of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism with a view to ensuring that member countries, destinations and businesses maximize the positive economic, social and cultural effects of tourism and fully reap its benefits. UNWTO is committed to the United Nations Millennium Development Goals, MDGs geared towards reducing poverty and fostering sustainable development, and aims to use tourism as a tool for their achievement. Our Objectives Through the promotion of responsible, sustainable and universally accessible tourism, UNWTO endeavours to maximize tourism’s contribution to socio-economic growth, job creation, development, environmental conservation, cultural enrichment, peace and international understanding, while minimizing its potential socially or environmentally negative impacts. As the UN specialized agency for the promotion and development of a competitive and sustainable tourism sector, the work of UNWTO is focused on six priorities: Mainstreaming tourism in the global agenda: Advocating the value of tourism as a driver of socio-economic growth and development and its inclusion as a priority in national and international development policies. Improving tourism competitiveness: Improving UNWTO Members’ tourism products and destinations through knowledge, human resources capacitation and the promotion of quality and excellence in areas such as statistics, market trends, marketing, destination management and crisis management. Promoting sustainable tourism development: Supporting sustainable tourism - one which makes optimal use of environmental resources, respects the socio-cultural authenticity of host communities and provides socio- economic benefits to all stakeholders. Advancing tourism’s contribution to poverty reduction and development: Maximizing the contribution of tourism to eliminate poverty and achieve the MDGs by making tourism work as a tool for development and promoting the inclusion of tourism in the development agenda. Fostering knowledge, education and capacity building: Supporting countries to assess and address their needs in education and training, as well as providing networks for knowledge exchange. Building partnerships: Engaging with the private sector, regional and local tourism organizations, academia and research institutions, civil society and the UN system to build a more sustainable, responsible and competitive tourism sector. UNWTO works to position tourism higher in the global agenda and enhance competitiveness within the sector by providing comparable international tourism statistics, identifying market trends and improving Members’ tourism products and marketing techniques. Work is also carried out to assist tourism destinations in assessing, mitigating and managing risks and crises. UNWTO, particularly in response to climate change challenges, promotes sustainable tourism, in order for the sector to make optimal use of environmental resources, respect the socio-cultural authenticity of destinations and provide socio-economic benefits. UNWTO, through its Themis Foundation, supports countries to assess and address their needs in education and training, as well as providing training and capacity building on various key issues. Direct actions that strengthen and support the efforts of National Tourism Administrations are carried out by UNWTO`s technical cooperation and by the Regional Programmes: Africa, the Americas, Asia and the Pacific, Europe and the Middle East. Understanding UNWTO
  • 6. 1970 On 27 September, the IUOTO Special General Assembly meeting in Mexico City adopts the Statutes of the World Tourism Organization (WTO). From 1980 onwards, this day will be celebrated as ‘World Tourism Day’. 1975 The first WTO Secretary-General is appointed and the General Assembly decides to establish its headquarters in Madrid. 1976 The WTO General Secretariat is set up in Madrid on 1 January. The agreement is signed for WTO to become an executing agency of the United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), carrying out technical co-operation with Governments. 1997 XII WTO General Assembly in Istanbul (Turkey) approves a White Paper to define WTO strategy in confronting the challenges of the 21st century. 1998 The WTO.THEMIS Foundation is created in Andorra, to promote quality and efficiency in tourism education and training. 1999 The World Conference on the Measurement of the Economic Impact of Tourism, held in Nice (France), approves the Tourism Satellite Account. XIII WTO General Assembly in Santiago (Chile) adopts the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism. 2000 World Leaders meet at UN Headquarters to adopt the United Nations Millennium Declaration, committing their nations to the Millennium Development Goals with a deadline of 2015. The United Nations Statistics Commission approves the international standards included in the Tourism Satellite Account (TSA). 2001 The UN General Assembly officially recognizes the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism and encourages WTO to promote an effective follow-up of the Code. 2002 WTO takes part in the World Summit on Sustainable Development (Johannesburg, South Africa), during which the initiative Sustainable Tourism – Eliminating Poverty (ST-EP) is presented. 2003 UNWTO joins the United Nations system, becoming the UN Specialized Agency for Tourism. The 1st International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism is held in Djerba (Tunisia). 2005 The office of UNWTO’s ST-EP Foundation is opened in Seoul, following the agreement signed between UNWTO and the Government of the Republic of Korea in 2004. 2007 The 2nd International Conference on Climate Change and Tourism, Davos (Switzerland), adopts the Davos Declaration, endorsed by the London Ministerial Summit on Tourism and Climate Change. 2008 The Tourism Resilience Committee (TRC) is established to respond to the economic downturn. UNWTO launches the awareness campaign Protect Children from Exploitation in Travel and Tourism. The Permanent Secretariat of World Committee on Tourism Ethics is inaugurated in Rome (Italy). 2009 The XVIII UNWTO General Assembly approves the Roadmap for Recovery, which offers guidance on how tourism can support global economic growth. Our history Note: UNWTO used the acronym WTO until 2003. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 5
  • 7. 6 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery International tourism recovered strongly in 2010. International tourist arrivals were up by 7% to 940 million, following the 4% decline in 2009, and receipts grew by 5% to reach US$ 919 billion. The majority of destinations posted positive figures, sufficient to offset the 2009 losses. However, recovery came at different speeds and was primarily driven by emerging economies. Growth is expected to continue for the tourism sector in 2011 but at a slower pace. UNWTO forecasts international tourist arrivals to grow at 4% to 5% in 2011.
  • 8. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 7 Chapter 1 International tourism in 2010 2009: challenges without precedent 2009 marked a significant decline in tourism activity, under the impact of the 2008-2009 global economic crisis and the uncertainty around the A(H1N1) pandemic. Following four years of strong, above-trend growth, international tourism suffered one of its toughest years in decades, reflected in significant declines in international tourist arrivals (-4%) and international tourism receipts (-6%). Recovery began half-way through the year in Asia and the Pacific and the Middle East, and was evident across other regions by the last quarter of the year, the only period to record positive growth in 2009. 2010: strong recovery 2010 brought more challenges for the tourism sector; economic uncertainty, natural disasters and political and social unrest threatened to weaken the recovery which began at the end of 2009. However, international tourism recovered strongly and faster than expected. International tourist arrivals increased by almost 7% to a record 940 million, while earnings from international tourism grew slightly slower at 5% to reach US$ 919 billion (euro 693 billion), a result of increased price competition and tendencies to travel closer to home and for shorter periods, common consumer behaviour in periods of recovery. All regions posted growth in both international tourist arrivals and receipts, with the exception of Europe where receipts stagnated in 2010. Multi-speed growth The strong recovery of the tourism sector in 2010 is evidence of its resilience and capacity for rapid recovery. Nonetheless, recovery came at different speeds. Emerging economies proved to be the primary drivers of the international tourism rebound, posting an average growth in international tourist arrivals of around 8% in 2010 whereas advanced economies recovered at a much slower pace of around 5%. A similar trend can be seen in tourism receipts and expenditure. Growth in expenditure continued to be led by emerging markets in 2010 – major growth rates came from China (+25%), the Russian Federation (+27%) or Brazil (+51%). The multi-speed nature of tourism recovery widely reflected the broader economic situation and the dynamism of emerging economies. Regional overview Asia and the Pacific (+13%), the first region to rebound from the crisis in 2009 continued to grow strongly in 2010. The Middle East (+14%) also experienced rapid growth in 2010, though in 1 UNWTO©
  • 9. 8 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery Chapter 1 / International tourism in 2010 comparison to the particularly depressed figures in the previous year. The signs of economic recovery in the Americas favoured a fairly strong rebound in tourism (+6%). Africa (+7%) was the only region to experience positive tourism results in 2009, and continued to grow throughout 2010 benefiting from the FIFA World Cup in South Africa. In Europe (+3%), the region most seriously affected by the global economic crisis, the average growth in international tourist arrivals was lower than in other regions due to the air traffic disorder caused by the eruption of the Eyjafjallajokull volcano and the economic uncertainty affecting the euro zone. 2011: consolidating growth UNWTO predicts continued growth in international tourism for 2011, though at a slower and more moderate rate than the previous year, at 4%-5%. In line with trends of recent years, this development is expected to be driven by emerging economies. Destinations that rebounded from the economic crisis during 2010 are expected to continue and grow further throughout 2011. Advanced economies, on the other hand, are likely to face major challenges, including high unemployment rates, public deficit constraints and weak consumer confidence, which may cause growth to be slower. World: Inbound Tourism International Tourist Arrivals (million) 528 551 585 603 625 674 673 693 662 753 797 842 897 916 881 940 1000 950 900 850 800 750 700 650 600 560 500 1995 2000 2005 2010 World: Inbound Tourism International Tourism Receipts (billion) 403 437 435 443 457 475 466 485 533 634 679 743 857 940 851 344 308 384 395 429 515 520 513 471 510 545 582 625 639 610 693 1000 900 800 700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0 US$ EURO 919 1995 2000 2005 2010 BradleymIstockphoto©
  • 10. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 9 Trend analysis provided by UNWTO affirms the changing face of tourism and highlights the impact of demographic changes in the sector. Demographics ultimately impact where, why and how people travel. A report released in 2010 by UNWTO and the European Travel Commission (ETC), Demographic Change and Tourism, outlines the impact of global demographic trends such as rising populations, increased life expectancy, urbanization, migration and changing family structures on tourism. The report suggests that travel will become further fragmented and includes recommendations on how the tourism sector can adapt to an ageing, multiethnic population. UNWTO evaluates the impact of demographic change on tourism UNWTO is currently embarking on a major update of its long-term outlook for tourism. The project Tourism Towards 2030 will provide global and regional forecasts for international tourism throughout 2030 and identify major tourism trends in areas such as product development, market segments, marketing, hospitality or transport. Due for release at the end of 2011 on the occasion of the 19th session of UNWTO General Assembly (Gyeongju, Republic of Korea, October 2011), Tourism Towards 2030 follows the landmark UNWTO report Tourism Vision 2020. New UNWTO long term forecast: Tourism Towards 2030 • ‘Understanding Tourism: Basic Glossary’ media.unwto.org/en/content/ understanding-tourism-basic-glossary • ‘UNWTO World Tourism Barometer’ mkt.unwto.org/en/barometer • ‘Demographic Change and Tourism’ publications.unwto.org/ Further reading and resources International Tourism Receipts, 2010 Asia and the Pacific, 249 $ bn, (27%) Americas, 182 $ bn, (20%) Africa, 32 $ bn, (3%) Middle East 50 $ bn, (6%) Europe, 406 $ bn, (44%) International Tourist Arrivals, 2010 Asia and the Pacific, 204 mn, (22%) Americas, 150 mn, (16%) Africa, 49 mn, (5%) Europe, 477 mn, (51%) 204 mn, (22%) 49 mn, (5%) 477 mn, (51%) Middle East 60 mn, (6%)
  • 11. 10 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery It is undeniable that in spite of its growing relevance and proven contribution to GDP, jobs and exports, tourism still lacks due political and economic recognition. During 2010, UNWTO strengthened its advocacy work to promote the value of tourism as a driver of socio- economic growth and development and to encourage its inclusion as a priority in national and international development policies. The message that tourism means jobs, trade, economic growth and development was taken throughout the year to the highest levels of government and international organizations.
  • 12. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 11 Chapter 2 Mainstreaming tourism in the global agenda Representing 5% of the world’s GDP and 30% of the global exports of services at over US$ 1 trillion, tourism is one of the world’s largest and fastest growing economic sectors. Tourism creates millions of jobs, accounting for 1 in 12 worldwide. Creating jobs diverse in their level of skill requirement and regional distribution, tourism provides a fast entry point into the workforce for many, particularly for young people and women. As countries across the globe face the challenge of unemployment, tourism can play a leading role in fighting a jobless recovery. Tourism also has an important part to play in fostering development and fighting poverty. Recent trends show that travel towards developing and least developed countries (LDCs) is growing faster than in the developed world. Tourism is one of the major economic sectors of developing countries and the primary source of foreign exchange earnings in a vast majority of these. At the same time, tourism has the power to deliver significant international earnings for environmental protection as well as giving economic value to cultural heritage. Tourism is a proven instrument for raising public awareness of environmental issues and a sustainable tool for cultivating natural resources and preserving biodiversity. It is also a sector built on bringing people together in order to learn about and understand each other, fostering mutual respect and tolerance. Tourismisalsooneofthemostfragmentedeconomicactivities, comprising countless service providers and stakeholders along the value chain including a high proportion of small and medium enterprises (SMEs). As a result, coordinated sector- wide action and positioning can be challenging. The Roadmap for Recovery The UNWTO Roadmap for Recovery, approved at the 18th Session of the UNWTO General Assembly (Astana, Kazakhstan, October 2009) emerged in direct response to the global economic crisis. As the world faced the challenges of economic recovery, issues such as job creation, poverty alleviation and climate change remained top on the agenda. During 2010, UNWTO promoted the principles of the Roadmap calling upon world leaders to include tourism in recovery strategies and encouraging public policies which support tourism’s economic and development potential. The Roadmap conveyed UNWTO’s core message: tourism means jobs, trade, economic growth and development. Representing a major step towards enhancing tourism’s central position as an economic and socio-cultural tool, the Roadmap sets out in three key areas – resilience, stimulus and the green economy – how tourism can support global economic growth. 2 President Jacob Zuma of South Africa adressing the International Summit on Tourism, Sport and Mega Events, February 2010.
  • 13. 12 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery The importance and challenge of mainstreaming tourism was the focus of the 2010 UNWTO Ministers’ Summit at the World Travel Market (London, UK, November 2010). The Summit, held under the theme Shaping a Stronger Travel and Tourism Industry, offered ministers and the private sector a platform to discuss how to increase recognition and visibility of tourism’s role in job creation, economic growth and development, how to bring public and private sectors together to create a more competitive business environment and how to integrate climate change concerns and the Green Economy in the tourism sector. Participants suggested that closer analysis of the economic value of tourism would help to highlight its significance and mainstream the sector. The importance of private sector participation in globalizing the message that tourism has significant economic and development benefits was stressed as was the need for sustainable tourism, in its broadest definition, to be prioritized.   UNWTO Ministers’ Summit at the World Travel Market calls upon governments to place tourism higher on the agenda Throughout 2010 UNWTO Secretary-General, Taleb Rifai, presented the Roadmap for Recovery and the cause of tourism as a driver of growth and development to a number of world leaders. He raised the issue of tourism and its sustainability potential among the highest authorities to ensure that tourism receives the necessary political support to allow the maximization of its benefits. UNWTO Secretary-General presents the Roadmap for Recovery to world leaders Chapter 2 / Mainstreaming tourism in the global agenda UNWTO© President Leonel Fernández of the Dominican Republic and UNWTO Secretary-General Taleb Rifai
  • 14. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 13 “ ” Tourism is well-positioned to be a major generator of revenue and is fundamental for the generation of employment in this country. This activity deserves its own portfolio which will allow it to maintain and increase the growth we’ve seen since 2003. Cristina Fernández de Kirchner, President of Argentina Positioning tourism higher in national and international agendas UNWTO supports and promotes the mainstreaming of tourism in global, national and regional agendas. 2010 has shown many UNWTO Member States considering tourism policy not only as a sector priority but also as an essential instrument for key policies such as employment, regional development, poverty alleviation, competitiveness and sustainability. UNWTO commends all countries which have acknowledged the potential of tourism and prioritized the sector as part of their national policies. The T.20 Initiative The launch of the T.20 initiative, in close connection with the UNWTO Roadmap for Recovery, was a strategic response to the global economic crisis and a major step towards enhancing the profile of tourism as a driver of economic growth and development. Recognizing the need for international cooperation and dialogue in the face of the crisis, the T.20 emerged to provide tourism ministers with an opportunity to speak in a coordinated manner on a number of global issues. The T.20 is a member-driven initiative, with the full support of UNWTO and other international organizations such as the International Labour Organization (ILO), the United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) and the International Trade Centre (ITC). It offers a ministerial platform for sharing best practices and discussing common challenges. The T.20 strives to mainstream tourism’s voice in the global agenda, through exploration of its potential regarding economic growth and transformation to the Green Economy and through better articulation and communication of the case for tourism. 2nd T20 Ministers’ Meeting, Republic of Korea, October 2010
  • 15. 14 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery The adoption of three resolutions emphasizing the role of tourism in sustainable development by the 65th Session of the UN General Assembly (December 2010) marked a significant advancement in the positioning of tourism in the development agenda. The three resolutions, on the implementation of the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, the promotion of ecotourism and the importance of sustainable tourism for Small Island Developing States, stress the significance of the sector for the development agenda in terms of sustainability, employment and poverty alleviation. The UN General Assembly recognizes the role of tourism in sustainable development The T.20 is not formally linked to the G.20 or its institutional structure, but there is strong synergy between their agendas with priority issues such as economic growth, employment, trade and investment. The T.20 is committed to channelling its key message of tourism as a driver of growth and development to high level discussions such as the G.20. In 2010, the T.20 met in South Africa in February and in the Republic of Korea in October. Both meetings set a clear commitment among members to intensify collaboration between countries and engage with the international community including the G.20, UN agencies, governments and the private sector to mainstream tourism in the global agenda and promote the socio-economic case for tourism. Moving tourism higher in the development agenda – Tourism as a tool for sustainable development and poverty reduction UNWTO has been working with the UN system as well as with governments, private sector leaders and civil society to move tourism higher on the sustainable development and poverty reduction agendas. Efforts have been strengthened ahead of Rio+20, the UN Conference on Sustainable Development (UNCSD), to take place in 2012 with a focus on the Green Economy in the context of poverty eradication and sustainable development. In this framework, in 2010, UNWTO came together with seven UN agencies and programmes: ILO, UNCTAD, UNDP, UNIDO, UNESCO, the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the International Trade Centre (ITC), to create the UN Steering Committee on Tourism for Development (SCTD). By harnessing the strengths and expertise of each agency and creating synergies between UN organizations, the Committee aims to deliver a more coordinated, effective and efficient technical assistance and support to developing countries. UNWTO© Chapter 2 / Mainstreaming tourism in the global agenda
  • 16. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 15 • UNWTO Roadmap for Recovery www.unwto.org/pdf/roadmap_ EN.pdf • The T.20 Initiative t20.unwto.org • Positioning Tourism in Economic Policy: Evidence and Some Proposals statistics.unwto.org/sites/all/files/ docpdf/t20.pdf • 65th Session of the UN General Assembly www.un.org/en/ga/65/meetings • UNWTO Media media.unwto.org • UN Steering Committee an Tourism for Development www.unwto.org/en/event/ promoting-tourism-sustainable- development-and-poverty-reduction Further reading and resources The role of the media in mainstreaming tourism In 2010, UNWTO reinforced its commitment to raise media awareness of the value of tourism as an economic, employment and development opportunity. Several workshops and media trips took place to encourage a balanced and differentiated approach to reporting on tourism, whilst emphasizing the need for media coverage which promotes a greater awareness of the socio-economic value of tourism and its potential to contribute to sustainable development. Included in UNWTO activities was the Deutsche Welle Global Media Forum (Bonn, Germany, June 2010) on Climate Change Reporting. A main focus of the forum was the encouragement of public awareness and the stimulation of policy debate on the global issue of climate change which can be achieved through media exposure. UNWTO represented a tourism-related perspective and delivered a workshop about reporting on water scarcity issues, discussing case study examples of efficient water use in tourism. In August, UNWTO visited the Dominican Republic to discuss effective crisis communications from an institutional perspective and later organized a media visit to Guatemala to introduce the media to the country’s national tourism as a harnesser of development. With this central theme, the media group was actively involved in a communications seminar in the framework of the Central American Travel Market (CATM) and visited a UNWTO ST-EP (Sustainable Tourism – Eliminating Poverty) project implemented to strengthen community- based tourism and build on the capacities of local indigenous people. The visit, which included an exclusive working meeting with the President of Guatemala, Álvaro Colom, served as an informative experience on the value of tourism for development and brought awareness of the necessary measures authorities should take in order to gain media coverage which can contribute to building a lasting reputation for their destination.   UNWTO©
  • 17. 16 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery The success of a sustainable tourism sector which fulfills its potential as a driver of employment, development and economic growth lies in making destinations and companies more competitive. The capacity to compete in tourism, particularly in an ever-globalized world, is at the heart of national and industry efforts to attract international and domestic visitors. UNWTO works to improve its Members’ tourism products and destinations through knowledge building and exchange, human resources development and the promotion of quality and excellence in areas such as statistics, market trends, marketing, destination management and risk and crisis management.
  • 18. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 17 Chapter 3 Building a more competitive tourism sector Market trends and marketing strategies: improving market knowledge and acting effectively Competitive advantages in tourism depend on several factors, including the investments made to create an attractive product or destination, quality standards, levels of access, adequacy of supply to demand, but also on appropriate market intelligence and effective promotional strategy. Adequate qualitative and quantitative knowledge of tourism markets and identifiable trends are the foundation for informed decision-making on key issues such as product development and tourism promotion. On a regular basis, UNWTO provides its Members, and the sector at large, with key data, market trends, short and long term forecasts and know-how on specific market segments and generating markets. In 2010, UNWTO improved its monitoring by increasing the frequency of publication of the UNWTO World Tourism Barometer. Research on important trends was also carried out on issues including religious tourism in Asia and demographic changes and tourism. UNWTO activities in this area during 2010 also included direct assistance to Members and a series of capacity building workshops in several regions focusing on topics such as tourism in the news, destination management, marketing and destination branding. 3 The UNWTO World Tourism Barometer monitors short term trends, providing tourism stakeholders with up-to- date data and analysis in a relevant and timely manner. The Barometer contains three regular sections: an overview of monthly data from over 100 destinations and generating countries and air transport; the UNWTO Confidence Index, providing the results of the latest survey among the UNWTO Panel of Tourism Experts evaluating the last four months and prospects for the following four months performance; and selected economic data relevant for tourism. The global economic crisis and the consequent market volatility highlighted the need for closer market monitoring. In response, in 2010, the publication of the Barometer was strengthened to include an advance release in January, two full issues in June and October, and two interim updates in April, and August. UNWTO is now able to provide more accurate, updated and useful information for UNWTO Members and the wider tourism community.   The UNWTO World Tourism Barometer – improving market monitoring Participants at the Risk and Crisis Management in the Tourism Sector Workshop, Brazil, September 2010.
  • 19. 18 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery edge by ensuring tourism sustainability, by building a strong brand identity and by spreading the benefits of tourism across the local community. Statistics and Tourism Satellite Account: measuring the impact of tourism Statistics provide the backbone to understanding tourism and its role in the economy; they are vital for business analysis, marketing strategy and public policy. The mission of UNWTO in this area is to foster the development of national Systems of Tourism Statistics (STS), the international comparability of tourism statistics and the macroeconomic analysis of tourism. Mandated by the United Nations as “the appropriate organization to analyse, publish, standardize and improve the statistics of tourism”1 , UNWTO has coordinated the international community’s effort towards forging a consensus on what Destination Management: good practices in effective governance models to improve destination performance Improving the competitive advantages of tourism destinations requires a coordinated management based on a collective vision and strong partnerships. This can be realized through effective strategies and governance structures which respond to changing market trends, needs and interests. In recent times, the pursuit of competitiveness has become a major policy objective for National Tourism Administrations (NTAs) at the central government level and a strategic issue for Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) at regional and local levels. UNWTO works to provide strategic guidance in response to the growing need for a systematic and multidisciplinary outlook for tourism. It supports and assists destinations in their efforts to establish a competitive Chapter 3 / Building a more competitive tourism sector In response to requests from national governments on behalf of tourism administrations, provincial governments, destination management organizations, local communities or the private sector, UNWTO provides technical assistance in several areas including marketing and promotion. In 2010, a Tourism Marketing Development Plan was completed for Tibet. An assessment of tourism marketing and promotion was carried out through consultations with local officials, community leaders and academics for the preparation of a new marketing plan. The plan evaluated the current conditions for tourism promotion and identified the necessary marketing resources for the long-term promotion of Tibet as a tourism destination. Alongside these recommendations, a strategy was devised for the use of Tibetan culture with a focus on ensuring that local communities benefited directly from tourism. The project was financed by the China International Centre for Economic Technical Exchanges (CICETE), the Ministry of Commerce of China and the UnitedNationsDevelopmentProgramme (UNDP). Other participating agencies included the Department of Commerce of the Tibet Autonomous Region (TAR), Tibet Tourism Bureau (TTB) and Lhasa Tourism Bureau (LTB). Technical assistance on marketing planning: a marketing plan for Tibet Adequate strategic marketing planning, including market research, branding and auditing, can add significant competitive value to tourism destinations or companies. In 2010, UNWTO and the European Travel Commission (ETC) published Budgets of National Tourism Organizations, 2008-2009, a benchmarking reference tool on inbound tourism marketing. The report analyses information on the budgets allocated by National Tourism Organizations (NTOs) for the promotion of inbound tourism, focusing on trends and developments. The report, which covers 62 countries worldwide, also includes a special focus on the use of e-marketing, a key area for the development of a modern, competitive approach to tourism marketing.   Budgets of National Tourism Organizations, 2008-2009 1 Agreement between the United Nations and the World Tourism Organization, 2003.
  • 20. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 19 Following the ratification of the International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008 (IRTS 2008) by the UN Statistical Commission in February 2008, and the concurrent adoption of the Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework 2008 (TSA: RMF 2008), UNWTO has implemented a major Statistics Capacity Building Programme (SCBP) in different regions around the world. The programme involves twelve to fourteen Member countries in each region participating in a series of three or four workshops, at approximately six month intervals. The workshops are hosted in countries which are considered to have the most advanced Systems of Tourism Statistics (STS) in the region and aim to assist countries in improving and expanding their STSs. An integral part of the programme is the undertaking, by participating countries, of preliminary in-house work prior to each workshop. This work is designed so as to establish the stage at which each country’s STS is and later to encourage the countries to implement what they have learnt at the workshops. In addition, regional seminars are held where participants are invited to share the knowledge gained through the programme with other countries in the region. The SCBP has been implemented in Central and Eastern Europe, hosted by Austria and in English-speaking African countries, hosted by South Africa. In 2010, UNWTO initiated the SCBP in the South Asia-Pacific region. The UNWTO Statistics Capacity-Building Programme tourism is and how to measure it. This was achieved in 2008 with the approval by the UN Statistical Commission of a) the International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008 (IRTS 2008), the conceptual framework of concepts, definitions and classifications for compiling basic tourism statistics; and b) the Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework 2008 (TSA: RMF 2008), the framework for the economic measurement of tourism, consistent with existing economic accounting standards. Together, they form the conceptual framework for the production of basic tourism data and indicators and the basis for an adequate measurement of tourism activity which is in accordance with the macroeconomic framework and enables a credible measurement of tourism’s contribution to the national economy. BothrecommendationsarepartoftheUNofficialdocumentation on international statistical standards and are supported by the UN Statistics Division (UNSD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), the European Union (Eurostat), the International Labour Organization (ILO), the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), and World Bank, among others. UNWTO©
  • 21. 20 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery In 2010, UNWTO completed a two- year project for the development of a TSA in Oman, collaborating closely with the Government of Oman to produce the first TSA for the period 2005- 2009 and to strengthen the national System of Tourism Statistics (STS). Through the application of international recommendations on tourism statistics and revising tourism data, particularly for inbound and outbound tourism expenditure and supply-side data for tourism products and services, the STS in Oman has been greatly improved. UNWTO provided technical recommendations to the Government on improving data collection methodologies, increasing the provision of statistics by establishing new surveys in key sub- sectors. A series of workshops was organized to provide training to officials on tourism statistics and on the TSA methodological framework. UNWTO’s assistance has enabled further analysis of the different forms of tourism in Oman and their contribution to the economy of the Sultanate. This project was funded by the Ministry of Tourism of Oman, with the Ministry of National Economy as a key partner.  Technical assistance: Implementing the TSA in Oman INRouTe, the International N e t w o r k on Regional E c o n o m i c s , Mobility and Tourism, is a non-profit project that works to contribute to informed and effective policy design by bringing together international experts to share information and build on concrete research areas: flows of visitors, tourism and territory, and economic contributions. INRouTe’s principal aim is to provide guidance to entities involved with the regional and local tourism destinations in order to develop policy-oriented measurement systems and the analysis of tourism activity and the tourism sector. The network became operational in the first quarter of 2010 and by the end of the year consisted of over 60 Associate Partners in over 20 countries.   INRouTe: Promoting tourism measurement at regional and local level Advancing the Tourism Satellite Account For the first time, in their most recent revisions of 2008, the UN and IMF official standards on economic measurement (the National Accounts and Balance of Payments) explicitly identify tourism as a specific area of economic activity and point to the Tourism Satellite Account (TSA) as the appropriate tool for deriving key aggregates and internationally comparable indicators on the macro- economic contribution of the sector worldwide. UNWTO is committed to advancing the development and implementation of the TSA, a strategic statistical instrument. The TSA is key for tourism policy and planning while providing a useful tool for NTAs to advocate the cause of tourism and contribute to mainstreaming it in the national agendas. Chapter 3 / Building a more competitive tourism sector UNWTO© UNWTO©
  • 22. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 21 By 2010, over 60 countries worldwide were identified as having already produced or currently developing a TSA exercise. UNWTO offers assistance to countries wishing to improve their system of tourism statistics and develop a TSA. Risk and crisis management – building a more resilient tourism sector The tourism sector is highly vulnerable to natural and man- made incidents, often because the perception alone of risk and disruption can effect tourist decisions and movements and thus have a serious impact on the sector and the lives of those who depend on the visitors’ economy. Therefore, the sector requires risk management strategies and tools to improve its readiness and resilience in time of crisis. Market research and communications in times of crisis UNWTO works to assist its Members in assessing and mitigating risks where travel and tourism is concerned through capacity building and the development, planning and implementation of crisis management systems. An essential element of effective crisis management is market research, which provides key information to ensure crisis responses are efficient, timely and suitable. During 2010, UNWTO worked on the preparation of an easy-to- use practical framework on market intelligence in times of crisis. The manual, to be published in 2011, will count on the input of Member States which have agreed to share their views and identify the forms of intelligence they consider critical in dealing with those crises which effect tourism. Recognizing the need to convey messages quickly and accurately to assist travelers and the tourism sector impacted by a crisis, another focus of UNWTO in terms of risk and crisis management during 2010 was communication. UNWTO started the preparation of a Toolbox for Crisis Communications which will include relevant definitions, step-by-step protocols, check lists, templates, guidelines and best practices. Advancements in technology provide an ever-increasingnumberoftoolstofacilitate crisis communication, including social media and hand-held communications technology. UNWTO held a meeting on Crisis Communications and Social Media in April 2010, focused on how social media can help to mitigate the negative effects of a crisis and influence the safe behaviour of travelers. The session’s results will be factored into the Communications Toolbox. A workshop on Roaming Messages for Effective Risk Protection was also held in January 2010 in cooperation with the Spanish Police (Comisaría General de Seguridad Ciudadana de la Dirección General de la Policía Española), which provided the opportunity to analyse the challenges and possibilities of mplementing roaming and SMS technologies for risk prevention. Mastering technology in crisis situations GorferIstockphoto©
  • 23. 22 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery During 2010, UNWTO participated in various activities held in the framework of the UN initiative to capture and apply lessons learned from the 2009 Pandemic (H1N1). Although the impact of the pandemic itself was mild, the consequences for the tourism sector were significant in many countries. UNWTO therefore considered it important to collect, discuss and review experiences with major travel and tourism stakeholders. In May 2010, UNWTO held an event on Travel and Tourism under Challenging Circumstances, the Role of Coordination, Market Intelligence and Communications During the Pandemic (H1N1) to address the challenges and opportunities the pandemic brought onto the tourism sector, and in December 2010 a workshop, Towards a Safer World: Lessons Learned for the Travel and Tourism Sector from the Pandemic 2009, to promote the lessons learned from the pandemic and ensure that these lead to a global approach to future hazards of any kind. The results of these meetings will contribute to a UN report designed to improve regional and global efforts in general disaster preparedness.   Lessons learned for building a safer world Chapter 3 / Building a more competitive tourism sector Integrating tourism into national emergency structures To protect tourism, an important economic and development pillar, national emergency structures require a robust yet flexible design with a clear understanding of the travel and tourism sector. Yet, studies show a lack of consideration for the sector in national emergency plans. Tourism is often only included in such plans as a result of an incident which has affected the country and caused major losses to the tourism sector. To improve this situation, UNWTO initiated a research project on the Integration of Tourism into National Emergency Structures and Processes. The study, supported by the Government of the Netherlands, will provide guidance on the special needs and concerns of the tourism sector while addressing forms of effective integration of tourism in the national emergency systems through National Tourism Organizations (NTOs), Destination Management Organizations (DMOs) and the private sector. UNWTO also ran a regional capacity building workshop in Brazil in September 2010 on Risk and Crisis Management in the Tourism Sector, convened in collaboration with the Brazilian Ministry of Tourism. The workshop addressed core issues for managing risks and crises, including necessary organizational structures, accountability, policies and procedures. Risk and Crisis Management in the Tourism Sector Workshop, Brazil, September 2010. Risk and Crisis Management in the Tourism Sector Workshop, Brazil, September 2010.
  • 24. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 23 • UNWTO World Tourism Barometer mkt.unwto.org/en/barometer • International Recommendations for Tourism Statistics 2008 (IRTS 2008) statistics.unwto.org/en/content/ tourism-statistics-irts-2008-0 • Tourism Satellite Account: Recommended Methodological Framework 2008 (TSA:RMF 2008) statistics.unwto.org/en/content/ tourism-satellite-account- tsarmf-2008 • Commission of the European Communities, International Monetary Fund, Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development, United Nations and World Bank joint publication System of National Accounts 2008 (SNA 2008) unstats.un.org/unsd/ nationalaccount/sna2008.asp • Statistics Capacity-Building Programme (SCBP) statistics.unwto.org/en/content/ statistics-capacity-building- programme-scbp • Tourism Satellite Account statistics. unwto.org/sites/all/files/docpdf/ factsheet.pdf • Understanding Tourism: Basic Glossary media.unwto.org/en/content/ understanding-tourism-basic- glossary • International Network on Regional Economics, Mobility and Tourism (INRouTe) www.inroutenetwork.org/ • Tourism Emergency Response Network (TERN) rcm.unwto.org/en/content/about- tourism-emergency-response- network-tern-0 • Travel and Tourism under Pandemic Conditions – Review and Preparation Exercise publications.unwto.org • Travel and Tourism under Pandemic Conditions – Second Review and Preparation Exercise publications.unwto.org • Communications and Incentives: The Importance of Fast and Sincere Reporting publications.unwto.org Further reading and resources The Tourism Emergency Response Network (TERN) is a group of the leading tourism associations, first convened during the emergence of the avian flu virus in 2006. Although its initial purpose was to act as an advisory and participatory body on this particular crisis, the TERN is now functioning for various other crisis situations. During 2009, the TERN was convened during the A(H1N1) pandemic and in April 2010 due to the closing of European airspace following volcanic activity in Iceland. UNWTO has recognized the need for close collaboration among decision makers and stakeholders in the tourism public and private sectors with a common goal of making travel and destinations safer for tourists. The TERN, an independent mechanism hosted and managed by UNWTO, works closely with other relevant UN agencies in sharing real time information, providing accurate public messages and liaising with the media. It also underscores the responsibility of each institution involved to help improve traveler wellbeing and mitigate impacts of natural and man- made disasters on tourism. The Tourism Emergency Response Network (TERN) Dirk Glaesser, UNWTO manager, Risk and Crisis Management, speaks at the workshop and Travel and Tourism Under Challenging Circumstances, Malaysia, May 2010.
  • 25. 24 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery The advancement of sustainable tourism, one which establishes a suitable balance between the environmental, economic and socio- cultural aspects of tourism, lies at the heart of UNWTO mandate. Whilst contributing to the generation of income and employment and the conservation of local ecosystems, sustainable tourism attempts to minimize its impact on the environment and local communities. In 2010, UNWTO advanced its work in the areas of climate change, biodiversity, the promotion of a more ethical tourism sector and the protection of consumers and tourists.
  • 26. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 25 Chapter 4 Sustainable tourism development 4 The imperative of a fair and balanced growth and increased consumer awareness has contributed to the rise of environmentally-aware tourism. More visitors can mean further employment and income opportunities and more funds for conservation. In fact, many areas of natural beauty and diversity are preserved and protected thanks to funds from the tourism sector. Sustainable tourism development, including the potential of the sector to facilitate intercultural understanding and tolerance, requires the engagement and respect of all relevant stakeholders, in particular of local communities, as well as strong political leadership to ensure wide participation and consensus building. Sustainable tourism should maintain a high level of tourist satisfaction and ensure a meaningful experience to travellers, raising their awareness about sustainability issues and promoting sustainable tourism practices. The UN acknowledged the role of tourism in sustainable development and poverty eradication by adopting three resolutions on sustainable tourism by consensus at its 65th General Assembly in 2010. The resolutions further welcome the efforts and work of UNWTO in this area. UNWTO Committed to the Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria UNWTO is a founding member, and a permanent member of the Board of the Council, of the Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC), established in 2010 as a body for the dissemination and application of the Global Sustainable Tourism Criteria. The Criteria are a set of 37 voluntary standards representing the minimum requirements tourism businesses should aspire to reach in order to protect and sustain natural and cultural resources while ensuring tourism meets its potential as a tool for poverty alleviation. Developed as part of an initiative led by UNWTO, the UN Environmental Programme (UNEP), the UN Foundation and the Rainforest Alliance in 2008, they cover four concrete objectives: a) maximizing tourism’s benefits to local communities, b) reducing negative effects on cultural heritage, c) reducing harm to local environments and d) planning for sustainability. The GSTC is currently working on an accreditation process. In 2010, an Accreditation Manual was under development, to give recognition to credible standards used by certification programmes, national standardization bodies, hotel chains and tour operators. UNWTO©
  • 27. 26 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery UNWTO has joined the UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) to promote sustainable tourism in coastal areas of Africa. The COAST project aims to reduce the degradation of marine and coastal environments resulting from tourism and enhance sustainable tourism practices in nine West and East African countries: Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria, Senegal, Seychelles and Tanzania. UNWTO is responsible for the implementation of two tourism-specific components of the project: ‘Eco- tourism and Livelihoods’ and ‘Mechanisms for Sustainable Tourism Governance and Management.’ Within the framework of the first component, small ecotourism projects will be executed in Cameroon, Gambia, Ghana, Kenya, Nigeria, Senegal and Tanzania, using the philosophy of the ST-EP Initiative. To this end, in 2010, key stakeholders from these beneficiary countries participated in ST- EP training seminars. In the last quarter of the year, UNWTO launched a study on Sustainable Tourism Governance in Coastal Areas, which will provide a vision and recommendations for the most appropriate type of mechanisms for sustainable tourism governance in coastal areas, based on which capacity building seminars will be organized for the COAST beneficiary countries. The project, which began in January 2009 and will run to the end of 2013, is funded by the Global Environment Facility (GEF) and coordinated by UNIDO with UNWTO as an Associated Agency. UNWTO joins UNIDO to promote sustainable tourism in Africa Chapter 4 / Sustainable tourism development In order to help policy makers, planners and tourism managers to strengthen their institutional capacities for information management and monitoring, UNWTO launched, in 2004, the concept of the Global Observatory of Sustainable Tourism (GOST) based on its methodology for sustainable tourism indicators. The initiative intends to facilitate the establishment of a network of observatories, using a systematic set of monitoring, evaluation and information management techniques as key tools for the formulation and implementation of sustainable tourism policies, strategies, plans and management processes. In September 2010, during the celebrations of World Tourism Day in Guangzhou, China, UNWTO and the Sun Yat-Sen University agreed to collaborate on the establishment of a Monitoring Centre for UNWTO Sustainable Tourism Observatories. This initiative has the overarching aim to use the information gathered on the social, environmental and economic impacts of tourism to help policy makers decide on future developments whilst improving coordination between the public and private sectors. This cooperation is consistent with UNWTO’s commitment to continuing and broadening its collaboration with SYSU on developing existing and future sustainable tourism observatories in China. While SYSU will publish and communicate monitoring reports and other relevant research outcomes, UNWTO will provide technical assistance and guidance for the Monitoring Centre and its activities. Both parties are dedicated to promoting the Monitoring Centre as a platform for networking and knowledge exchange on sustainable tourism in the region.   UNWTO Sustainable Tourism Observatories UNWTO and Sun yat-Sen University sign agreement on UNWTO Sustainable Tourism Observatories during World Tourism Day Celebrations, China, September 2010.
  • 28. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 27 Tourism: responding to climate change Climate change is one of the most serious threats to society, the economy and the environment, and is an issue of increased international concern. The tourism sector is highly climate sensitive as climate defines the length and quality of tourism seasons, affects tourism operations and influences the environmental conditions that have potential for attracting and deterring visitors. The effects of a changing climate will have considerable impacts on tourism business and in some parts of the world, these consequences are already increasingly evident. Too often, decisions on climate change are taken in isolation from the broader tourism framework, a consequence of the limited understanding and recognition of tourism’s farreaching potential. Measures directed towards air transport, for example, singled out for separate mitigation treatment under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), can have detrimental knock-on effects on many countries, particularly developing countries which are highly dependent on tourism for income and employment. Climate change is now firmly established in the global agenda and critical negotiations for a greenhouse gas emissions framework continue. The tourism sector has an interest and an obligation to address the climate change challenge. UNWTO has embraced this challenge by establishing collaborative partnerships, raising awareness, developing guidance and providing support on possible adaptation and mitigation strategies for the tourism sector. UNWTO has been working to raise awareness on climate change issues in the tourism sector for many years, namely through the Djerba and the Davos Process of 2007. The Organization also developed and disseminated a unique report on the subject in 2008, assessing the tourism´s contribution to climate change at 5% of global CO2 emissions. Tourism in the COP16 The Conference of the Parties (COP16) of the UNFCC was held in Mexico, offering a platform from which to formalise pledges and promises made to limit emissions and provide clarity on the continuation of the Kyoto protocol. UNWTO, jointly with the Ministry of Tourism of Mexico, held a side event at the COP16 entitled Tourism’s Response to Climate Change: What Next? which allowed for the exchange of experiences on actions undertaken by the public and private sector to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. It focused on areas such as investment in new technologies and the importance of providing support to developing countries through adequate financing mechanisms. For UNWTO, it was also an important opportunity to continue advocating the integration of tourism as a whole within the evolving UN framework, and to ensure that the sector’s positive effects on economic growth, development and poverty alleviation provide the context for debate. The conference underlined the vulnerability of certain tourism destinations in developing countries to the devastating impacts of climate change on rising sea levels, destruction of coral reefs and the loss of basic tourism services such as water supply and food security. Secretary of Tourism, Gloria Guevara, and President of Mexico, Felipe Calderón, at the tourism side event held at COP16, November/December 2010.
  • 29. 28 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery In 2008, UNWTO initiated the Hotel Energy Solutions (HES) project to drive the competitiveness and sustainability of the accommodation industry across the 27 European Union Member States by helping small and medium-sized (SME) hotels to reduce operational costs and increase the use of energy efficiency (EE) and renewable energy (RE) technologies. Recognizing that the use of fossil fuels for energy is the main source of greenhouse gases and therefore of climate change, and that the hotel industry is one of the tourism sector’s most energy intensive industries, the project is a response to the climate imperatives in line with EU targets and UNWTO’s Davos Process. The project has identified as an initial objective to achieve a 20% increase in energy efficiency and a 10% rise in the use of renewable energy technologies within SMEs hotels in Europe. The outputs include developing an e-toolkit and supporting materials to assist establishments in assessing their current energy needs and planning for and investing in EE and RE technologies. The e-toolkit, to be available in August 2011, is an innovative software application that offers a carbon footprint calculator, data analysis, decision-making support and recommendations to improve energy use. Once completed, the e-toolkit will be disseminated and promoted in hotels in Europe, highlighting practical solutions and enabling hotels to benchmark their energy performance and prioritize the most cost-effective investments. In January 2010, the first Hotel Energy Solutions Annual Conference took place, combining a specialized forum and interactive workshops giving the energy and tourism sectors a unique opportunity to meet, exchange ideas and collaborate. Later in the year, the test phase of the e-toolkit began, with the support of local authorities, in two pilot destinations: the rural destination of the Nature Park of Strandja in Bulgaria and the coastal destination of the Palma de Mallorca in Spain. Plans were also developed for the testing of the e-toolkit in the urban destination of Bonn in Germany and the mountain destination of Haute-Savoie in France for 2011. In addition to the e-toolkit, the Hotel Energy Solutions project also includes research on energy efficiency and renewable energy and promotional materials for use by hotels as awareness raising tools for their customers on energy saving. Future expansion of the e-toolkit will include its availability in other languages, the development of tools for specific regions and the adaptation of the tool to water and waste consumption. The Hotel Energy Solutions project is a European Commission co- funded venture bringing together key organizations in tourism and energy technologies: UNWTO, UNEP, the International Hotel and Restaurant Association (IH&RA), the European Renewable Energy Council (EREC), the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME). The project is endorsed by the Sustainable Energy Europe Campaign.   Hotel Energy Solutions – fostering innovation to fight climate change in the accomodation industry Chapter 4 / Sustainable tourism development UNWTO©
  • 30. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 29 As part of the efforts to create a model destination for sustainable tourism in Kho Khao, Thailand, the UNWTO Consulting Unit on Tourism and Biodiversity implemented the PEEK project. The project aimed to reduce up to 20% of the greenhouse gases generated by the hotel industry on the island by inducing the island, previously supplied with electricity from mainland Thailand, to switch over to a regenerative energy supply. After offering detailed audit reports on consumption profiles and individual energy-saving recommendations, the project assisted hotels in the tenders for the installation of renewable energy technologies. Furthermore, the project provided guidance in the analysis of tender results, the selection and the installation of the most adequate technologies. After the construction process was completed in June 2010, the equipment was tested for performance and handed over for ownership to the hotels. In addition to the practical on-site work, efforts were made to raise awareness of energy saving measures in the area, including the creation of an Energy Efficiency Handbook for Hotels in Thailand providing guidance on how to use energy more efficiently and cut down energy costs. Workshops and training were held for the people of the Kho Khao island which resulted in increased interaction between stakeholders and a growing recognition of the competitive advantage of adopting energy efficient ways. Following the successful implementation of the PEEK project, it was further decided in 2010 that the project would be expanded to the Khao Lak region, one of the areas hardest hit by the tsunami in 2004. The project was financed by the German Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety under the International Climate Protection Initiative and implemented by the UNWTO Consulting Unit on Tourism and Biodiversity, in collaboration with Adelphi, Berlin, and with the support of the Ministry of Tourism and Sports of Thailand. Promoting Energy Efficiency in Thailand Tourism and biodiversity The Convention on Biological Diversity defines biodiversity as “the variability among living organisms from all sources including, inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are part; this includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.” The loss of biodiversity at an alarming rate is largely attributed to unsustainable human activities such as climate change, pollution and uncontrolled land conversion. Therefore, rising tourism numbers bring complex challenges to biodiversity conservation which UNWTO is committed to address, while encouraging its Member States to also do so. Many popular tourism attractions such as beaches, coral reefs and wildlife viewing are strongly linked with, and dependent on, biodiversity and this is therefore key to the sustained growth of tourism. Undeniably, healthy ecosystems attract millions of tourists, which in turn bring income and employment to locals. In tackling poverty alleviation and development, biodiversity-based tourism represents an important source of income for the world’s poorer countries, around 70% of whom live in rural areas and depend directly on biodiversity for their survival and wellbeing. Biodiversity also provides developing countries with a competitive advantage in regard to tourism, as they possess the largest proportion of global biodiversity. Tourism can moreover be an important vehicle in raising awareness and fostering positive behaviour change for biodiversity conservation among millions of travellers. UNWTO©
  • 31. 30 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery The project Upgrading Local Facilities to Promote Community- based Elephant Tourism and Nature Conservation in the Hongsa District of Lao PDR was designed to provide alternative forms of income for the Mahouts and local people, previously involved in logging activities, through the development of community- based tourism. The project addressed the continuing increase in deforestation and habitat loss and the decline in endangered domesticated Asian elephant populations caused by the unsustainable logging industry common across the country, by using tourism as a tool for development and environment conservation. During a twelve month period, tourism facilities were upgraded, including the construction of an Elephant Information Center, the provision of multilingual environmental education materials, the promotion of local products for sale and the supply of basic elephant trekking equipment. To ensure the sustainability of the tourism attraction, the first civil society Mahout Association was established to manage the community-based enterprise independently. This network is composed of over 30 elephant owners and workers, who can now collectively organize, design and develop tourism activities in the local district, as a result of capacity- building activities, the establishment of association statues and the appointment of representatives. Completed in August 2010, the project was implemented within the ST-EP Initiative with the support of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Netherlands, Elephant Adventures – Green Discovery, ElephantAsia, the Viengkeo Village Community and the Hongsa Mahout Community. This and other success stories on tourism and biodiversity were promoted as part of the 2010 World Tourism Day celebrations. The World Tourism Day website launched several examples of Inspiring Stories, a selection of initiatives which demonstrated how to apply the principles of sustainable tourism to biodiversity conservation. Stories were contributed by website visitors from across the globe. The case studies serve as models for future tourism development, demonstrating how the tourism community is working to protect biodiversity. Consistent in all initiatives are endeavours to educate tourists about biodiversity conservation and sustainable travel.    Tourism and biodiversity: Inspiring stories World Tourism Day 2010: Tourism and Biodiversity 2010 was declared by the UN as the Year of Biodiversity, consistent with UN Millennium Development Goal 7 - Ensure Environmental Sustainability - and coinciding with the deadline set in 2002 by governments to achieve a significant reduction in rates of biodiversity loss by 2010. World Tourism Day (WTD) is celebrated every year on 27 September, with the purpose of fostering awareness of the importance of tourism and its social, cultural, political and economic value. WTD 2010 was celebrated in the Guangdong Province, China, under the theme Tourism and Biodiversity, chosen by the UNWTO General Assembly to coincide with the UN Year of Biodiversity and to raise public awareness of the close relationship between tourism development, biodiversity and poverty reduction. Celebrations, organized by UNWTO, Chapter 4 / Sustainable tourism development the China National Tourism Administration (CNTA) and the Guangdong Provincial Government, in collaboration with the Pacific Asia Travel Association (PATA), included a High Level Dialogue on Tourism, Biodiversity and Sustainable Development. Conclusions of the World Tourism Day High Level Dialogue on Tourism and Biodiversity: • Biodiversity and its ecosystem services are among tourism’s most valuable assets;
  • 32. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 31 In January 2010, UNWTO, with the support of the Federal Republic of Germany, established the UNWTO Consulting Unit on Tourism and Biodiversity. The Unit is a direct evolution of the Consulting Unit on Tourism and Biodiversity for Tsunami Affected Countries, created in 2006 to provide expertise and support to affected countries in the redevelopment of tourism infrastructure. The Unit, now with a wider mandate, provides support services to UNWTO Member States on issues of biodiversity-based tourism, participatory tourism planning and linkages of biodiversity policy issues with sustainable tourism. Building on strong technical capacity, lessons learned, accumulated experience and well-established networks, the Unit is involved in the cooperation of the Convention on Biological Diversity. In 2010, the Unit cooperated with the UN Environment Programme (UNEP) in assisting the parties to the Carpathian Convention (the seven countries which are home to one of Europe’s largest mountain ranges, the Carpathians) in finalising the tourism protocol of the convention, the development of the sustainable tourism strategy and the elaboration of follow-up projects. In doing so, the Unit also participated in the Carpathian Convention’s Working Group on Tourism and the convention’s Implementation Committee in 2010. The Unit also cooperated with the Slovak Government to facilitate the development of a model destination management platform in the UNESCO World Heritage site of the town of Banska Stiavnica. UNWTO Consulting Unit on Tourism and Biodiversity, Bonn, Germany UNWTO© • This is especially the case for developing countries, where the largest proportion of global biodiversity can be found and where biodiversity-based tourism can make a valuable contribution to socio-economic development; • The tourism sector must assume collective responsibility for sustainability; • The public sector must establish a policy framework and conditions for the sustainable development of tourism by integrating tourism into national diversity plans; • The private sector must implement sustainable objectives and assess their performance; • It is only through involving and engaging with the local community that tourism can be truly sustainable. Income generated from biodiversity-based products must be shared at a local level, as an additional incentive for communities to protect their natural heritage. Recommendations from the High Level Dialogue were presented by UNWTO to the 10th Meeting of the Conference of the Parties to the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP10) in Nagoya, Japan at which delegates shaping a global strategy to save the world’s ecosystems took note of tourism’s role in safeguarding biodiversity.
  • 33. 32 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery Chapter 4 / Sustainable tourism development UNWTO© Tourism in the Convention on Biological Diversity (COP10) UNWTO participated actively in the 10th Meeting of Conference of Parties (COP10), held in Japan (October 2010). UNWTO used this opportunity to raise awareness of the importance of biodiversity for the sustainable development of tourism and to promote the recommendations of the WTD High Level Dialogue which highlight that conserving biodiversity is a collective responsibility of the tourism sector. On the basis of this participation and of the previous work developed by UNWTO, a paragraph on tourism and biodiversity outlining the Convention’s commitment to continue collaborating with UNWTO, namely on the review of the application of the Convention on Biodiversity Guidelines on Biodiversity and Tourism Development, was included in Decision X/20 of the COP10. In 1999, the UNWTO General Assembly adopted the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism as a framework to tackle these issues. The Code, adopted in 2001 by the UN General Assembly, is a comprehensive set of principles designed to guide stakeholders, such as governments, local communities, the tourism sector and professionals, as well as visitors, in the responsible and sustainable development of tourism. Drawing inspiration from similar declarations and industry codes, the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism adds new thinking that reflects the changing society, the threats it faces and the tools it provides, at the beginning of the 21st century. The World Committee on Tourism Ethics: fostering facilitation of tourist travel The World Committee on Tourism Ethics met for its ninth meeting in Luxor, Egypt, in April 2010. This independent and impartial body was established in 2004 to promote and disseminate the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism, evaluate and monitor its implementation and offer conciliation for the settlement of disputes concerning the Code’s application and interpretation. In Luxor, pursuant to the UNWTO General Assembly Resolution on Facilitation of Tourist Travel (2009), the Committee expressed concerns regarding the delays and rising costs of visas, the reluctance of some countries to remove entry restrictions for people affected by HIV/AIDS, and the need to improve the accessibility of tourism services and facilities for people with disabilities. Child protection in tourism: preventing exploitation In March 2010, the 25th Meeting of the UNWTO Task Force on the Protection of Children in Tourism took place at ITB Berlin, as a forum for tourism’s key players to share innovative and inspiring initiatives undertaken to protect children. For over a decade, UNWTO has coordinated the activities of the Task Force, a multi-stakeholder open-ended network comprising private sector representatives, governments, international organizations and specialized media outlets. Its mission is to contribute to the prevention of all forms of child exploitation related to the tourism sector, including sexual exploitation, child labour and child trafficking. The 25th Meeting of the Task Force focused on preventative training tools presented by the International Labour Organization (ILO) and ECPAT (End Child Prostitution Tourism and ethics: towards a more responsible tourism sector Tourism, far from being solely an economic activity, is a form of human interaction with substantial impacts on everyday life. The direct and spontaneous contact between cultures encouraged by tourism raises a series of ethical issues and highlights the important responsibilities of tourism operators, governments, individual travellers and local communities. Sustainable tourism development aims to address these ethical questions and reconcile potential tensions between development and environment, openness to international trade and protection of socio-cultural identities. Ensuring the development and implementation of sustainable tourism means that its benefits can reach travellers, host communities and their surroundings.
  • 34. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 33 • UNWTO Sustainable Development sdt.unwto.org • COAST project: www.coast.iwlearn.org • Global Sustainable Tourism Council www.gstcouncil.org Climate Change and Tourism www.unwto.org/climate/index.php • Djerba Declaration on Climate Change and Tourism publications.unwto.org • Davos Declaration:Climate Change and Tourism,Responding to Global Challenges www.unwto.org/pdf/pr071046.pdf • Hotel Energy Solutions (HES) www.hotelenergysolutions.net • Convention on Biological Diversity www.cbd.int • UNWTO Consulting Unit on Tourism and Biodiversity biodiv.unwto.org • UNWTO World Tourism Day 2010 www.unwto.org/worldtourismday • Tourism and Biodiversity: Achieving Goals Towards Sustainability publications.unwto.org • Practical Guide for the Development of Biodiversity-based Tourism Products publications.unwto.org • UNWTO Global Code of Ethics for Tourism ethics.unwto.org/en/content/global- code-ethics-tourism • Workshop on the Protection of Tourists/ Consumers and Travel Organizers unwto.org/en/event/workshop- protection-tourists-consumers-and- travel-organizers Further reading and resources Child Pornography and Trafficking of Children for Sexual Purposes). The reporting session featured contributions from the governments of Brazil, India and Indonesia, and from several NGOs, travel agents, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OCSE) and the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF). In collaboration with ILO, UNICEF and various partners from the public and private sectors, including NGOs and the media, UNWTO launched an international child protection campaign in November 2008 under the slogan ‘Don’t Let Child Abuse Travel’. The campaign is part of UNWTO’s on- going work on child protection in tourism and includes video spots and other awareness-raising materials continually disseminated among tourism stakeholders, and providing specific recommendations for the protection of children and adolescents in the sector. Consumer/tourist protection The closure of European airspace due to volcanic activity in Iceland in April 2010 highlighted the absence of international guidelines on the rights and responsibilities of tourists and tourism stakeholders. UNWTO’s Executive Council, the organization’s governing body, therefore recognized the need for a global legal framework for the protection of both parties. The Council decided at its 89th UNWTO© session in October 2010 to initiate a study on a possible international text for safeguarding tourists and tour operators. A proposal was approved to start preparations, and a working group was established to define the scope of the document. In 2011, the first workshop on the Protection of Tourists/ Consumers and Travel Organizers will take place to enable preliminary discussion.
  • 35. 34 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery As one of the major export sectors and sources of employment in many leastdevelopedanddevelopingcountries,duetoitsgeographicalspread and labour intense nature, sustainable tourism can play a decisive role in the fight against poverty. Development is at the core of UNWTO’s agenda. According to its statutes UNWTO shall, in pursuing the promotion of tourism, “pay particular attention to the interests of the developing countries”. The Organization supports its Members, 75% of which are recipients of Official Development Assistance, in their efforts to sustainably develop and promote their tourism sectors as a tool for socio-economic growth and development.
  • 36. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 35 Chapter 5 UNWTO Technical Cooperation: fostering tourism as a tool for development and poverty alleviation UNWTO Technical Cooperation Tourism is today the main source of foreign exchange for one third of developing countries and among the top three sources of exports earnings for almost half of the least developed countries (LDCs). As international and domestic tourism continues to grow there is stronger evidence that the sector, when developed and managed in a sustainable manner, can make a significant contribution to poverty reduction. Technical Cooperation is at the very heart of UNWTO work. For more than thirty years, UNWTO has been providing technical assistance to its Members covering a wide range of issues from tourism planning, marketing and promotion, human resources, to specific issues such as tourism legislation, tourism satellite account, and quality standards, among others. UNWTO Technical Cooperation includes also the implementation of projects within the framework of the Sustainable Tourism – Alleviating Poverty (ST-EP) initiative. These micro-level projects focus on developing tourism as a means of sustainable livelihood at the local community level. The ST-EP projects further aim to improve the capacities of national tourism administrations and local authorities in least developed and developing countries to The wide range of products and services which constitute UNWTO’s technical assistance has been gathered and presented in the first Technical Assistance Portfolio in 2010. The portfolio, an easy-to-use guide and a reference to Member States on the products and services provided by UNWTO, outlines in detail the assistance provided in the areas of a) Policy Planning and Economic Development, b) Human Resource Development, c) Product Development, Marketing & Promotion and d) Statistics and Quality Standards. The UNWTO Technical Cooperation Portfolio 5 ST-EP Project: The Canapy Walkway and Zip Line: a new tourist attraction at Dong Hua Sao National Protected Area Lao PDR. devise and implement poverty reduction policies, plans and projects, through the development of sustainable forms of tourism. Furthermore, UNWTO Technical Cooperation includes the implementation of projects under the Spanish Millennium Development Goals Achievement Fund (MDG-F) in collaboration with other UN Agencies and Programmes under the aegis of the UN Development Programme (UNDP).
  • 37. 36 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery In 2010, following the formulation of a Tourism Development Master Plan for the State of Punjab in 2008, UNWTO was actively engaged in ensuring that tourism development and promotion follows the right path and that the adequate capacities are developed for overseeing and managing sustainable tourism in the State. The Master Plan acknowledges the potential of Punjab to become a competitive tourism destination based on its rich cultural, religious and natural heritage. UNWTO is assisting the Government of Punjab in establishing a well-structured and coordinated implementation of the plan’s recommendations. In doing so, major outputs of the project include the recruitment of technical advisers, capacity building in tourism operations and management, enactment of the Tourism Industry Development bill, establishment of the Punjab Tourism Authority, development of a tourist information centre network, formulation of a marketing plan and the branding of Punjab. The project is run in partnership with the Tourism and Culture Department of the Government of Punjab, the Punjab Heritage and Tourism Promotion Board and the Punjab Tourism Development Corporation. The current phase of the project is due to be completed in 2011.   Implementing the Punjab Tourism Development Master Plan, India Chapter 5 / UNWTO Technical Cooperation: Fostering Tourism as a Tool for Development and Poverty Alleviation In 2010, the formulation of a National Strategy for the Sustainable Development of Tourism for Burundi was completed. The strategy, led by UNWTO with the support of UNDP, includes the identification of Burundi’s key tourism resources and their development into attractions and possible ways to improve the economic impact of tourism in the country, and provides guidelines for institutional strengthening and public-private partnership in tourism development and promotion. Furthermore, UNWTO has prepared a draft Tourism Law, established a preliminary system of tourism statistics including new Entry/Exit cards and conducted pre-feasibility studies for the development of two tourism pilot projects. The programme was initiated at the request of the Government of Burundi which identified tourism as a priority for development, given its potential to create sustainable livelihoods. Additional partners included the Ministry of Trade, Industry, Post and Tourism and the National Tourism Organization, along with other Government institutions and representatives of the private sector. Technical Assistance in Burundi: National Sustainable Development Strategy UNWTO©
  • 38. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 37 The MDG Achievement Fund Projects The MDG Achievement Fund (MDG-F) is an international cooperation mechanism whose aim is to accelerate progress on the MDGs worldwide. Established in December 2006 with a generous contribution of US$ 710 million from the Spanish Government to the UN system, the MDG-F supports national governments, local authorities and citizen organizations in their efforts to tackle poverty and inequality. In 2010, UNWTO was actively involved in eleven tourism development projects in the framework of the MDG-F in nine countries: Ecuador, Egypt, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Peru, Senegal, Serbia and Turkey. The formulation and implementation of the projects, which cover various areas, such as environment and climate change, culture and development, youth employment and migration and private The MDG-F project Sustainable Tourism for Rural Development in Serbia was launched in January 2010. UNWTO is to develop, with FAO, UNDP, the UNEP and the UN Children’s Fund (UNICEF), the legal and policy frameworks to support the diversification of rural economy and improve local stakeholders’ capacities for developing services and products. UNWTO is working on the formulation of a National Rural Tourism Master Plan which will be led by a national- level working group consisting of various partners and stakeholders. UNWTO is also responsible for facilitating the establishment of tourism governance organizations and regional destination management activities, coordinating regional and municipal tourism investments, supporting pilot projects and providing training courses on various aspects of rural tourism development. The project is operating in coordination with the Ministry of Economy and Regional Development, the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Water Management and the Tourism Organization of Serbia. The Concept Note of the joint programme was recognized by the MDG-F Secretariat in New York as a document of “exceptional quality” and will be highlighted as an example of best practice. Sustainable Tourism for Rural Development in Serbia sector and development, was done in collaboration with several UN agencies and programmes, including UNESCO, UNDP, FAO, UN HABITAT, UNIFEM, UNFPA, UNICEF, WHO, UNHCHR, ILO, UNIDO, UNV, UNCTAD and UNEP. The MDG-F project Entrepreneurial Opportunities Network for Poor Families was initiated in Panama in January 2010. UNWTO is working alongside four other UN agencies (UNDP, FAO, UNIDO and the UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD)), with the objective of reducing poverty levels through adequate public policies, access to productive resources, cost and risk reduction, and greater productivity and better working conditions. UNWTO is supporting the poor population, especially in rural and indigenous zones, through initiating new sustainable micro-ventures with emphasis in the tourism sector, and creating policies targeted at developing tourism initiatives that benefit the poor through training and technical assistance. The project is operating in coordination with the Ministry of Agricultural Development, the Panamanian Tourist Board, the Ministry of Commerce and Industry, the Ministry of Economy and Finance, the Small and Medium-Sized Business Authority and the provincial and local governments of Coclé, Herrera, Veraguas and Chiriqui.   Entrepreneurial Opportunities Network for Poor Families in Panama GuentergniIstockphoto©
  • 39. 38 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery The Sustainable Tourism – Eliminating Poverty (ST-EP) Initiative Although tourism has a huge potential for poverty alleviation, often poor segments of the population in developing countries and LDCs do not benefit from its economic advantages. The UNWTO Sustainable Tourism – Eliminating Poverty (ST-EP) Initiative promotes poverty alleviation through the provision of assistance in sustainable development projects. Through the ST-EP Initiative, UNWTO links its efforts towards tackling poverty with its longstanding pursuit of sustainable tourism, the MDGs and the Global Code of Ethics for Tourism. Following the launch of the ST-EP Initiative at the Johannesburg World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002, and the establishment of the UNWTO ST- EP Foundation in Seoul, Republic of Korea, the implementation of ST-EP projects began towards the end of 2005 with a training programme for local guides in the village of Ebogo in Cameroon. Since then, the portfolio of ST-EP projects has rapidly expanded and now includes 95 projects in a total of 33 countries, ranging from developing ecotourism products with local communities in Guatemala to developing and promoting the Great Himalaya Trail in Nepal with a view to enhance the local economic impact from tourism in the country. All beneficiary countries are Official Development Assistance (ODA) recipients and of these, half are LDCs. AlexSavaIstockphoto© Chapter 5 / UNWTO Technical Cooperation: Fostering Tourism as a Tool for Development and Poverty Alleviation The MDG-F Project Alliances for Culture Tourism in Eastern Anatolia aims at contributing to community cohesion, employment creation and the reduction of socio-economic differences through enhancing cultural tourism. UNWTO is responsible for various aspects of tourism development at a local level, including the formulation of a Cultural Tourism Strategy and capacity building programmes in tourism entrepreneurship development. The project includes the creation of a visitor information center and the organization of tour operator and media familiarization trips. The local communities are involved in the development of tourism advancements, specifically through a Volunteers Programme conducted by UNWTO. The project is being carried out by four UN agencies: UNDP, UNESCO, UNICEF and UNWTO, in coordination with the Ministry of Culture and Tourism of Turkey, and the provincial and local governments of the Kars Region.   Alliances for Culture Tourism in Eastern Anatolia, Turkey
  • 40. UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery 39 ST-EP projects worldwide, 2006-2010 • Over 150 pilot projects identified • 95 projects approved for implementation in 33 countries and 3 regions (West and Southern Africa and Central America) • Total project portfolio valued at over USD 10 million AMERICAS Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Peru AFRICA Benin, Burkina Faso, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Ghana, Guinea, Keny Lesotho, Madagascar,Mali, Mozambique, Namibia, Niger, Rwar, Senegal, South Africa, Tanzania EUROPE Albania ASIa Bhutan. Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Nepal, Vietnam MIDDLE EAST Yemen The ST-EP Initiative is based on seven different mechanisms through which the poor can benefit directly or indirectly from tourism. These channels of action are incorporated into ST-EP projects and have been widely disseminated. The seven ST-EP mechanisms: 1. Employment of the poor in tourism enterprises 2. Supply of goods and services to tourism enterprises by the poor or by enterprises employing the poor 3. Direct sales of goods and services to visitors by the poor (informal economy) 4. Establishment and running of tourism enterprises by the poor, e.g. micro, small and medium sized enterprises or community based enterprises (formal economy) 5. Tax or levy on tourism income or profits with proceeds benefiting the poor 6. Voluntary giving / support by tourism enterprises and tourists 7. Investment in infrastructure stimulated by tourism also benefiting the poor in the locality, directly or through support to other sectors In 2010, 49 ST-EP projects were under implementation in Africa, Asia and the Pacific, the Americas, Europe and the Middle East. The project in Al-Mahweet, Yemen was the first ST-EP project to be undertaken in the Middle East and focuses on promotion and diversification of handicrafts and improving the opportunities for women to participate in the tourism sector. Fourteen ST-EP projects were successfully completed during 2010, and funding for five new projects
  • 41. 40 UNWTO Annual Report 2010 A Year of Recovery was approved. The UNWTO. Themis volunteers, young professionals trained in tourism and development by UNWTO, have been actively involved in projects in Burkina Faso, Ghana, Guatemala, Mozambique, Nicaragua and Senegal, while new volunteers were being recruited in Cameroon and Niger. The focus of the ST-EP projects lies in increasing the local economic impact from tourism which can be achieved, for example, through the training of local workers such as guides, hotel employees and workers of connected sectors. Facilitating the involvement of local people in tourism development around natural and cultural heritage sites is also a priority, as well as establishing business linkages between poor producers and tourism enterprises, and providing business and financial services to micro, small, medium and community-based tourism enterprises. UNWTO worked in partnership with Green Discovery, the UNWTO ST- EP Foundation, the Netherlands Committee of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN-NL), the Government of the Champasak Province and local communities to complete a new tourist attraction in the Dong Hua Sao National Protected Area (DHS), in Laos. The project, concluded in August 2010, included the construction of a zip-line and canopy walkway, the preparation of trails and rest places, the erection of tree houses including a forest restaurant and the establishment of a tourist information house, all within the forest area. The new tourism facilities aim to attract visitors and local people to enjoy the natural surroundings and enhance their knowledge about the benefits of environmental conservation. Rather than creating an isolated tourism product, the project sought to encourage long periods of travel to the entire district, therefore spreading the socio-economic benefits of tourism across the region. The attractions were also designed to appeal to visitors with a wide scope of interests, for example through team building seminars for businesses and ecological studies for educational institutions. In addition to the development of this new tourism product, the project incorporated human resource development through the hiring and training of villagers for all construction work, and as guides and guards. Capacity building opportunities were provided in the principles of ecotourism, wildlife and environment protection, intercultural exchange, hospitality and more, with a wider objective of equipping local communities with transferable expertise in the field of tourism. The project and its facilities are marketed via the internet (www.treetoplaos.com) and on printed materials.   The Canopy Walkway and Zip-line: a new tourist attraction at Dong Hua Sao National Protected Area, Lao PDR ST-EP Project: The Canapy Walkway and Zip Line: a new tourist attraction at Dong Hua Sao National Protected Area Lao PDR. Chapter 5 / UNWTO Technical Cooperation: Fostering Tourism as a Tool for Development and Poverty Alleviation