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ELECTRIC AND
HYBRID VEHICLE
UNIT III- HYBRID AND ELECTRIC
DRIVETRAINS
Hybrid and Electric Traction
DRIVE TRAIN CONFIGURATION
• a power plant
• a clutch in a manual transmission or
• a torque converter in automatic transmission
• a gear box
• final drive
• differential shaft
• driven wheels
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 4
AN AUTOMOBILE POWER TRAIN
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 5
Classification of vehicle power plant
Figure 2: Classification of vehicle power
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 6
In selecting a suitable power plant, the following
factors are considered:
• Operating performance
• Economy
• Environment friendliness
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 7
INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE
• The internal combustion engines used in the vehicles are based
on two principles:
• Spark ignition ( petrol engines ) principle
• Diesel principle.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 8
spark ignition /petrol engine
• Advantages:
• high power/weight ratio
• good performance
• low combustion noise.
• Disadvantages :
• quality of fuel required
• higher fuel consumption.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 9
DIESEL ENGINES
advantages
• low fuel consumption
• low maintenance requirement due to absence of ignition
system
• low fuel quality required
disadvantages
• high level of particulate emission
• greater weight and higher price
• higher levels of noise
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 10
THE TWO TYPICAL CHARACTERISTIC CURVES
USED TO DESCRIBE THE ENGINE
CHARACTERISTIC ARE
• torque vs. engine speed curve at full load (100%
acceleration pedal position)
• power vs. engine speed curve at full load (100%
acceleration pedal position)
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 11
nomenclature is used
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 12
ELECTRIC MOTOR
• The electric motors are ideal for vehicle application
because of the torque speed characteristics of the motors .
• Electric motors are capable of delivering a high starting
torque. It is very important to select proper type of motor
with a suitable rating.
• For example, it is not accurate to simply refer to a 10 h.p.
motor or a 15 h.p. motor, because horsepower varies with
volts and amps, and peak horsepower is much higher than
the continuous rating.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 13
Torque vs. speed and power vs. speed characteristics of electric
motor
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 14
The commonly used motors in EVs
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 15
The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV)
• The gasoline ICE and battery
• Diesel ICE and battery
• Battery and fuel cell
• Battery and capacitor
• Battery and flywheel
• Battery and battery hybrids.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 16
HEV Configurations
I. Powertrain 1 alone delivers power
Ii. Powertrain 2 alone delivers power
Iii. Both powertrain 1 and 2 deliver power to load at the same time
Iv. Powertrain 2 obtains power from load (regenerative braking)
V. Powertrain 2 obtains power from powertrain 1
Vi. Powertrain 2 obtains power from powertrain 1 and load at the same time
Vii. Powertrain 1 delivers power simultaneously to load and to powertrain 2
Viii. Powertrain 1 delivers power to powertrain 2 and powertrain 2 delivers
power ton load
Ix. Powertrain 1 delivers power to load and load delivers power to powertrain
2.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 17
HYBRID DRIVETRAIN
• Series configuration
• Parallel configuration
• Series-parallel configuration
• Complex configuration
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 18
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 19
POWER FLOW CONTROL
• maximum fuel efficiency
• minimum emissions
• minimum system costs
• good driving performance
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 20
The design of power control strategies for HEVs
involves different considerations such as:
• • Optimal ICE operating point: The optimal operating point
on the torque-speed plane of the ICE can be based on
maximization of fuel economy, the minimization of emissions
or a compromise between fuel economy and emissions.
• • Optimal ICE operating line: In case the ICE needs to
deliver different power demands, the corresponding optimal
operating points constitute an optimal operating line.
• • Safe battery voltage: The battery voltage may be
significantly altered during discharging, generator charging or
regenerative charging. This battery voltage should not exceed
the maximum voltage limit nor should it fall below the
minimum voltage limit.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 21
POWER FLOW CONTROL IN
SERIES HYBRID
• Mode 1: During startup (Figure 1a),
normal driving or acceleration of the series
HEV, both the ICE and battery deliver
electric energy to the power converter
which then drives the electric motor and
hence the wheels via transmission.
• Mode 2: At light load (Figure 1b), the
ICE output is greater than that required to
drive the wheels. Hence, a fraction of the
generated electrical energy is used to
charge the battery. The charging of the
batter takes place till the battery capacity
reaches a proper level.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 22
• Mode 3: During braking or deceleration
(Figure 1c), the electric motor acts as a
generator, which converts the kinetic energy of
the wheels into electricity and this, is used to
charge the battery.
• Mode 4: The battery can also be charged by
the ICE via the generator even when the
vehicle comes to a complete stop (Figure 1d).
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 23
POWER FLOW CONTROL IN
PARALLEL HYBRID
• Mode 1: During start up or full
throttle acceleration (Figure 2a) ; both
the ICE and the EM share the required
power to propel the vehicle. Typically,
the relative distribution between the
ICE and electric motor is 80-20%.
Mode 2: During normal driving
(Figure 2b), the required traction
power is supplied by the ICE only and
the EM remains in off mode.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 24
Mode 3: During braking or
deceleration (Figure 2c), the EM acts
as a generator to charge the battery via
the power converter.
• Mode 4: Under light load condition
(Figure 2d), the traction power is
delivered by the ICE and the ICE also
charges the battery via the EM.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 25
POWER FLOW CONTROL SERIES-
PARALLEL HYBRID
• The series-parallel hybrid system involves the
features of series and parallel hybrid systems. Hence,
a number of operation modes are feasible. Therefore,
these hybrid systems are classified into two
categories:
• ICE dominated
• EM dominated .
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 26
ICE DOMINATED SYSTEM
• • Mode 1: At startup
(Figure 3a) , the
battery solely provides
the necessary power to
propel the vehicle and
the ICE remains in off
mode.
• • Mode 2: During full
throttle acceleration
(Figure 3b), both the
ICE and the EM share
the required traction
power.
• • Mode 3: During
normal driving
(Figure 3c), the
required traction
power is provided by
the ICE only and the
EM remains in the off
state.
• •
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 27
• Mode 4: During normal
braking or deceleration
(Figure 3d), the EM acts as
a generator to charge the
battery.
• • Mode 5: To charge the
battery during driving
(Figure 3e), the ICE
delivers the required
traction power and also
charges the battery. In this
mode the EM acts as a
generator.
• • Mode 6: When the vehicle
is at standstill (Figure 3f),
the ICE can deliver power
to charge the battery via the
EM
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 28
EM DOMINATED SYSTEM
• • Mode 1: During
startup (Figure 4a),
the EM provides the
traction power and the
ICE remains in the off
state.
• • Mode 2: During full
throttle (Figure 4b),
both the ICE and EM
provide the traction
power.
• • Mode 3: During
normal driving
(Figure 4c), both the
ICE and EM provide
the traction power.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 29
• •Mode 4: During
braking or deceleration
(Figure 4d), the EM acts
as a generator to charge
the battery.
• • Mode 5: To charge the
battery during driving
(Figure 4e), the ICE
delivers the required
traction power and also
charges the battery. The
EM acts as a generator.
• • Mode 6: When the
vehicle is at standstill
(Figure 4f), the ICE can
deliver power to charge
the battery via the EM
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 30
POWER FLOW CONTROL COMPLEX
HYBRID CONTROL
• The complex hybrid vehicle configurations are of two
types:
• Front hybrid rear electric
• Front electric and rear hybrid
Both the configurations have six modes of operation:
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 31
• Mode 1: During startup Figure, the
required traction power is delivered
by the EMs and the engine is in off
mode.
• Mode 2: During full throttle
acceleration (Figure 5b), both the
ICE and the front wheel EM deliver
the power to the front wheel and the
second EM delivers power to the
rear wheel.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 32
• Mode 3: During normal driving
(Figure 5c), the ICE delivers power
to propel the front wheel and to
drive the first EM as a generator to
charge the battery.
• Mode 4: During driving at light
load (Figure 5d) first EM delivers
the required traction power to the
front wheel. The second EM and
the ICE are in off sate.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 33
• Mode 5: During braking or
deceleration (Figure 5e), both the front
and rear wheel EMs act as generators to
simultaneously charge the battery.
• Mode 6: A unique operating mode of
complex hybrid system is axial
balancing. In this mode (Figure 5f) if
the front wheel slips, the front EM
works as a generator to absorb the
change of ICE power. Through the
battery, this power difference is then
used to drive the rear wheels to achieve
the axle balancing.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 34
Hybrid Traction And Electric Traction
Hybrid And Electric vehicles
• In Figure 9 a parallel hybrid drive train with speed coupling using
planetary gear unit and an EM. The connection of the ICE and the EM is as
follows:
• The engine supplies its power to the sun gear through a clutch and
transmission. The transmission is used to modify the speed vs. torque
profile of the ICE so as to match the traction requirements. The
transmission may be single gear or multigear.
• The EM supplies its power to the ring gear through a pair of gears. The
Locks 1 and 2 are used to lock the sun gear and ring gear to the stationary
frame of the vehicle in order to implement different modes of operation.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 35
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 36
• Hybrid traction: When lock 1 and lock 2 are released, i.e. the
sun gear and the ring gear can rotate both the ICE and EM
supply positive speed and torque to the driven wheels.
• Engine alone traction: When the lock 2 locks the ring gear,
only the ICE delivers the required traction force to the wheels.
•
• Motor alone traction: When lock 1 locks the sun gear, only
the EM delivers the traction force to the wheels.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 37
• Regenerative braking: In this case lock 2 is engaged, the
ICE is switched off, the clutch is disengaged and the EM
is controlled in regenerating mode and the battery absorbs
the kinetic energy of the vehicle.
• Battery charging from the ICE: In this mode the locks
1 and 2 are released. The EM is controlled to rotate in the
opposite direction, i.e. the EM operates with positive
torque and negative speed and absorbs power from the
engine and delivers it to the battery.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 38
Basic Architecture of Electric Drive Trains
• Electric Vehicle (EV) Configurations Compared to HEV, the
configuration of EV is flexible. The reasons for this flexibility
are:
• The energy flow in EV is mainly via flexible electrical wires
rather than bolted flanges or rigid shafts. Hence, distributed
subsystems in the EV are really achievable.
• The EVs allow different propulsion arrangements such as
independent four wheels and in wheel drives.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 39
CONFIGURATION OF THE EV
• The general configuration of the EV is shown. The
EV has three major subsystems:
• Electric propulsion
• Energy source
• Auxiliary system
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 40
• The electric propulsion
subsystem comprises of:
• The electronic controller
• Power converter
• Electric Motor (EM)
• Mechanical transmission
• Driving wheels
The energy source subsystem
consists of
• The energy source
• Energy management unit
• Energy refueling unit
The auxiliary subsystem consists of
• Power steering unit
• Temperature control unit
• Auxiliary power supply
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 41
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 42
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 43
ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV)
DRIVETRAIN
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 44
BASED ON DRIVETRAIN
CONFIGURATION
• In Figure 3a a single EM
configuration with gearbox (GB) and a
clutch is shown. It consists of an EM, a
clutch (C), a gearbox, and a differential
(D).
• The clutch enables the connection or
disconnection of power flow from EM
to the wheels.
• The gear consists of a set of gears with
different gear ratios. With the use of
clutch and gearbox, the driver can shift
the gear ratios and hence the torque
going to the wheels can be changed.
• The wheels have high torque low speed
in the lower gears and high-speed low
torque in the higher gears.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 45
• In Figure 3b a single EM
configuration without the
gearbox and the clutch is
shown. The advantage of
this configuration is that the
weight of the transmission
is reduced. However, this
configuration demands a
more complex control of the
EM to provide the necessary
torque to the wheels.
• Figure 3c shows a
configuration of EV using
one EM. It is a transverse
front EM front wheel drive
configuration. It has a fixed
gearing and differential and
they are integrated into a
single assembly.
• In Figure 3d a dual
motor configuration is
shown. In this configuration
the differential action of an
EV when cornering can be
electronically provided by
two electric motors.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 46
• In order to shorten the mechanical
transmission path from the EM to the
driving wheel, the EM can be placed
inside a wheel. This configuration is
called in-wheel drive. Figure 3e shows
this configuration in which fixed
planetary gearing is employed to reduce
the motor speed to the desired wheel
speed.
• In Figure 3f an EV configuration
without any mechanical gearing is
shown. By fully abandoning any
mechanical gearing, the in-wheel drive
can be realized by installing a low
speed outer-rotor electric motor inside a
wheel.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 47
BASED ON POWER SOURCE
CONFIGURATION
• Configuration 1: It is a simple battery powered configuration, Figure
4a.
• The battery may be distributed around the vehicle, packed together at the
vehicle back or located beneath the vehicle chassis.
• The battery in this case should have reasonable specific energy and specific
power and should be able to accept regenerative energy during braking.
• In case of EVs, the battery should have both high specific energy and
specific power because high specific power governs the driving range
while the high power density governs the acceleration rate and hill
climbing capability.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 48
• Configuration 2: Instead of two batteries, this
design uses two different batteries, Figure 4b.
One battery is optimized for high specific
energy and the other for high specific power.
• Configuration 3: In this arrangement fuel cell
is used, Figure 4c. The battery is an energy
storage device, whereas the fuel cell is an
energy generation device. The operation
principle of fuel cells is a reverse process of
electrolysis. In reverse and electrolysis,
hydrogen and oxygen gases combine to form
electricity and water. The hydrogen gas used by
the fuel cell can be stored in an on-board tank
whereas oxygen gas is extracted from air. Since
fuel cell can offer high specific energy but
cannot accept regenerative energy, it is
preferable to combine it with battery with high
specific power and high-energy receptivity.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 49
• Configuration 4: Rather
than storing it as a
compressed gas, a liquid
or a metal hydride,
hydrogen can be can be
generated on-board using
liquid fuels such as
methanol, Figure 4d. In
this case a mini reformer
is installed in the EV to
produce necessary
hydrogen gas for the fuel
cell.
• Configuration 5: In
fuel cell and battery
combination, the battery
is selected to provide
high specific power and
high-energy receptivity.
In this configuration a
battery and
supercapacitor
combination is used as
an energy source, Figure
4e. The battery used in
this configuration is a
high energy density
device whereas the
supercapacitor provides
high specific power and
energy receptivity.
Usually, the
supercapacitors are of
relatively low voltage
levels, an additional dc-
dc power converter is
needed to interface
between the battery and
capacitor terminals.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 50
• The requirements of EMs used in EVs are:
• Frequent start/stop
• High rate of acceleration and deceleration
• High torque low speed hill climbing
• Low torque cruising
• Very wide speed range of operation
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 51
Differences of EMs for EVs
• EV motors need to produce the maximum torque that is four to five times of the rated torque
for acceleration and hill climbing, while industrial motors generally offer the maximum
torque that is twice of the rated torque for overload operation
• EV motors need to achieve four to five times the base speed for highway cruising, while
industrial motors generally achieve up to twice the base speed for constant power operation
• EV motors require high power density as well as good efficiency map (high efficiency over
wide speed and torque ranges), while industrial motors are generally optimized to give high
efficiency at a rated point.
• EV motors need to be installed in mobile vehicles with harsh operating conditions such as
high temperature, bad weather and frequent vibration, while industrial motors are generally
located in fixed places.
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 52
• Configuration And Control Of Dc Motor Drives And
Induction Motor Drives
• Permanent Magnet Motor Drives, Switch Reluctance
Motor Drives, Drive System Efficiency
Refer unit 2
5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 53

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unit3evh-4 (1).pptx

  • 2. UNIT III- HYBRID AND ELECTRIC DRIVETRAINS
  • 4. DRIVE TRAIN CONFIGURATION • a power plant • a clutch in a manual transmission or • a torque converter in automatic transmission • a gear box • final drive • differential shaft • driven wheels 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 4
  • 5. AN AUTOMOBILE POWER TRAIN 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 5
  • 6. Classification of vehicle power plant Figure 2: Classification of vehicle power 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 6
  • 7. In selecting a suitable power plant, the following factors are considered: • Operating performance • Economy • Environment friendliness 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 7
  • 8. INTERNAL COMBUSTION ENGINE • The internal combustion engines used in the vehicles are based on two principles: • Spark ignition ( petrol engines ) principle • Diesel principle. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 8
  • 9. spark ignition /petrol engine • Advantages: • high power/weight ratio • good performance • low combustion noise. • Disadvantages : • quality of fuel required • higher fuel consumption. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 9
  • 10. DIESEL ENGINES advantages • low fuel consumption • low maintenance requirement due to absence of ignition system • low fuel quality required disadvantages • high level of particulate emission • greater weight and higher price • higher levels of noise 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 10
  • 11. THE TWO TYPICAL CHARACTERISTIC CURVES USED TO DESCRIBE THE ENGINE CHARACTERISTIC ARE • torque vs. engine speed curve at full load (100% acceleration pedal position) • power vs. engine speed curve at full load (100% acceleration pedal position) 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 11
  • 12. nomenclature is used 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 12
  • 13. ELECTRIC MOTOR • The electric motors are ideal for vehicle application because of the torque speed characteristics of the motors . • Electric motors are capable of delivering a high starting torque. It is very important to select proper type of motor with a suitable rating. • For example, it is not accurate to simply refer to a 10 h.p. motor or a 15 h.p. motor, because horsepower varies with volts and amps, and peak horsepower is much higher than the continuous rating. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 13
  • 14. Torque vs. speed and power vs. speed characteristics of electric motor 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 14
  • 15. The commonly used motors in EVs 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 15
  • 16. The Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) • The gasoline ICE and battery • Diesel ICE and battery • Battery and fuel cell • Battery and capacitor • Battery and flywheel • Battery and battery hybrids. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 16
  • 17. HEV Configurations I. Powertrain 1 alone delivers power Ii. Powertrain 2 alone delivers power Iii. Both powertrain 1 and 2 deliver power to load at the same time Iv. Powertrain 2 obtains power from load (regenerative braking) V. Powertrain 2 obtains power from powertrain 1 Vi. Powertrain 2 obtains power from powertrain 1 and load at the same time Vii. Powertrain 1 delivers power simultaneously to load and to powertrain 2 Viii. Powertrain 1 delivers power to powertrain 2 and powertrain 2 delivers power ton load Ix. Powertrain 1 delivers power to load and load delivers power to powertrain 2. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 17
  • 18. HYBRID DRIVETRAIN • Series configuration • Parallel configuration • Series-parallel configuration • Complex configuration 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 18
  • 19. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 19
  • 20. POWER FLOW CONTROL • maximum fuel efficiency • minimum emissions • minimum system costs • good driving performance 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 20
  • 21. The design of power control strategies for HEVs involves different considerations such as: • • Optimal ICE operating point: The optimal operating point on the torque-speed plane of the ICE can be based on maximization of fuel economy, the minimization of emissions or a compromise between fuel economy and emissions. • • Optimal ICE operating line: In case the ICE needs to deliver different power demands, the corresponding optimal operating points constitute an optimal operating line. • • Safe battery voltage: The battery voltage may be significantly altered during discharging, generator charging or regenerative charging. This battery voltage should not exceed the maximum voltage limit nor should it fall below the minimum voltage limit. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 21
  • 22. POWER FLOW CONTROL IN SERIES HYBRID • Mode 1: During startup (Figure 1a), normal driving or acceleration of the series HEV, both the ICE and battery deliver electric energy to the power converter which then drives the electric motor and hence the wheels via transmission. • Mode 2: At light load (Figure 1b), the ICE output is greater than that required to drive the wheels. Hence, a fraction of the generated electrical energy is used to charge the battery. The charging of the batter takes place till the battery capacity reaches a proper level. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 22
  • 23. • Mode 3: During braking or deceleration (Figure 1c), the electric motor acts as a generator, which converts the kinetic energy of the wheels into electricity and this, is used to charge the battery. • Mode 4: The battery can also be charged by the ICE via the generator even when the vehicle comes to a complete stop (Figure 1d). 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 23
  • 24. POWER FLOW CONTROL IN PARALLEL HYBRID • Mode 1: During start up or full throttle acceleration (Figure 2a) ; both the ICE and the EM share the required power to propel the vehicle. Typically, the relative distribution between the ICE and electric motor is 80-20%. Mode 2: During normal driving (Figure 2b), the required traction power is supplied by the ICE only and the EM remains in off mode. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 24
  • 25. Mode 3: During braking or deceleration (Figure 2c), the EM acts as a generator to charge the battery via the power converter. • Mode 4: Under light load condition (Figure 2d), the traction power is delivered by the ICE and the ICE also charges the battery via the EM. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 25
  • 26. POWER FLOW CONTROL SERIES- PARALLEL HYBRID • The series-parallel hybrid system involves the features of series and parallel hybrid systems. Hence, a number of operation modes are feasible. Therefore, these hybrid systems are classified into two categories: • ICE dominated • EM dominated . 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 26
  • 27. ICE DOMINATED SYSTEM • • Mode 1: At startup (Figure 3a) , the battery solely provides the necessary power to propel the vehicle and the ICE remains in off mode. • • Mode 2: During full throttle acceleration (Figure 3b), both the ICE and the EM share the required traction power. • • Mode 3: During normal driving (Figure 3c), the required traction power is provided by the ICE only and the EM remains in the off state. • • 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 27
  • 28. • Mode 4: During normal braking or deceleration (Figure 3d), the EM acts as a generator to charge the battery. • • Mode 5: To charge the battery during driving (Figure 3e), the ICE delivers the required traction power and also charges the battery. In this mode the EM acts as a generator. • • Mode 6: When the vehicle is at standstill (Figure 3f), the ICE can deliver power to charge the battery via the EM 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 28
  • 29. EM DOMINATED SYSTEM • • Mode 1: During startup (Figure 4a), the EM provides the traction power and the ICE remains in the off state. • • Mode 2: During full throttle (Figure 4b), both the ICE and EM provide the traction power. • • Mode 3: During normal driving (Figure 4c), both the ICE and EM provide the traction power. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 29
  • 30. • •Mode 4: During braking or deceleration (Figure 4d), the EM acts as a generator to charge the battery. • • Mode 5: To charge the battery during driving (Figure 4e), the ICE delivers the required traction power and also charges the battery. The EM acts as a generator. • • Mode 6: When the vehicle is at standstill (Figure 4f), the ICE can deliver power to charge the battery via the EM 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 30
  • 31. POWER FLOW CONTROL COMPLEX HYBRID CONTROL • The complex hybrid vehicle configurations are of two types: • Front hybrid rear electric • Front electric and rear hybrid Both the configurations have six modes of operation: 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 31
  • 32. • Mode 1: During startup Figure, the required traction power is delivered by the EMs and the engine is in off mode. • Mode 2: During full throttle acceleration (Figure 5b), both the ICE and the front wheel EM deliver the power to the front wheel and the second EM delivers power to the rear wheel. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 32
  • 33. • Mode 3: During normal driving (Figure 5c), the ICE delivers power to propel the front wheel and to drive the first EM as a generator to charge the battery. • Mode 4: During driving at light load (Figure 5d) first EM delivers the required traction power to the front wheel. The second EM and the ICE are in off sate. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 33
  • 34. • Mode 5: During braking or deceleration (Figure 5e), both the front and rear wheel EMs act as generators to simultaneously charge the battery. • Mode 6: A unique operating mode of complex hybrid system is axial balancing. In this mode (Figure 5f) if the front wheel slips, the front EM works as a generator to absorb the change of ICE power. Through the battery, this power difference is then used to drive the rear wheels to achieve the axle balancing. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 34
  • 35. Hybrid Traction And Electric Traction Hybrid And Electric vehicles • In Figure 9 a parallel hybrid drive train with speed coupling using planetary gear unit and an EM. The connection of the ICE and the EM is as follows: • The engine supplies its power to the sun gear through a clutch and transmission. The transmission is used to modify the speed vs. torque profile of the ICE so as to match the traction requirements. The transmission may be single gear or multigear. • The EM supplies its power to the ring gear through a pair of gears. The Locks 1 and 2 are used to lock the sun gear and ring gear to the stationary frame of the vehicle in order to implement different modes of operation. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 35
  • 36. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 36
  • 37. • Hybrid traction: When lock 1 and lock 2 are released, i.e. the sun gear and the ring gear can rotate both the ICE and EM supply positive speed and torque to the driven wheels. • Engine alone traction: When the lock 2 locks the ring gear, only the ICE delivers the required traction force to the wheels. • • Motor alone traction: When lock 1 locks the sun gear, only the EM delivers the traction force to the wheels. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 37
  • 38. • Regenerative braking: In this case lock 2 is engaged, the ICE is switched off, the clutch is disengaged and the EM is controlled in regenerating mode and the battery absorbs the kinetic energy of the vehicle. • Battery charging from the ICE: In this mode the locks 1 and 2 are released. The EM is controlled to rotate in the opposite direction, i.e. the EM operates with positive torque and negative speed and absorbs power from the engine and delivers it to the battery. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 38
  • 39. Basic Architecture of Electric Drive Trains • Electric Vehicle (EV) Configurations Compared to HEV, the configuration of EV is flexible. The reasons for this flexibility are: • The energy flow in EV is mainly via flexible electrical wires rather than bolted flanges or rigid shafts. Hence, distributed subsystems in the EV are really achievable. • The EVs allow different propulsion arrangements such as independent four wheels and in wheel drives. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 39
  • 40. CONFIGURATION OF THE EV • The general configuration of the EV is shown. The EV has three major subsystems: • Electric propulsion • Energy source • Auxiliary system 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 40
  • 41. • The electric propulsion subsystem comprises of: • The electronic controller • Power converter • Electric Motor (EM) • Mechanical transmission • Driving wheels The energy source subsystem consists of • The energy source • Energy management unit • Energy refueling unit The auxiliary subsystem consists of • Power steering unit • Temperature control unit • Auxiliary power supply 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 41
  • 42. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 42
  • 43. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 43
  • 44. ELECTRIC VEHICLE (EV) DRIVETRAIN 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 44
  • 45. BASED ON DRIVETRAIN CONFIGURATION • In Figure 3a a single EM configuration with gearbox (GB) and a clutch is shown. It consists of an EM, a clutch (C), a gearbox, and a differential (D). • The clutch enables the connection or disconnection of power flow from EM to the wheels. • The gear consists of a set of gears with different gear ratios. With the use of clutch and gearbox, the driver can shift the gear ratios and hence the torque going to the wheels can be changed. • The wheels have high torque low speed in the lower gears and high-speed low torque in the higher gears. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 45
  • 46. • In Figure 3b a single EM configuration without the gearbox and the clutch is shown. The advantage of this configuration is that the weight of the transmission is reduced. However, this configuration demands a more complex control of the EM to provide the necessary torque to the wheels. • Figure 3c shows a configuration of EV using one EM. It is a transverse front EM front wheel drive configuration. It has a fixed gearing and differential and they are integrated into a single assembly. • In Figure 3d a dual motor configuration is shown. In this configuration the differential action of an EV when cornering can be electronically provided by two electric motors. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 46
  • 47. • In order to shorten the mechanical transmission path from the EM to the driving wheel, the EM can be placed inside a wheel. This configuration is called in-wheel drive. Figure 3e shows this configuration in which fixed planetary gearing is employed to reduce the motor speed to the desired wheel speed. • In Figure 3f an EV configuration without any mechanical gearing is shown. By fully abandoning any mechanical gearing, the in-wheel drive can be realized by installing a low speed outer-rotor electric motor inside a wheel. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 47
  • 48. BASED ON POWER SOURCE CONFIGURATION • Configuration 1: It is a simple battery powered configuration, Figure 4a. • The battery may be distributed around the vehicle, packed together at the vehicle back or located beneath the vehicle chassis. • The battery in this case should have reasonable specific energy and specific power and should be able to accept regenerative energy during braking. • In case of EVs, the battery should have both high specific energy and specific power because high specific power governs the driving range while the high power density governs the acceleration rate and hill climbing capability. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 48
  • 49. • Configuration 2: Instead of two batteries, this design uses two different batteries, Figure 4b. One battery is optimized for high specific energy and the other for high specific power. • Configuration 3: In this arrangement fuel cell is used, Figure 4c. The battery is an energy storage device, whereas the fuel cell is an energy generation device. The operation principle of fuel cells is a reverse process of electrolysis. In reverse and electrolysis, hydrogen and oxygen gases combine to form electricity and water. The hydrogen gas used by the fuel cell can be stored in an on-board tank whereas oxygen gas is extracted from air. Since fuel cell can offer high specific energy but cannot accept regenerative energy, it is preferable to combine it with battery with high specific power and high-energy receptivity. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 49
  • 50. • Configuration 4: Rather than storing it as a compressed gas, a liquid or a metal hydride, hydrogen can be can be generated on-board using liquid fuels such as methanol, Figure 4d. In this case a mini reformer is installed in the EV to produce necessary hydrogen gas for the fuel cell. • Configuration 5: In fuel cell and battery combination, the battery is selected to provide high specific power and high-energy receptivity. In this configuration a battery and supercapacitor combination is used as an energy source, Figure 4e. The battery used in this configuration is a high energy density device whereas the supercapacitor provides high specific power and energy receptivity. Usually, the supercapacitors are of relatively low voltage levels, an additional dc- dc power converter is needed to interface between the battery and capacitor terminals. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 50
  • 51. • The requirements of EMs used in EVs are: • Frequent start/stop • High rate of acceleration and deceleration • High torque low speed hill climbing • Low torque cruising • Very wide speed range of operation 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 51
  • 52. Differences of EMs for EVs • EV motors need to produce the maximum torque that is four to five times of the rated torque for acceleration and hill climbing, while industrial motors generally offer the maximum torque that is twice of the rated torque for overload operation • EV motors need to achieve four to five times the base speed for highway cruising, while industrial motors generally achieve up to twice the base speed for constant power operation • EV motors require high power density as well as good efficiency map (high efficiency over wide speed and torque ranges), while industrial motors are generally optimized to give high efficiency at a rated point. • EV motors need to be installed in mobile vehicles with harsh operating conditions such as high temperature, bad weather and frequent vibration, while industrial motors are generally located in fixed places. 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 52
  • 53. • Configuration And Control Of Dc Motor Drives And Induction Motor Drives • Permanent Magnet Motor Drives, Switch Reluctance Motor Drives, Drive System Efficiency Refer unit 2 5/27/2023 DEPT OF EEE, SRM UNIVERSITY 53