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Master’s Seminar (SOIL 591)
On
Unveiling the Crucial Role of Cobalt in Plant Growth
By- Himanshu Pandey
M. Sc. (Ag.) Soil Science & Agril. Chem. Final
ID No: 22412SAC007
Enrolment No: 392460
himanshu10@bhu.ac.in
Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry
Supervisor: Prof. P. K. Sharma
Outline
What is Cobalt?
Why Cobalt is Important?
Sources of Cobalt
Natural
Artificial
Mineral composition
Important roles of Cobalt
Cobalt is Essential for Symbiotic Bacteria in N Fixation.
Cobalt is Essential for Biological Nitrogen Fixation.
Impact of cobalt on soil fertility.
Cobalt's role in plant growth.
Crop productivity.
Cobalt substitution of other metals.
Cobalt improve the growth of higher plants.
Cobalt deficiency & Toxicity.
Conclusion
WHAT IS COBALT?
• Co is a core element of cobalamin (vitamin B12 & its
derivatives).
WHY COBALT IS IMPORTANT?
1. Not considered an essential micronutrient for
plants.
2. Only considered as a beneficial element.
3. Rhizobia and other nitrogen (N)-fixation bacteria
require Co and cobalamin.
4. The average adult intake of cobalt is 5-8 mcg day-1
(University of Rochester Medical Center).
Mineral
Name
Chemical Formula Co %
Linnaeite CoCo2S4 58.56
Carrollite CuCo2S4 57.95
Cobaltite CoAsS 35.52
Erthrite Co3(AsO4)2.8(H2O) 29.53
Table 1: Minerals containing the element Cobalt
Sources of Cobalt
• Natural Sources:
1. Weathering of Rocks
2. Volcanic Activity
3. Atmospheric Deposition
• Artificial Sources:
1. Fertilizer
2. Mining
3. Coal Burning
IMPORTANT ROLE OF COBALT
1. Cobalt is Essential for Biological Nitrogen Fixation.
2. Cobalt is Essential for Symbiotic Bacteria in N Fixation.
3. Cobalt is Essential for Humans & Animals.
4. Cobalt Improves the Growth of Higher Plants.
5. The cobalt atom is a key component of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin).
Graph 1: Nodulation status of lentil nodules as affected by cobalt
treatment after 70 days of growth
GIZA 4 GIZA 9
El-Hersh et al.
IMPORTANT ROLE IN BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION
Biological Nitrogen Fixation
1. Crucial process,
2. Convert Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to a form that
plant can use (ammonia),
3. Required large input of energy,
Graph 2: Yield of Lentil as affected by cobalt application on different varieties of lentil
El-Hersh et al.
COBALT IS ESSENTIAL FOR SYMBIOTIC
BACTERIA IN NITROGEN FIXATION
• Rhizobia-Legume Symbiosis: Co is essential for Rhizobium and significantly affects
nodulation and nitrogen fixation. (Methionine synthase, Methyl malonyl & Ribonucleotide
reductase)
• Frankia-Actinorhizal Plant Symbiosis: Co is needed for the synthesis of cobalamin, which is
in turn needed for nitrogen fixation.
IMPACT OF COBALT ON SOIL FERTILITY
• Cobalt Mobility: About 95% of the total Co concentration in soil remains immobile.
• Soil Dynamics: Cobalt frequently transforms from Co2+ to Co3+ primarily due to Mn
oxides.
• The amount of Co that is absorbed by the minerals Mn and Fe increases when soil pH
rises.
Growth
Enhancement
• Co application can
significantly increase
shoot and root dry
weights in crops like
wheat, as well as yield
and essential oil
contents in parsley.
Stress Tolerance
• Co helps plants tolerate
abiotic stresses such as
drought and salinity, and
can suppress the uptake
of harmful metals like
cadmium.
Rhizosphere
Stimulation
• Appropriate Co levels
may stimulate
rhizosphere bacteria &
enhanced the plant
growth.
COBALT'S ROLE IN PLANT GROWTH
M. Sarraf et al. (2023)
Abiotic Stresses Beneficial elements Phytohormones
Plant responses induced by
Cobalt
1. Increases the biosynthesis of
phytohormones such as JA, ABA &
cytokinin.
2. Reduction in electrolyte leakage.
CROP PRODUCTIVITY
• Endophytic Bacteria: Cobalt is also crucial
for endophytic bacteria like Glucono-
acetobacter.
• Environmentally Friendly Crop Production
• Phytomicrobiome: Cobalt is required by these
symbiotic, endophytic, and associated bacteria,
making it an essential element for plants.
Farooq, M., Wahid, A., & Siddique, K. H.
Table 2: Influence of cobalt seed treatments on grain yield
Growth
characters
Cobalt application rates (ppm)
0 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20
Plant H 83.80 85.43 89.35 92.82 87.75 89.12 87.20
Leaf area 8.32 10.21 11.61 13.74 12.69 11.33 10.15
Root L 4.06 4.29 4.97 6.35 5.96 5.59 4.78
Shoot FW 2.87 3.26 3.98 4.67 4.34 4.00 3.55
Root FW 0.89 0.94 1.50 2.53 2.20 2.02 1.81
Shoot DW 0.62 0.70 0.83 1.01 0.93 0.92 0.78
Root DW 0.26 0.30 0.37 0.42 0.39 0.36 0.31
Table 3:Effect of the cobalt application rates on the rice growth characters.
• Result: Application of 12.5 ppm Co at all measured rice growth characters was
superior to fulfill the maximum values.
Nadia Gad & M. Abd El- Hady
Organic
amendment
Co (ppm)
Plant Height
(cm)
Leaf No. per
plant
Leaf area per
plant (cm²)
FYM +
0 73.9 24.8 1037
2.5 75.7 24.8 1041
5 78.3 25.7 1059
7.5 82.4 28.7 1157
10 86.4 31.7 1301
12.5 85.6 29.7 1217
15 83.2 26.7 1110
Table 4: Effects of different rates of cobalt combined with farmyard manure (FYM), on the plant height,
leaf number & leaf area of Moringa oleifera.
• Result: FYM in combination with Cobalt, was found to be most effective in increasing
the overall growth and nutritional parameters of Moringa oleifera @10ppm.
Sekara et al.
COBALT SUBSTITUTION OF OTHER METALS
• Cobalt’s Ability to Substitute: Other transition metals in a large number of enzymes.
• Maret and Vallee (1993) listed 37 Co-substituted metalloproteins, of which 24 are native to Zinc
(Zn), nine to Copper (Cu), and four to Iron (Fe).
• Ionic Radius: The ionic radius of Co2+ is 0.76 Å, which is similar to 0.74 Å of Zn2+, 0.69 Å of Cu2+,
and 0.76 Å of Fe2+. This similarity allows Co2+ to readily substitute these ions in the active sites of
enzymes.
OTHER PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT
• Cobalt and Postharvest Quality: Component of preservative solutions.
• Cobalt and Water Uptake
• Cobalt and Wilting: Adding Cobalt to the water can delay the wilting of cut fronds of
fern by up to 8 days.
Cobalt Deficiency in Plants:
Cobalt deficiency leads to
symptoms like leaf chlorosis,
necrosis, growth retardation, and
reduced crop yield.
Effects on Nitrogen Fixation:
Cobalt deficiency reduces the
synthesis of methionine, limiting
protein synthesis and contributing to
smaller-sized bacteroids. This
impacts nitrogen fixation, a crucial
process for plant growth.
Cobalt Deficiency in Non-
Leguminous Plants:
Cobalt deficiency also occurs in
non-leguminous plants like rubber
trees, tomato plants, corn, and
wheat, causing growth retardation.
Cobalt deficiency in plant
TOXIC EFFECT OF COBALT IN PLANTS
Fig 1: Effects on growth of willow seedlings
under Cobalt stress.
Yi-Ming Wang., et al. (2020)
1. High concentrations of Cobalt can cause cytotoxicity and
phytotoxicity in plants.
2. Cytotoxicity involves the inhibition of mitosis, damage to
chromosomes.
3. Phytotoxicity varies depending on the plant species and
the concentration of Cobalt in plant organs. 10ppm 100ppm
CONCLUSION
• Despite not being essential for most species, cobalt appears
to be beneficial to some plants.
• It has been shown to be essential for nitrogen fixation by
nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with legumes & other
plants.
• Due to its similar properties to other transition elements, its
biological roles in plants have been largely ignored.
FUTURE PERSPECTIVE
• Further Research: Further research is needed to identify specific roles of Cobalt in
diazotrophs, Cobalt-containing enzymes and proteins in plants, determine the interactions of
Cobalt with other metals.
Unveiling The Crucial Role Of Cobalt In Plant

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Unveiling The Crucial Role Of Cobalt In Plant

  • 1. Master’s Seminar (SOIL 591) On Unveiling the Crucial Role of Cobalt in Plant Growth By- Himanshu Pandey M. Sc. (Ag.) Soil Science & Agril. Chem. Final ID No: 22412SAC007 Enrolment No: 392460 himanshu10@bhu.ac.in Department of Soil Science & Agricultural Chemistry Supervisor: Prof. P. K. Sharma
  • 2. Outline What is Cobalt? Why Cobalt is Important? Sources of Cobalt Natural Artificial Mineral composition Important roles of Cobalt Cobalt is Essential for Symbiotic Bacteria in N Fixation. Cobalt is Essential for Biological Nitrogen Fixation. Impact of cobalt on soil fertility. Cobalt's role in plant growth. Crop productivity. Cobalt substitution of other metals. Cobalt improve the growth of higher plants. Cobalt deficiency & Toxicity. Conclusion
  • 3. WHAT IS COBALT? • Co is a core element of cobalamin (vitamin B12 & its derivatives).
  • 4. WHY COBALT IS IMPORTANT? 1. Not considered an essential micronutrient for plants. 2. Only considered as a beneficial element. 3. Rhizobia and other nitrogen (N)-fixation bacteria require Co and cobalamin. 4. The average adult intake of cobalt is 5-8 mcg day-1 (University of Rochester Medical Center).
  • 5. Mineral Name Chemical Formula Co % Linnaeite CoCo2S4 58.56 Carrollite CuCo2S4 57.95 Cobaltite CoAsS 35.52 Erthrite Co3(AsO4)2.8(H2O) 29.53 Table 1: Minerals containing the element Cobalt Sources of Cobalt • Natural Sources: 1. Weathering of Rocks 2. Volcanic Activity 3. Atmospheric Deposition • Artificial Sources: 1. Fertilizer 2. Mining 3. Coal Burning
  • 6. IMPORTANT ROLE OF COBALT 1. Cobalt is Essential for Biological Nitrogen Fixation. 2. Cobalt is Essential for Symbiotic Bacteria in N Fixation. 3. Cobalt is Essential for Humans & Animals. 4. Cobalt Improves the Growth of Higher Plants. 5. The cobalt atom is a key component of vitamin B12 (cyanocobalamin).
  • 7. Graph 1: Nodulation status of lentil nodules as affected by cobalt treatment after 70 days of growth GIZA 4 GIZA 9 El-Hersh et al. IMPORTANT ROLE IN BIOLOGICAL NITROGEN FIXATION Biological Nitrogen Fixation 1. Crucial process, 2. Convert Atmospheric nitrogen (N2) to a form that plant can use (ammonia), 3. Required large input of energy,
  • 8. Graph 2: Yield of Lentil as affected by cobalt application on different varieties of lentil El-Hersh et al.
  • 9. COBALT IS ESSENTIAL FOR SYMBIOTIC BACTERIA IN NITROGEN FIXATION • Rhizobia-Legume Symbiosis: Co is essential for Rhizobium and significantly affects nodulation and nitrogen fixation. (Methionine synthase, Methyl malonyl & Ribonucleotide reductase) • Frankia-Actinorhizal Plant Symbiosis: Co is needed for the synthesis of cobalamin, which is in turn needed for nitrogen fixation.
  • 10. IMPACT OF COBALT ON SOIL FERTILITY • Cobalt Mobility: About 95% of the total Co concentration in soil remains immobile. • Soil Dynamics: Cobalt frequently transforms from Co2+ to Co3+ primarily due to Mn oxides. • The amount of Co that is absorbed by the minerals Mn and Fe increases when soil pH rises.
  • 11. Growth Enhancement • Co application can significantly increase shoot and root dry weights in crops like wheat, as well as yield and essential oil contents in parsley. Stress Tolerance • Co helps plants tolerate abiotic stresses such as drought and salinity, and can suppress the uptake of harmful metals like cadmium. Rhizosphere Stimulation • Appropriate Co levels may stimulate rhizosphere bacteria & enhanced the plant growth. COBALT'S ROLE IN PLANT GROWTH
  • 12. M. Sarraf et al. (2023) Abiotic Stresses Beneficial elements Phytohormones Plant responses induced by Cobalt 1. Increases the biosynthesis of phytohormones such as JA, ABA & cytokinin. 2. Reduction in electrolyte leakage.
  • 13. CROP PRODUCTIVITY • Endophytic Bacteria: Cobalt is also crucial for endophytic bacteria like Glucono- acetobacter. • Environmentally Friendly Crop Production • Phytomicrobiome: Cobalt is required by these symbiotic, endophytic, and associated bacteria, making it an essential element for plants. Farooq, M., Wahid, A., & Siddique, K. H. Table 2: Influence of cobalt seed treatments on grain yield
  • 14. Growth characters Cobalt application rates (ppm) 0 7.5 10 12.5 15 17.5 20 Plant H 83.80 85.43 89.35 92.82 87.75 89.12 87.20 Leaf area 8.32 10.21 11.61 13.74 12.69 11.33 10.15 Root L 4.06 4.29 4.97 6.35 5.96 5.59 4.78 Shoot FW 2.87 3.26 3.98 4.67 4.34 4.00 3.55 Root FW 0.89 0.94 1.50 2.53 2.20 2.02 1.81 Shoot DW 0.62 0.70 0.83 1.01 0.93 0.92 0.78 Root DW 0.26 0.30 0.37 0.42 0.39 0.36 0.31 Table 3:Effect of the cobalt application rates on the rice growth characters. • Result: Application of 12.5 ppm Co at all measured rice growth characters was superior to fulfill the maximum values. Nadia Gad & M. Abd El- Hady
  • 15. Organic amendment Co (ppm) Plant Height (cm) Leaf No. per plant Leaf area per plant (cm²) FYM + 0 73.9 24.8 1037 2.5 75.7 24.8 1041 5 78.3 25.7 1059 7.5 82.4 28.7 1157 10 86.4 31.7 1301 12.5 85.6 29.7 1217 15 83.2 26.7 1110 Table 4: Effects of different rates of cobalt combined with farmyard manure (FYM), on the plant height, leaf number & leaf area of Moringa oleifera. • Result: FYM in combination with Cobalt, was found to be most effective in increasing the overall growth and nutritional parameters of Moringa oleifera @10ppm. Sekara et al.
  • 16. COBALT SUBSTITUTION OF OTHER METALS • Cobalt’s Ability to Substitute: Other transition metals in a large number of enzymes. • Maret and Vallee (1993) listed 37 Co-substituted metalloproteins, of which 24 are native to Zinc (Zn), nine to Copper (Cu), and four to Iron (Fe). • Ionic Radius: The ionic radius of Co2+ is 0.76 Å, which is similar to 0.74 Å of Zn2+, 0.69 Å of Cu2+, and 0.76 Å of Fe2+. This similarity allows Co2+ to readily substitute these ions in the active sites of enzymes.
  • 17. OTHER PERFORMANCE ENHANCEMENT • Cobalt and Postharvest Quality: Component of preservative solutions. • Cobalt and Water Uptake • Cobalt and Wilting: Adding Cobalt to the water can delay the wilting of cut fronds of fern by up to 8 days.
  • 18. Cobalt Deficiency in Plants: Cobalt deficiency leads to symptoms like leaf chlorosis, necrosis, growth retardation, and reduced crop yield. Effects on Nitrogen Fixation: Cobalt deficiency reduces the synthesis of methionine, limiting protein synthesis and contributing to smaller-sized bacteroids. This impacts nitrogen fixation, a crucial process for plant growth. Cobalt Deficiency in Non- Leguminous Plants: Cobalt deficiency also occurs in non-leguminous plants like rubber trees, tomato plants, corn, and wheat, causing growth retardation. Cobalt deficiency in plant
  • 19. TOXIC EFFECT OF COBALT IN PLANTS Fig 1: Effects on growth of willow seedlings under Cobalt stress. Yi-Ming Wang., et al. (2020) 1. High concentrations of Cobalt can cause cytotoxicity and phytotoxicity in plants. 2. Cytotoxicity involves the inhibition of mitosis, damage to chromosomes. 3. Phytotoxicity varies depending on the plant species and the concentration of Cobalt in plant organs. 10ppm 100ppm
  • 20. CONCLUSION • Despite not being essential for most species, cobalt appears to be beneficial to some plants. • It has been shown to be essential for nitrogen fixation by nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with legumes & other plants. • Due to its similar properties to other transition elements, its biological roles in plants have been largely ignored.
  • 21. FUTURE PERSPECTIVE • Further Research: Further research is needed to identify specific roles of Cobalt in diazotrophs, Cobalt-containing enzymes and proteins in plants, determine the interactions of Cobalt with other metals.