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Artificial Intelligence
Artificial intelligence
 In today's world, technology is growing very fast, and we
are getting in touch with different new technologies day by
day.
 Here, one of the booming technologies of computer
science is Artificial Intelligence which is ready to create a
new revolution in the world by making intelligent
machines. The Artificial Intelligence is now all around us.
 It is currently working with a variety of subfields, ranging
from general to specific, such as self-driving cars, playing
chess, proving theorems, playing music, Painting, etc.
 AI is one of the fascinating and universal fields of
Computer science which has a great scope in future. AI
holds a tendency to cause a machine to work as a human.
 Artificial Intelligence is composed of two
words Artificial and Intelligence, where Artificial
defines "man-made," and intelligence defines "thinking
power", hence AI means "a man-made thinking power."
So, we can define AI as:
 "It is a branch of computer science by which we can create
intelligent machines which can behave like a human, think
like humans, and able to make decisions."
 Artificial Intelligence exists when a machine can have
human based skills such as learning, reasoning, and solving
problems
Why Artificial Intelligence?
 With the help of AI, you can create such software or devices
which can solve real-world problems very easily and with
accuracy such as health issues, marketing, traffic issues,
etc.
 With the help of AI, you can create your personal virtual
Assistant, such as Cortana, Google Assistant, Siri, etc.
 With the help of AI, you can build such Robots which can
work in an environment where survival of humans can be
at risk.
 AI opens a path for other new technologies, new devices,
and new Opportunities.
Goals of Artificial Intelligence
Following are the main goals of Artificial Intelligence:
 Replicate human intelligence
 Solve Knowledge-intensive tasks
 An intelligent connection of perception and action
 Building a machine which can perform tasks that requires
human intelligence such as:
 Proving a theorem
 Playing chess
 Plan some surgical operation
 Driving a car in traffic
 Creating some system which can exhibit intelligent
behaviour, learn new things by itself, demonstrate, explain,
and can advise to its user.
Advantages of Artificial Intelligence:
Following are some main advantages of Artificial
Intelligence:
 High Accuracy with less errors: AI machines or systems
are prone to less errors and high accuracy as it takes
decisions as per pre-experience or information.
 High-Speed: AI systems can be of very high-speed and
fast-decision making, because of that AI systems can beat a
chess champion in the Chess game.
 High reliability: AI machines are highly reliable and can
perform the same action multiple times with high accuracy.
 Useful for risky areas: AI machines can be helpful in
situations such as defusing a bomb, exploring the ocean
floor, where to employ a human can be risky.
 Digital Assistant: AI can be very useful to provide digital
assistant to the users such as AI technology is currently
used by various E-commerce websites to show the products
as per customer requirement.
 Useful as a public utility: AI can be very useful for public
utilities such as a self-driving car which can make our
journey safer and hassle-free, facial recognition for security
purpose, Natural language processing to communicate
with the human in human-language, etc.
Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence
 High Cost: The hardware and software requirement of AI
is very costly as it requires lots of maintenance to meet
current world requirements.
 Can't think out of the box: Even we are making smarter
machines with AI, but still they cannot work out of the box,
as the robot will only do that work for which they are
trained, or programmed.
 No feelings and emotions: AI machines can be an
outstanding performer, but still it does not have the feeling
so it cannot make any kind of emotional attachment with
human, and may sometime be harmful for users if the
proper care is not taken.
 Increase dependency on machines: With the increment
of technology, people are getting more dependent on
devices and hence they are losing their mental capabilities.
 No Original Creativity: As humans are so creative and
can imagine some new ideas but still AI machines cannot
beat this power of human intelligence and cannot be
creative and imaginative.
Application of AI
1. AI in Astronomy
 Artificial Intelligence can be very useful to solve complex
universe problems. AI technology can be helpful for
understanding the universe such as how it works, origin,
etc.
2. AI in Healthcare
 In the last, five to ten years, AI becoming more
advantageous for the healthcare industry and going to have
a significant impact on this industry.
 Healthcare Industries are applying AI to make a better and
faster diagnosis than humans. AI can help doctors with
diagnoses and can inform when patients are worsening so
that medical help can reach to the patient before
hospitalization.
3 . AI in Gaming
 AI can be used for gaming purpose. The AI machines can
play strategic games like chess, where the machine needs to
think of a large number of possible places.
4. AI in Finance
 AI and finance industries are the best matches for each
other. The finance industry is implementing automation,
chatbot, adaptive intelligence, algorithm trading, and
machine learning into financial processes.
5. AI in Data Security
 The security of data is crucial for every company and cyber-
attacks are growing very rapidly in the digital world. AI can
be used to make your data more safe and secure. Some
examples such as AEG bot, AI2 Platform, are used to
determine software bug and cyber-attacks in a better way.
6.AI in Social Media
 Social Media sites such as Face book, Twitter, and Snap
chat contain billions of user profiles, which need to be
stored and managed in a very efficient way. AI can organize
and manage massive amounts of data.
 AI can analyze lots of data to identify the latest trends,
hash tag , and requirement of different users.
7. AI in Travel & Transport
 AI is becoming highly demanding for travel industries. AI
is capable of doing various travel related works such as
from making travel arrangement to suggesting the hotels,
flights, and best routes to the customers.
 Travel industries are using AI-powered chat bots which can
make human-like interaction with customers for better and
fast response.
8. AI in Automotive Industry
 Some Automotive industries are using AI to provide virtual
assistant to their user for better performance. Such as Tesla
has introduced TeslaBot, an intelligent virtual assistant.
 Various Industries are currently working for developing
self-driven cars which can make your journey more safe
and secure.
9. AI in Robotics:
 Artificial Intelligence has a remarkable role in Robotics.
 Usually, general robots are programmed such that they can
perform some repetitive task, but with the help of AI, we
can create intelligent robots which can perform tasks with
their own experiences without pre-programmed.
Humanoid Robots are best examples for AI in robotics,
recently the intelligent Humanoid robot named as Erica
and Sophia has been developed which can talk and behave
like humans.
10. AI in Entertainment
 We are currently using some AI based applications in our
daily life with some entertainment services such as Netflix
or Amazon. With the help of ML/AI algorithms, these
services show the recommendations for programs or shows.
11. AI in Agriculture
 Agriculture is an area which requires various resources,
labor, money, and time for best result. Now a day's
agriculture is becoming digital, and AI is emerging in this
field.
 Agriculture is applying AI as agriculture robotics, solid and
crop monitoring, predictive analysis. AI in agriculture can
be very helpful for farmers.
12. AI in E-commerce
 AI is providing a competitive edge to the e-commerce
industry, and it is becoming more demanding in the e-
commerce business.
 AI is helping shoppers to discover associated products with
recommended size, color, or even brand.
13. AI in education:
 AI can automate grading so that the tutor can have more
time to teach. AI chatbot can communicate with students
as a teaching assistant.
 AI in the future can be work as a personal virtual tutor for
students, which will be accessible easily at any time and any
place.
Intelligent System
What is Intelligence?
 The ability of a system to calculate, reason, perceive
relationships and analogies, learn from experience, store
and retrieve information from memory, solve problems,
comprehend complex ideas, use natural language fluently,
classify, generalize, and adapt new situations.
What is Intelligent System?
 Intelligent systems are technologically advanced machines
that perceive and respond to the world around them.
Intelligent systems can take many forms, from automated
vacuums such as the Roomba to facial recognition
programs to Amazon's personalized shopping suggestions.
Early Work in AI
 AI began to emerge as a separate field of study during
the 1940s and 1950s when the computer became a
commercial
 Prior to this work in AI already began in 1920s and 1930s
 Turing, sometimes regarded as father of AI
demonstrated a simple computer processor could
manipulate symbols and numbers. (Turing Machines)
 Cybernetics, the study of communication in human
and machines, became an active area of research
during 1940s and 1950s
 During 1950 several events occurred marked as
real beginning of AI
 This was period noted for chess playing programs which
were developed by researchers like Claude Shannon at
MIT in 1952
 Other types of game playing and simulation programs
were also being developed during this time
 In 1950s much efforts was being expended on machine
translation programs, to produce accurate translation
from one language to another
 During this time researches work on automatic
theorem proving and new programming languages
 As a part of this development programming languages
like IPL (Information Processing Language), FORTRAN
etc were developed in the area of natural language
processing
 Several programming projects were developed during
1950 including GPS(General Problem Solver)developed
by Newell and Simon written in IPL. Gelernter’s
geometry theorem proving machine written in
FORTRAN
Some significant AI events of the 1960s include the
following:
 1961-A. L. Samuel developed a program which learned to
play checkers at a master’s level
 1965- DENDRAL was the first knowledge based expert
system developed which discover molecular structures
given only information of the constituents of the
compound
 1968- work on MACSYMA was initiated at MIT by
William Martin and Joel Moses. MACSYMA is a large
interactive program which solves numerous types of
mathematical problems.
AI Techniques
Search:
 Another general technique required when writing AI
programs is search.
 Provides a way of solving problems for which no more
direct approach is available.
 Often there is no direct way to find a solution to some
problem. However, you do know how to generate
possibilities.
 For example, in solving a puzzle you might know all the
possible moves, but not the sequence that would lead to a
solution.
Use of Knowledge:
 Solving simple problems requires a lots of knowledge.
 Use of knowledge Provides a way of solving complex
problems by exploiting the structure of the objects that are
involved.
 To understand a single sentence requires extensive knowledge
of both language and of the context.
 In order to solve the complex problems encountered in
artificial intelligence, one needs both a large amount of
knowledge and some mechanisms for manipulating that
knowledge to create solutions
Abstraction:
 Abstraction means to hide the details of something. For
example, if we want to compute the square root of a
number then we simply call the function sqrt() in C.
 We do not need to know the implementation details of
this function.
 Abstraction provides a way of separating important
features and variations from the many unimportant ones
that would otherwise overwhelm any process.
AI and Related Fields
Fields that are closely related to AI includes Robotics,
Linguistics, Psychology, Engineering etc.
Robotics:
 Robotics is considered as a separate field which
combines concepts and techniques of AI, electrical and
mechanical engineering.
 The robots that can see and move around, perform
mechanical tasks, and understand human speech.
 Eg. In manufacturing industry robots are used for
moving, spraying, painting, precision checking, drilling,
cleaning, coating, carving, etc
Psychology:
 Psychology studies how human mind behave and how
human brain processes information.
 Researchers in AI have much in common with
psychologists.
 AI has adopted models of thinking and learning from
psychologist in turn AI has given psychologist ability to
model human functions on computer.
Natural Language Processing:
 NLP allows a user to communicate with computer in user’s
natural language.
 The computer can both understand and respond to
commands given in natural language.
 Both NLP and AI fields have desired to build a system that
understand natural languages
Expert System:
 Expert system concerned with solving real life situations.
Speech and Voice Recognition:
 The speech recognition aims at understanding WHAT
was spoken.
 The objective of voice recognition is to recognize WHO
is speaking.
Handwriting Recognition :
 The handwriting recognition software reads the text
written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus.
 It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert it
into editable text.
 Finally, AI overlap with almost all fields such as medicine,
law, manufacturing, economics, banking, biology,
chemistry, defence etc
Applications of intelligent systems
 Intelligent systems are poised to fill a growing number of
roles in today's society, including:
 Factory automation
 Field and service robotics
 Assistive robotics
 Military applications
 Medical care
 Education
 Entertainment
 Visual inspection
 Character recognition
 Human identification using various biometric modalities
(e.g. face, fingerprint, iris, hand)
 Visual surveillance
 Intelligent transportation
Challenges in intelligent systems
Uncertainty:
 Physical sensors/effectors provide limited, noisy and
inaccurate information/action.
 Therefore, any actions the system takes may be incorrect
both due to noise in the sensors and due to the limitations
in executing those actions.
Dynamic world:
 The physical world changes continuously, requiring that
decisions be made at fast time scales to accommodate for
the changes in the environment.
Time-consuming computation:
 Searching for the optimal path to a goal requires extensive
search through a very large state space, which is
computationally expensive.
 The drawback of spending too much time on computation
is that the world may change in the meantime, thus
rendering the computed plan obsolete.
Mapping:
 A lot of information is lost in the transformation from the
3D world to the 2D world.
 Computer vision must deal with challenges including
changes in perspective, lighting and scale; background
clutter or motion; and grouping items with intra/inter-
class variation.
Defining AI Problem as State SpaceSearch
 A set of all possible states for a given problem is known as
state space of the problem.
 Representation of states is highly beneficial in AI because
they provide all possible states, operations and the goals.
 If the entire sets of possible states are given, it is possible
to trace the path from the initial state to the goal state
and identify the sequence of operators necessary for
doing it.
 Representation allows for a formal definition of a
problem using a set of permissible operations as the
need to convert some given situation into some desired
situation.
Search and Control Strategies
 AI problem can be solved by searching for a path
through the space. i.e. from initial state to goal state.
 Search refers to the search for a solution in a problem
space.
 Search proceeds with different types of search control
strategies
 So it is necessary to choose the appropriate control
structure such that the search can be as efficient as
possible.
Control Strategy:
 Helps us decide which rule to apply next.
 What to do when there are more than 1
matching rule
The features of good control strategy:
1. A good control strategy is that which causes motion
2. A good control strategy must be systematic: A control
strategy is not systematic; we may explore a particular
useless sequence of operators several times before we
finally find a solution.
AI Problem:
1.Water Jug Problem
Problem Statement :- We are given 2 jugs, a 4 litter one and
a 3- litter one. Neither has any measuring markers on it.
There is a pump that can be used to fill the jugs with
water. we can pour water out of a jug to the ground. We
can pour water from one jug to another. How can we get
exactly 2 litters of water in to the 4-liter jugs?
Solution:-The state space for this problem can be defined as
x -represents the number of litters of water in the 4-liter
jug y -represents the number of litters of water in the 3-
liter jug Therefore, x =0,1,2,3 or 4 and y=0,1,2 or 3.
The initial state is ( 0,0) .The goal state is to get ( 2,n) for
any value of ‘n’.
The various Production Rules that are available to solve this
problem may be stated as given in the following table .
Rule No Production Rule Action
1 (x,y) if x<4 => (4,y) Fill the 4 Liter jug
2 (x,y) if y<3 => (x,3) Fill the 3 Liter jug
3 (x,y) if x>0 =>(0,y) Empty 4 Liter jug on ground
4 (x,y) if y>0 =>(x,0) Empty 3 Liter jug on ground
5 (x,y) if x+y<=4 =>(x+y,0) Pour all the water from 3 liter jug into 4 literjug
6 (x,y) if x+y<=3 =>(0,x+y) Pour all the water from 4 liter jug into 3 literjug
7 (x,y) if x+y>=4 => (4,y-
(4-x)
Pour water from 3 liter jug to 4 liter jug until4
liter jug is full
8 (x,y) if x+y>=3 =>(x-(3-
y),3)
Pour water from 4 liter jug to 3 liter jug until3
liter jug is full
9 (0,2) =>(2,0) Pour 2 liter from 3 liter jug to 4 literjug
Liter in 4 Liter
Jug
Liter in 3 Liter
Jug
RuleApplied
0 0
0 3 2
3 0 5
3 3 2
4 2 7
0 2 3
2 0 5
Solution 1
Liter in 4 Liter
Jug
Liter in 3 Liter
Jug
RuleApplied
0 0
4 0 1
1 3 8
1 0 4
0 1 6
4 1 1
2 3 8
Solution 2
Liter in 4 LiterJug Liter in 3 LiterJug RuleApplied
0 0
4 0 1
1 3 8
0 3 3
3 0 5
3 3 2
4 2 7
0 2 3
2 0 5
Solution 3
Water Jug Problem of 8,5 and 3 Litter Jug
Problem Statement: The following is a problem which
can be solved by using state space search technique. “we
have 3 jugs of capacities 3,5, and 8 litters respectively.
There is no scale on the jugs. So it is only their capacities
that we certainly know. Initially the 8 litter jug is full of
water, the other two are empty. We can pour water from one
jug to another, and the goal is to have exactly 4 litters of
water in any of the jug. There is no scale on the jug and we
do not have any other tools that would help. The amount of
water in the other two jugs at the end is irrelevant.
Formalize the above problem as state space search .
Youshould,
1. Suggest suitable representation of the problem
2. State the initial and goal state of this problem
3. Specify the production rules for getting from
one state to another.
Solution:-
 The state space for this problem can be definedas
 x -represents the number of litters of water in
the 8-literjug
 y -represents the number of litters of water in
the 5-literjug
 z –represent the number of litters of water in he
3-liter jug
 Therefore, x =0,1,2,3,5,6,70r 8
 y=0,1,2 ,3,4 or 5
 z=0,1,2 or 3
 The initial state is ( 8,0,0) .The goal state is to get 4 liter of
water in any jug.
 The goal state can be defined as (4,n,n) or (n,4,n) for any
value of n
The various Production Rules t hat are available to solve this
problem may be stated as given in the following table .
8,5,3 Liter water jug problem
Rule Production Rule Action
1 (x,y,z) if x+y<=5 =>(0,x+y,z) Pour all water from 8 liter jug to 5 literjug
2 (x,y,z) if x+z<=3 =>(0,y,x+z) Pour all water from 8 liter jug to 3 literjug
3 (x,y,z) if x+y<=8 =>(x+y,0,z) Pour all water from 5 liter jug to 8 literjug
4 (x,y,z) if y+z<=3 =>(x,0,y+z) Pour all water from 5 liter jug to 3 literjug
5 (x,y,z) if x+z<=8 =>(x+z,y,0) Pour all water from 3 liter jug to 8 literjug
6 (x,y,z) if y+z<=5 =>(x,y+z,0) Pour all water from 3 liter jug to 5 literjug
7 (x,y,z) if x+y>=5 => (x-(5-y),5,z) Pour water from 8 liter jug to 5 literjug
until 5 liter jug is full
8 (x,y,z) if x+z>=3 => (x-(3-z),y,3) Pour water from 8 liter jug to 3 literjug
until 3 liter jug is full
9 (x,y,z) if y+z>=3 => (x,y-(3-z),3) Pour water from 5 liter jug to 3 literjug
until 3 liter jug is full
10 (x,y,z) if y+z>=5 => (x,5,z-(5-y)) Pour water from 3 liter jug to 5 literjug
until 5 liter jug is full
8,5,3 Liter water jug problem
One solution to water jug problem is given as
Liter in 8
Liter Jug
Liter in 5
Liter Jug
Liter in 3
Liter Jug
Rule
Applied
8 0 0
3 5 0 7
3 2 3 9
6 2 0 5
6 0 2 4
1 5 2 7
1 4 3 9
 Thus, to solve any difficult, unstructured problems, we have
to provide a formal description to solve a problem and for
that we have to do following:
1. Specify one or more states within that space that
describes possible situations from which the problem
solving process may start, called as initial state
2. Specify one or more states that would be acceptable as
solution to the problem. These states are called as goal
state
3. Define a state space that contains all the possible
configuration of the relevant objects
4. Specify a set of rules that describes the action available
5. Thus the problem canbe solved by
using the rules and also with appropriate
control strategy.
2.Missionaries and Cannibals Problem:
Problem Statement : Three missionaries and three cannibals
find themselves on one side of a river. They have would like to
get to the other side, such that the number of missionaries on
either side of the river should never less than the number of
cannibals who are on the same side. The only boat available can
holds only two at a time. How can everyone cross the river
without the missionaries risking being eaten?
Formalize the above problem in terms of state space search.
You should,
i. Suggest a suitable representation for the problem
ii. State the initial state and final state
iii. List the actions for getting from one state to another state
Solution: The state space for this problem can be defined as,
 Let, i represents the number missionaries in one side of ariver
Therefore i=0,1,2 or 3
j represents the number of cannibals in the same side of river
Therefore j=0,1,2 or 3
 The initial state (i,j) is (3,3) i.e. three missionaries and three
cannibals on side A of a river and ( 0,0) on side B of the river.
 The goal state is to get (3,3) at Side B and (0,0) at SideA.
Rule
No
Production Rule Action
1 (i,j) if i-1>=j on one side
and i+1>=j on other
side
One missionary can cross the river
2 (i,j) if j-1<=i or i=0 on one side
and j+1<=i or j=0 on other side
One cannibal can cross the river
3 (i,j) if i-2>=j or i-2=0 on one side
and i+2>=j on other side
Two missionary can cross the river
4 (i,j) if j-2<=i or i=0 on one
side and j+2<=i or i=0 on other
side
Two cannibals can cross the river
5 (i,j) if i-1>=j-1 or i=0 on one side
and i+1>=j+1 or i=0 on other side
One missionary and one cannibal
can cross the river
The various Production Rules that are available to solve this
problem may be stated as given in the following table .
Solution of Missionary Canibal Problem
SideA
(M,C)
Boat
(M,C)
Side B
(M,C)
RuleApplied
(3,3) Empty (0,0)
(3,1) (0,2) (0,2) 4
(3,2) (0,1) (0,1) 2
(3,0) (0,2) (0,3) 4
(3,1) (0,1) (0,2) 2
(1,1) (2,0) (2,2) 3
(2,2) (1,1) (1,1) 5
(0,2) (2,0) (3,1) 3
(0,3) (0,1) (3,0) 2
(0,1) (0,2) (3,2) 4
(0,2) (0,1) (3,1) 2
(0,0) (0,2) (3,3) 4
Towerof Hanoi Problem
Problem Statement:
 The Tower of Hanoi is a mathematical game or puzzle.
 It consist of three rods and a no. Of disks of different sizes,
which can slide onto any rod.
 The puzzle start with the disks in a stack in ascending order
of size on one rod, the smallest at the top, thus making a
conical shape.
 The objectives of the puzzel is to move the entire stack into
another rod, using following simple constraint.
1.Only one disk can be moved at a time.
2.Each move consist of taking the upper disk from one of the
stacks and placing it on top of another stack or on an empty
rod.
3.No larger disk may be placed on top of a smaller disk.
The minimal no of moves required to solve these problem.
Unit-II-Introduction of Artifiial Intelligence.pptx
1.Disk 1 moved from R1 to R3
2. Disk 2 moved from R1 to R2
3. Disk 1 moved from R3 to R2
4. Disk 3 moved from R1 to R3
5. Disk 1 moved from R2 to R1
6. Disk 2 moved from R2 to R3
7.Disk 1 moved from R1 to R3
The state is represented as a tuple , (rod no, Sequence of
disks)
->{(R1,1,2,3),(R2,Nil),(R3,Nil}Initial State
->{(R1,2,3),(R2,NIL)(R3,1)}
->{(R1,3),(R2,2),(R3,1)}
->{(R1,3),(R2,1,2),(R3,NIL)}
->{(R1,NIL),(R2,1,2),(R3,3)}
->{(R1,1),(R2,NIL),(R3,2,3)}
->{(R1,NIL),(R2,NIL),(R3,1,2,3)}Goal State
Total No of moves are 6.
Thanks !!!

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Unit-II-Introduction of Artifiial Intelligence.pptx

  • 2. Artificial intelligence  In today's world, technology is growing very fast, and we are getting in touch with different new technologies day by day.  Here, one of the booming technologies of computer science is Artificial Intelligence which is ready to create a new revolution in the world by making intelligent machines. The Artificial Intelligence is now all around us.  It is currently working with a variety of subfields, ranging from general to specific, such as self-driving cars, playing chess, proving theorems, playing music, Painting, etc.
  • 3.  AI is one of the fascinating and universal fields of Computer science which has a great scope in future. AI holds a tendency to cause a machine to work as a human.
  • 4.  Artificial Intelligence is composed of two words Artificial and Intelligence, where Artificial defines "man-made," and intelligence defines "thinking power", hence AI means "a man-made thinking power." So, we can define AI as:  "It is a branch of computer science by which we can create intelligent machines which can behave like a human, think like humans, and able to make decisions."  Artificial Intelligence exists when a machine can have human based skills such as learning, reasoning, and solving problems
  • 5. Why Artificial Intelligence?  With the help of AI, you can create such software or devices which can solve real-world problems very easily and with accuracy such as health issues, marketing, traffic issues, etc.  With the help of AI, you can create your personal virtual Assistant, such as Cortana, Google Assistant, Siri, etc.  With the help of AI, you can build such Robots which can work in an environment where survival of humans can be at risk.  AI opens a path for other new technologies, new devices, and new Opportunities.
  • 6. Goals of Artificial Intelligence Following are the main goals of Artificial Intelligence:  Replicate human intelligence  Solve Knowledge-intensive tasks  An intelligent connection of perception and action  Building a machine which can perform tasks that requires human intelligence such as:  Proving a theorem  Playing chess  Plan some surgical operation  Driving a car in traffic  Creating some system which can exhibit intelligent behaviour, learn new things by itself, demonstrate, explain, and can advise to its user.
  • 7. Advantages of Artificial Intelligence: Following are some main advantages of Artificial Intelligence:  High Accuracy with less errors: AI machines or systems are prone to less errors and high accuracy as it takes decisions as per pre-experience or information.  High-Speed: AI systems can be of very high-speed and fast-decision making, because of that AI systems can beat a chess champion in the Chess game.  High reliability: AI machines are highly reliable and can perform the same action multiple times with high accuracy.
  • 8.  Useful for risky areas: AI machines can be helpful in situations such as defusing a bomb, exploring the ocean floor, where to employ a human can be risky.  Digital Assistant: AI can be very useful to provide digital assistant to the users such as AI technology is currently used by various E-commerce websites to show the products as per customer requirement.  Useful as a public utility: AI can be very useful for public utilities such as a self-driving car which can make our journey safer and hassle-free, facial recognition for security purpose, Natural language processing to communicate with the human in human-language, etc.
  • 9. Disadvantages of Artificial Intelligence  High Cost: The hardware and software requirement of AI is very costly as it requires lots of maintenance to meet current world requirements.  Can't think out of the box: Even we are making smarter machines with AI, but still they cannot work out of the box, as the robot will only do that work for which they are trained, or programmed.  No feelings and emotions: AI machines can be an outstanding performer, but still it does not have the feeling so it cannot make any kind of emotional attachment with human, and may sometime be harmful for users if the proper care is not taken.
  • 10.  Increase dependency on machines: With the increment of technology, people are getting more dependent on devices and hence they are losing their mental capabilities.  No Original Creativity: As humans are so creative and can imagine some new ideas but still AI machines cannot beat this power of human intelligence and cannot be creative and imaginative.
  • 12. 1. AI in Astronomy  Artificial Intelligence can be very useful to solve complex universe problems. AI technology can be helpful for understanding the universe such as how it works, origin, etc. 2. AI in Healthcare  In the last, five to ten years, AI becoming more advantageous for the healthcare industry and going to have a significant impact on this industry.  Healthcare Industries are applying AI to make a better and faster diagnosis than humans. AI can help doctors with diagnoses and can inform when patients are worsening so that medical help can reach to the patient before hospitalization.
  • 13. 3 . AI in Gaming  AI can be used for gaming purpose. The AI machines can play strategic games like chess, where the machine needs to think of a large number of possible places. 4. AI in Finance  AI and finance industries are the best matches for each other. The finance industry is implementing automation, chatbot, adaptive intelligence, algorithm trading, and machine learning into financial processes. 5. AI in Data Security  The security of data is crucial for every company and cyber- attacks are growing very rapidly in the digital world. AI can be used to make your data more safe and secure. Some examples such as AEG bot, AI2 Platform, are used to determine software bug and cyber-attacks in a better way.
  • 14. 6.AI in Social Media  Social Media sites such as Face book, Twitter, and Snap chat contain billions of user profiles, which need to be stored and managed in a very efficient way. AI can organize and manage massive amounts of data.  AI can analyze lots of data to identify the latest trends, hash tag , and requirement of different users. 7. AI in Travel & Transport  AI is becoming highly demanding for travel industries. AI is capable of doing various travel related works such as from making travel arrangement to suggesting the hotels, flights, and best routes to the customers.  Travel industries are using AI-powered chat bots which can make human-like interaction with customers for better and fast response.
  • 15. 8. AI in Automotive Industry  Some Automotive industries are using AI to provide virtual assistant to their user for better performance. Such as Tesla has introduced TeslaBot, an intelligent virtual assistant.  Various Industries are currently working for developing self-driven cars which can make your journey more safe and secure. 9. AI in Robotics:  Artificial Intelligence has a remarkable role in Robotics.  Usually, general robots are programmed such that they can perform some repetitive task, but with the help of AI, we can create intelligent robots which can perform tasks with their own experiences without pre-programmed.
  • 16. Humanoid Robots are best examples for AI in robotics, recently the intelligent Humanoid robot named as Erica and Sophia has been developed which can talk and behave like humans. 10. AI in Entertainment  We are currently using some AI based applications in our daily life with some entertainment services such as Netflix or Amazon. With the help of ML/AI algorithms, these services show the recommendations for programs or shows.
  • 17. 11. AI in Agriculture  Agriculture is an area which requires various resources, labor, money, and time for best result. Now a day's agriculture is becoming digital, and AI is emerging in this field.  Agriculture is applying AI as agriculture robotics, solid and crop monitoring, predictive analysis. AI in agriculture can be very helpful for farmers. 12. AI in E-commerce  AI is providing a competitive edge to the e-commerce industry, and it is becoming more demanding in the e- commerce business.  AI is helping shoppers to discover associated products with recommended size, color, or even brand.
  • 18. 13. AI in education:  AI can automate grading so that the tutor can have more time to teach. AI chatbot can communicate with students as a teaching assistant.  AI in the future can be work as a personal virtual tutor for students, which will be accessible easily at any time and any place.
  • 19. Intelligent System What is Intelligence?  The ability of a system to calculate, reason, perceive relationships and analogies, learn from experience, store and retrieve information from memory, solve problems, comprehend complex ideas, use natural language fluently, classify, generalize, and adapt new situations. What is Intelligent System?  Intelligent systems are technologically advanced machines that perceive and respond to the world around them. Intelligent systems can take many forms, from automated vacuums such as the Roomba to facial recognition programs to Amazon's personalized shopping suggestions.
  • 20. Early Work in AI  AI began to emerge as a separate field of study during the 1940s and 1950s when the computer became a commercial  Prior to this work in AI already began in 1920s and 1930s  Turing, sometimes regarded as father of AI demonstrated a simple computer processor could manipulate symbols and numbers. (Turing Machines)  Cybernetics, the study of communication in human and machines, became an active area of research during 1940s and 1950s
  • 21.  During 1950 several events occurred marked as real beginning of AI  This was period noted for chess playing programs which were developed by researchers like Claude Shannon at MIT in 1952  Other types of game playing and simulation programs were also being developed during this time  In 1950s much efforts was being expended on machine translation programs, to produce accurate translation from one language to another  During this time researches work on automatic theorem proving and new programming languages
  • 22.  As a part of this development programming languages like IPL (Information Processing Language), FORTRAN etc were developed in the area of natural language processing  Several programming projects were developed during 1950 including GPS(General Problem Solver)developed by Newell and Simon written in IPL. Gelernter’s geometry theorem proving machine written in FORTRAN
  • 23. Some significant AI events of the 1960s include the following:  1961-A. L. Samuel developed a program which learned to play checkers at a master’s level  1965- DENDRAL was the first knowledge based expert system developed which discover molecular structures given only information of the constituents of the compound  1968- work on MACSYMA was initiated at MIT by William Martin and Joel Moses. MACSYMA is a large interactive program which solves numerous types of mathematical problems.
  • 24. AI Techniques Search:  Another general technique required when writing AI programs is search.  Provides a way of solving problems for which no more direct approach is available.  Often there is no direct way to find a solution to some problem. However, you do know how to generate possibilities.  For example, in solving a puzzle you might know all the possible moves, but not the sequence that would lead to a solution.
  • 25. Use of Knowledge:  Solving simple problems requires a lots of knowledge.  Use of knowledge Provides a way of solving complex problems by exploiting the structure of the objects that are involved.  To understand a single sentence requires extensive knowledge of both language and of the context.  In order to solve the complex problems encountered in artificial intelligence, one needs both a large amount of knowledge and some mechanisms for manipulating that knowledge to create solutions
  • 26. Abstraction:  Abstraction means to hide the details of something. For example, if we want to compute the square root of a number then we simply call the function sqrt() in C.  We do not need to know the implementation details of this function.  Abstraction provides a way of separating important features and variations from the many unimportant ones that would otherwise overwhelm any process.
  • 27. AI and Related Fields Fields that are closely related to AI includes Robotics, Linguistics, Psychology, Engineering etc. Robotics:  Robotics is considered as a separate field which combines concepts and techniques of AI, electrical and mechanical engineering.  The robots that can see and move around, perform mechanical tasks, and understand human speech.  Eg. In manufacturing industry robots are used for moving, spraying, painting, precision checking, drilling, cleaning, coating, carving, etc
  • 28. Psychology:  Psychology studies how human mind behave and how human brain processes information.  Researchers in AI have much in common with psychologists.  AI has adopted models of thinking and learning from psychologist in turn AI has given psychologist ability to model human functions on computer. Natural Language Processing:  NLP allows a user to communicate with computer in user’s natural language.  The computer can both understand and respond to commands given in natural language.  Both NLP and AI fields have desired to build a system that understand natural languages
  • 29. Expert System:  Expert system concerned with solving real life situations. Speech and Voice Recognition:  The speech recognition aims at understanding WHAT was spoken.  The objective of voice recognition is to recognize WHO is speaking. Handwriting Recognition :  The handwriting recognition software reads the text written on paper by a pen or on screen by a stylus.  It can recognize the shapes of the letters and convert it into editable text.  Finally, AI overlap with almost all fields such as medicine, law, manufacturing, economics, banking, biology, chemistry, defence etc
  • 30. Applications of intelligent systems  Intelligent systems are poised to fill a growing number of roles in today's society, including:  Factory automation  Field and service robotics  Assistive robotics  Military applications  Medical care  Education
  • 31.  Entertainment  Visual inspection  Character recognition  Human identification using various biometric modalities (e.g. face, fingerprint, iris, hand)  Visual surveillance  Intelligent transportation
  • 32. Challenges in intelligent systems Uncertainty:  Physical sensors/effectors provide limited, noisy and inaccurate information/action.  Therefore, any actions the system takes may be incorrect both due to noise in the sensors and due to the limitations in executing those actions. Dynamic world:  The physical world changes continuously, requiring that decisions be made at fast time scales to accommodate for the changes in the environment.
  • 33. Time-consuming computation:  Searching for the optimal path to a goal requires extensive search through a very large state space, which is computationally expensive.  The drawback of spending too much time on computation is that the world may change in the meantime, thus rendering the computed plan obsolete. Mapping:  A lot of information is lost in the transformation from the 3D world to the 2D world.  Computer vision must deal with challenges including changes in perspective, lighting and scale; background clutter or motion; and grouping items with intra/inter- class variation.
  • 34. Defining AI Problem as State SpaceSearch  A set of all possible states for a given problem is known as state space of the problem.  Representation of states is highly beneficial in AI because they provide all possible states, operations and the goals.  If the entire sets of possible states are given, it is possible to trace the path from the initial state to the goal state and identify the sequence of operators necessary for doing it.  Representation allows for a formal definition of a problem using a set of permissible operations as the need to convert some given situation into some desired situation.
  • 35. Search and Control Strategies  AI problem can be solved by searching for a path through the space. i.e. from initial state to goal state.  Search refers to the search for a solution in a problem space.  Search proceeds with different types of search control strategies  So it is necessary to choose the appropriate control structure such that the search can be as efficient as possible.
  • 36. Control Strategy:  Helps us decide which rule to apply next.  What to do when there are more than 1 matching rule The features of good control strategy: 1. A good control strategy is that which causes motion 2. A good control strategy must be systematic: A control strategy is not systematic; we may explore a particular useless sequence of operators several times before we finally find a solution.
  • 37. AI Problem: 1.Water Jug Problem Problem Statement :- We are given 2 jugs, a 4 litter one and a 3- litter one. Neither has any measuring markers on it. There is a pump that can be used to fill the jugs with water. we can pour water out of a jug to the ground. We can pour water from one jug to another. How can we get exactly 2 litters of water in to the 4-liter jugs? Solution:-The state space for this problem can be defined as x -represents the number of litters of water in the 4-liter jug y -represents the number of litters of water in the 3- liter jug Therefore, x =0,1,2,3 or 4 and y=0,1,2 or 3. The initial state is ( 0,0) .The goal state is to get ( 2,n) for any value of ‘n’.
  • 38. The various Production Rules that are available to solve this problem may be stated as given in the following table . Rule No Production Rule Action 1 (x,y) if x<4 => (4,y) Fill the 4 Liter jug 2 (x,y) if y<3 => (x,3) Fill the 3 Liter jug 3 (x,y) if x>0 =>(0,y) Empty 4 Liter jug on ground 4 (x,y) if y>0 =>(x,0) Empty 3 Liter jug on ground 5 (x,y) if x+y<=4 =>(x+y,0) Pour all the water from 3 liter jug into 4 literjug 6 (x,y) if x+y<=3 =>(0,x+y) Pour all the water from 4 liter jug into 3 literjug 7 (x,y) if x+y>=4 => (4,y- (4-x) Pour water from 3 liter jug to 4 liter jug until4 liter jug is full 8 (x,y) if x+y>=3 =>(x-(3- y),3) Pour water from 4 liter jug to 3 liter jug until3 liter jug is full 9 (0,2) =>(2,0) Pour 2 liter from 3 liter jug to 4 literjug
  • 39. Liter in 4 Liter Jug Liter in 3 Liter Jug RuleApplied 0 0 0 3 2 3 0 5 3 3 2 4 2 7 0 2 3 2 0 5 Solution 1
  • 40. Liter in 4 Liter Jug Liter in 3 Liter Jug RuleApplied 0 0 4 0 1 1 3 8 1 0 4 0 1 6 4 1 1 2 3 8 Solution 2
  • 41. Liter in 4 LiterJug Liter in 3 LiterJug RuleApplied 0 0 4 0 1 1 3 8 0 3 3 3 0 5 3 3 2 4 2 7 0 2 3 2 0 5 Solution 3
  • 42. Water Jug Problem of 8,5 and 3 Litter Jug Problem Statement: The following is a problem which can be solved by using state space search technique. “we have 3 jugs of capacities 3,5, and 8 litters respectively. There is no scale on the jugs. So it is only their capacities that we certainly know. Initially the 8 litter jug is full of water, the other two are empty. We can pour water from one jug to another, and the goal is to have exactly 4 litters of water in any of the jug. There is no scale on the jug and we do not have any other tools that would help. The amount of water in the other two jugs at the end is irrelevant.
  • 43. Formalize the above problem as state space search . Youshould, 1. Suggest suitable representation of the problem 2. State the initial and goal state of this problem 3. Specify the production rules for getting from one state to another.
  • 44. Solution:-  The state space for this problem can be definedas  x -represents the number of litters of water in the 8-literjug  y -represents the number of litters of water in the 5-literjug  z –represent the number of litters of water in he 3-liter jug
  • 45.  Therefore, x =0,1,2,3,5,6,70r 8  y=0,1,2 ,3,4 or 5  z=0,1,2 or 3  The initial state is ( 8,0,0) .The goal state is to get 4 liter of water in any jug.  The goal state can be defined as (4,n,n) or (n,4,n) for any value of n
  • 46. The various Production Rules t hat are available to solve this problem may be stated as given in the following table . 8,5,3 Liter water jug problem Rule Production Rule Action 1 (x,y,z) if x+y<=5 =>(0,x+y,z) Pour all water from 8 liter jug to 5 literjug 2 (x,y,z) if x+z<=3 =>(0,y,x+z) Pour all water from 8 liter jug to 3 literjug 3 (x,y,z) if x+y<=8 =>(x+y,0,z) Pour all water from 5 liter jug to 8 literjug 4 (x,y,z) if y+z<=3 =>(x,0,y+z) Pour all water from 5 liter jug to 3 literjug 5 (x,y,z) if x+z<=8 =>(x+z,y,0) Pour all water from 3 liter jug to 8 literjug 6 (x,y,z) if y+z<=5 =>(x,y+z,0) Pour all water from 3 liter jug to 5 literjug 7 (x,y,z) if x+y>=5 => (x-(5-y),5,z) Pour water from 8 liter jug to 5 literjug until 5 liter jug is full 8 (x,y,z) if x+z>=3 => (x-(3-z),y,3) Pour water from 8 liter jug to 3 literjug until 3 liter jug is full 9 (x,y,z) if y+z>=3 => (x,y-(3-z),3) Pour water from 5 liter jug to 3 literjug until 3 liter jug is full 10 (x,y,z) if y+z>=5 => (x,5,z-(5-y)) Pour water from 3 liter jug to 5 literjug until 5 liter jug is full
  • 47. 8,5,3 Liter water jug problem One solution to water jug problem is given as Liter in 8 Liter Jug Liter in 5 Liter Jug Liter in 3 Liter Jug Rule Applied 8 0 0 3 5 0 7 3 2 3 9 6 2 0 5 6 0 2 4 1 5 2 7 1 4 3 9
  • 48.  Thus, to solve any difficult, unstructured problems, we have to provide a formal description to solve a problem and for that we have to do following: 1. Specify one or more states within that space that describes possible situations from which the problem solving process may start, called as initial state 2. Specify one or more states that would be acceptable as solution to the problem. These states are called as goal state 3. Define a state space that contains all the possible configuration of the relevant objects 4. Specify a set of rules that describes the action available 5. Thus the problem canbe solved by using the rules and also with appropriate control strategy.
  • 49. 2.Missionaries and Cannibals Problem: Problem Statement : Three missionaries and three cannibals find themselves on one side of a river. They have would like to get to the other side, such that the number of missionaries on either side of the river should never less than the number of cannibals who are on the same side. The only boat available can holds only two at a time. How can everyone cross the river without the missionaries risking being eaten? Formalize the above problem in terms of state space search. You should, i. Suggest a suitable representation for the problem ii. State the initial state and final state iii. List the actions for getting from one state to another state
  • 50. Solution: The state space for this problem can be defined as,  Let, i represents the number missionaries in one side of ariver Therefore i=0,1,2 or 3 j represents the number of cannibals in the same side of river Therefore j=0,1,2 or 3  The initial state (i,j) is (3,3) i.e. three missionaries and three cannibals on side A of a river and ( 0,0) on side B of the river.  The goal state is to get (3,3) at Side B and (0,0) at SideA.
  • 51. Rule No Production Rule Action 1 (i,j) if i-1>=j on one side and i+1>=j on other side One missionary can cross the river 2 (i,j) if j-1<=i or i=0 on one side and j+1<=i or j=0 on other side One cannibal can cross the river 3 (i,j) if i-2>=j or i-2=0 on one side and i+2>=j on other side Two missionary can cross the river 4 (i,j) if j-2<=i or i=0 on one side and j+2<=i or i=0 on other side Two cannibals can cross the river 5 (i,j) if i-1>=j-1 or i=0 on one side and i+1>=j+1 or i=0 on other side One missionary and one cannibal can cross the river The various Production Rules that are available to solve this problem may be stated as given in the following table .
  • 52. Solution of Missionary Canibal Problem SideA (M,C) Boat (M,C) Side B (M,C) RuleApplied (3,3) Empty (0,0) (3,1) (0,2) (0,2) 4 (3,2) (0,1) (0,1) 2 (3,0) (0,2) (0,3) 4 (3,1) (0,1) (0,2) 2 (1,1) (2,0) (2,2) 3 (2,2) (1,1) (1,1) 5 (0,2) (2,0) (3,1) 3 (0,3) (0,1) (3,0) 2 (0,1) (0,2) (3,2) 4 (0,2) (0,1) (3,1) 2 (0,0) (0,2) (3,3) 4
  • 53. Towerof Hanoi Problem Problem Statement:  The Tower of Hanoi is a mathematical game or puzzle.  It consist of three rods and a no. Of disks of different sizes, which can slide onto any rod.  The puzzle start with the disks in a stack in ascending order of size on one rod, the smallest at the top, thus making a conical shape.  The objectives of the puzzel is to move the entire stack into another rod, using following simple constraint.
  • 54. 1.Only one disk can be moved at a time. 2.Each move consist of taking the upper disk from one of the stacks and placing it on top of another stack or on an empty rod. 3.No larger disk may be placed on top of a smaller disk. The minimal no of moves required to solve these problem.
  • 56. 1.Disk 1 moved from R1 to R3 2. Disk 2 moved from R1 to R2 3. Disk 1 moved from R3 to R2 4. Disk 3 moved from R1 to R3 5. Disk 1 moved from R2 to R1 6. Disk 2 moved from R2 to R3 7.Disk 1 moved from R1 to R3
  • 57. The state is represented as a tuple , (rod no, Sequence of disks) ->{(R1,1,2,3),(R2,Nil),(R3,Nil}Initial State ->{(R1,2,3),(R2,NIL)(R3,1)} ->{(R1,3),(R2,2),(R3,1)} ->{(R1,3),(R2,1,2),(R3,NIL)} ->{(R1,NIL),(R2,1,2),(R3,3)} ->{(R1,1),(R2,NIL),(R3,2,3)} ->{(R1,NIL),(R2,NIL),(R3,1,2,3)}Goal State Total No of moves are 6.