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UNIT ONE
INTRODUCTION
The Nature and Uses of History
Definition of History
 Ordinary Definition
 history means all the things that have happened in the human past
 Academicals Definition
 History is an organized and systematic study of the past
 The study involves the discovery, collection, organization, and
presentation of information about past events
 Nature of History
 what actually happened in the past is almost infinite
 Historians select which topics and problems they wish to study, as do natural
scientists
 History is different from other disciplines
 History studies the interaction between humans and their environment in the
past.
 Other disciplines study the interaction between humans and their environment
in the present.
Key Elements of History
 Periodization; it is putting historical time in framework like ancient, medieval and modern
 Uses of History
 History Helps Better Understand the Present
 It is difficult to understand problems that face humanity and society today without tracing
their origins in the past
 Knowledge of relevant historical background is essential for a balanced and in-depth
understanding of many current world situations.
 History Provides a Sense of Identity
 History helps us to understand who we are and where we fit in the world.
 Communities define their identity, place themselves, and understand their relationships with
the past and with other societies through history
 History Provides the Basic Background for Other Disciplines
 History is a base for other disciplines such as literature, art, philosophy, religion,
sociology, political science, anthropology, economics, etc.
 History Teaches Critical Skills
 Help to develop key research skills
 These include how to find and evaluate sources; how to make coherent arguments
 History Helps Develop Tolerance and Open-Mindedness
 History helps us to acquire broad perspectives about past human culture.
 History Supplies Endless Source of Fascination
 History offers a sense of beauty and excitement,
 To conclude, history should be studied because it is essential to the individual and the
society.
 Sources
 The work of historians must be supported by evidence arising from sources.
 It is said that “where there are no sources, there is no history”.
 Historical sources are broadly classified into two types: Primary and Secondary.
 Primary sources
 They are original or first hand in their proximity to the event both in time and in
space.
 Examples of primary sources are
manuscripts (handwritten materials),
diaries, letters, minutes, court records and
administrative files,
travel documents, photographs, maps, video and
audio visual materials,
artefacts such as coins, fossils, weapons, utensils,
and buildings
 Secondary sources,
 They are second-hand published accounts about past
events.
 Examples of secondary sources are
articles, books, textbooks, biographies, and
Published stories or movies about historical events.
Oral data/sources/ (important to fulfil the missing gap)
 In many societies, people transmit information from one generation to another, for
example, through folk songs and folk sayings.
 Oral data or sources are especially valuable to study and document the history of non-
literate societies.
 For the history of Ethiopia and the Horn, historians use a combination of the sources
described above.
 Whatever the source of information, the data should be subjected to critical evaluation
before it is used as evidence.
 Therefore, it should be cross checked with other sources such as written documents to
determine its authenticity.
 Historiography of Ethiopia and the Horn
 Historiography is the history of historical writing
 People have had some sense of the past perhaps since the beginning of
humanity
 The organized study and narration of the past was introduced by ancient Greek
historians notably Herodotus (c. 484–425 B.C.E.) and Thucydides (c.455-400
B.C.E.)
 The other major tradition of thinking and writing about the past is the Chinese.
 The most important early figure in Chinese historical thought and writing was
the Han dynasty figure Sima Qian (145–86 B.C.E.).
 History emerged as an academic discipline in the
second half of the nineteenth century first in Europe.
 The German historian Leopold Von Ranke (1795–
1886), and his colleagues established history as an
independent discipline in Berlin
 Ranke’s greatest contribution to the scientific study of
the past is such that he is considered as the “father of
modern historiography.”
 Some of the information we have about the gradual development of historiography
in Ethiopia and the horn are ;
Periplus of the Erythrean Sea
Written in the first century A.D by an anonymous author.
The Christian Topography
Was composed by Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek sailor, in the sixth century
A.D.
The document describing Aksum’s trade and the then Aksumite king’s campaigns
Inscriptions (pre axumite and Axumite periods )
Manuscript; the earliest written Ethiopian material dates from the seventh century A.D.
Example, a document was found in Abba Gerima monastery in Yeha. Followed by
discovered in Haiq Istifanos monastery of present day Wollo in the thirteenth century A.D
Hagiography
It is writing a history of monks/churches/saints/sheiks/
They are originating from Ethiopian Orthodox Church.
They have been written in Ge’ez,
Chronicles
It is writing a history of queens/kings
They are indigenous tradition of history writing
They appeared in the fourteenth century and continue into the early twentieth century
The earliest and the last of such surviving documents are the Glorious Victories of
Amde-Tsion and the Chronicle of Abeto Iyasu and Empress Zewditu respectively
They are known for their factual detail and strong chronological framework,
 They explain historical events mainly in religious terms
 Written accounts of Arabic-speaking visitors to the coast
 al-Masudi and Ibn Battuta
They described the culture, language and import-export trade in the main central region of
the east African coast in the tenth and fourteenth centuries respectively.
 Shihab ad-Din
He wrote a book/document/ entitled “Futuh al Habesha”.
He recorded the conflict between the Christian kingdom and the Muslim principalities in the
sixteenth century
 Al-Haymi
He left the first-hand account
He came to Ethiopia by leading a Yemeni delegation in 1647 to the court of Fasiledes (r.
1632-67).
 European missionaries and travelers
From the early sixteenth until the late nineteenth centuries, missionaries
(Catholics and Protestants) came to the country with the intention of
staying.
The missionaries’ sources provide us with valuable information
covering a considerable period.
Some of the major topics covered by these sources include religious
and political developments within Ethiopia, and the country’s foreign
relations.
 Francisco Alvarez
He was a Portuguese priest
He wrote a book entitled “The Prester John of the Indies”.
He came with the Portuguese mission to the court of Lebne-
Dengel in 1520. .
 James Bruce’
He travels to discover the source of the Nile.
 Foreign writers
 Hiob Ludolf (1624-1704)
He was a German and the founder of Ethiopian studies in Europe in the 17th century.
He wrote “Historia Aethiopica” (A New History of Ethiopia).
He wrote the country’s history largely based on information he collected from an
Ethiopian priest named Abba Gorgorios (Abba Gregory) who was in Europe at that
time.
 August Dillman
In the nineteenth century, he published two studies on ancient Ethiopian history.
Compared to Ludolf, Dillman demonstrated all markers of objectivity in his historical
research.
 Traditional Ethiopian writers before the occupation
The earliest group of these writers include Aleqa Taye Gebre-Mariam, Aleqa Asme
Giorgis and Debtera Fisseha-Giorgis Abyezgi.
Later, Negadrases Afework Gebre-Iyesus and Gebre-Hiwot Baykedagn joined them.
Unlike chroniclers, these writers dealt with a range of topics from social justice,
administrative reform and economic analysis to history.
Taye and Fisseha-Giorgis wrote books on the history of Ethiopia while Asme
produced a similar work on the Oromo people.
 Negadrases Afework Gebre-Iyesus
He wrote the first Amharic novel, Tobiya, in Ethiopian history.
 Gebre-Hiwot Baykedagn
Had books entitled Atse Menilekna Ityopia (Emperor Menilek and Ethiopia)
and Mengistna Yehizb Astedader (Government and Public Administration) to
his name.
 Blatten Geta Hiruy Wolde-Selassie.
He was the most prolific writer of the early twentieth century Ethiopia was,
He published four major works namely
 Ethiopiana Ena Metema (Ethiopia and Metema),
 Wazema (Eve),
 Yehiwot Tarik (A Biographical Dictionary)
 Yeityopia Tarik (A History of Ethiopia).
 Writer who came from after liberation
 Tekle-Tsadik Mekuria
He formed a bridge between writers in pre-1935 and Ethiopia professional historians
who came after him.
He has published about eight historical works.
He made better evaluation of his sources than his predecessors.
 Yilma Deressa
 Blatten Geta Mahteme-Selassie Wolde-Meskel
 Gebre-Wold Engidawork. Etc…
 The 1960s was a crucial decade in the development of Ethiopian
historiography for it was in this period that history emerged as an academic
discipline.
 This was happened because of the following factors.
The opening of the Department of History
It was opened in 1963 at the then Haile Selassie I University.
The production of BA theses began towards the end of the decade.
The Department launched its MA and PhD programs in 1979 and 1990
respectively.
The establishment of Institute of Ethiopian Studies (IES)
Became the other institutional home of professional
historiography of Ethiopia.
The IES was founded in 1963.
The Institute housed a number of historians of whom the late
Richard Pankhurst, the first Director and founding member of the
Institute.
 Regarding African historiography
It was developed in a post-colonial phenomenon.
After independence, a deeper interest in exploring their own past quickly emerged
among African populations
To do this, critical use of oral data and using disciplines like archaeology, anthropology
and linguistics became crucial.

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UNIT ONE ppt history of Ethiopia and horn.pptx

  • 1.
  • 2. UNIT ONE INTRODUCTION The Nature and Uses of History Definition of History  Ordinary Definition  history means all the things that have happened in the human past  Academicals Definition  History is an organized and systematic study of the past  The study involves the discovery, collection, organization, and presentation of information about past events
  • 3.  Nature of History  what actually happened in the past is almost infinite  Historians select which topics and problems they wish to study, as do natural scientists  History is different from other disciplines  History studies the interaction between humans and their environment in the past.  Other disciplines study the interaction between humans and their environment in the present.
  • 4. Key Elements of History  Periodization; it is putting historical time in framework like ancient, medieval and modern  Uses of History  History Helps Better Understand the Present  It is difficult to understand problems that face humanity and society today without tracing their origins in the past  Knowledge of relevant historical background is essential for a balanced and in-depth understanding of many current world situations.  History Provides a Sense of Identity  History helps us to understand who we are and where we fit in the world.  Communities define their identity, place themselves, and understand their relationships with the past and with other societies through history  History Provides the Basic Background for Other Disciplines
  • 5.  History is a base for other disciplines such as literature, art, philosophy, religion, sociology, political science, anthropology, economics, etc.  History Teaches Critical Skills  Help to develop key research skills  These include how to find and evaluate sources; how to make coherent arguments  History Helps Develop Tolerance and Open-Mindedness  History helps us to acquire broad perspectives about past human culture.  History Supplies Endless Source of Fascination  History offers a sense of beauty and excitement,  To conclude, history should be studied because it is essential to the individual and the society.
  • 6.  Sources  The work of historians must be supported by evidence arising from sources.  It is said that “where there are no sources, there is no history”.  Historical sources are broadly classified into two types: Primary and Secondary.  Primary sources  They are original or first hand in their proximity to the event both in time and in space.  Examples of primary sources are
  • 7. manuscripts (handwritten materials), diaries, letters, minutes, court records and administrative files, travel documents, photographs, maps, video and audio visual materials, artefacts such as coins, fossils, weapons, utensils, and buildings
  • 8.  Secondary sources,  They are second-hand published accounts about past events.  Examples of secondary sources are articles, books, textbooks, biographies, and Published stories or movies about historical events.
  • 9. Oral data/sources/ (important to fulfil the missing gap)  In many societies, people transmit information from one generation to another, for example, through folk songs and folk sayings.  Oral data or sources are especially valuable to study and document the history of non- literate societies.  For the history of Ethiopia and the Horn, historians use a combination of the sources described above.  Whatever the source of information, the data should be subjected to critical evaluation before it is used as evidence.  Therefore, it should be cross checked with other sources such as written documents to determine its authenticity.
  • 10.  Historiography of Ethiopia and the Horn  Historiography is the history of historical writing  People have had some sense of the past perhaps since the beginning of humanity  The organized study and narration of the past was introduced by ancient Greek historians notably Herodotus (c. 484–425 B.C.E.) and Thucydides (c.455-400 B.C.E.)  The other major tradition of thinking and writing about the past is the Chinese.  The most important early figure in Chinese historical thought and writing was the Han dynasty figure Sima Qian (145–86 B.C.E.).
  • 11.  History emerged as an academic discipline in the second half of the nineteenth century first in Europe.  The German historian Leopold Von Ranke (1795– 1886), and his colleagues established history as an independent discipline in Berlin  Ranke’s greatest contribution to the scientific study of the past is such that he is considered as the “father of modern historiography.”
  • 12.  Some of the information we have about the gradual development of historiography in Ethiopia and the horn are ; Periplus of the Erythrean Sea Written in the first century A.D by an anonymous author. The Christian Topography Was composed by Cosmas Indicopleustes, a Greek sailor, in the sixth century A.D. The document describing Aksum’s trade and the then Aksumite king’s campaigns
  • 13. Inscriptions (pre axumite and Axumite periods ) Manuscript; the earliest written Ethiopian material dates from the seventh century A.D. Example, a document was found in Abba Gerima monastery in Yeha. Followed by discovered in Haiq Istifanos monastery of present day Wollo in the thirteenth century A.D Hagiography It is writing a history of monks/churches/saints/sheiks/ They are originating from Ethiopian Orthodox Church. They have been written in Ge’ez,
  • 14. Chronicles It is writing a history of queens/kings They are indigenous tradition of history writing They appeared in the fourteenth century and continue into the early twentieth century The earliest and the last of such surviving documents are the Glorious Victories of Amde-Tsion and the Chronicle of Abeto Iyasu and Empress Zewditu respectively They are known for their factual detail and strong chronological framework,  They explain historical events mainly in religious terms
  • 15.  Written accounts of Arabic-speaking visitors to the coast  al-Masudi and Ibn Battuta They described the culture, language and import-export trade in the main central region of the east African coast in the tenth and fourteenth centuries respectively.  Shihab ad-Din He wrote a book/document/ entitled “Futuh al Habesha”. He recorded the conflict between the Christian kingdom and the Muslim principalities in the sixteenth century  Al-Haymi He left the first-hand account He came to Ethiopia by leading a Yemeni delegation in 1647 to the court of Fasiledes (r. 1632-67).
  • 16.  European missionaries and travelers From the early sixteenth until the late nineteenth centuries, missionaries (Catholics and Protestants) came to the country with the intention of staying. The missionaries’ sources provide us with valuable information covering a considerable period. Some of the major topics covered by these sources include religious and political developments within Ethiopia, and the country’s foreign relations.
  • 17.  Francisco Alvarez He was a Portuguese priest He wrote a book entitled “The Prester John of the Indies”. He came with the Portuguese mission to the court of Lebne- Dengel in 1520. .  James Bruce’ He travels to discover the source of the Nile.
  • 18.  Foreign writers  Hiob Ludolf (1624-1704) He was a German and the founder of Ethiopian studies in Europe in the 17th century. He wrote “Historia Aethiopica” (A New History of Ethiopia). He wrote the country’s history largely based on information he collected from an Ethiopian priest named Abba Gorgorios (Abba Gregory) who was in Europe at that time.  August Dillman In the nineteenth century, he published two studies on ancient Ethiopian history. Compared to Ludolf, Dillman demonstrated all markers of objectivity in his historical research.
  • 19.  Traditional Ethiopian writers before the occupation The earliest group of these writers include Aleqa Taye Gebre-Mariam, Aleqa Asme Giorgis and Debtera Fisseha-Giorgis Abyezgi. Later, Negadrases Afework Gebre-Iyesus and Gebre-Hiwot Baykedagn joined them. Unlike chroniclers, these writers dealt with a range of topics from social justice, administrative reform and economic analysis to history. Taye and Fisseha-Giorgis wrote books on the history of Ethiopia while Asme produced a similar work on the Oromo people.
  • 20.  Negadrases Afework Gebre-Iyesus He wrote the first Amharic novel, Tobiya, in Ethiopian history.  Gebre-Hiwot Baykedagn Had books entitled Atse Menilekna Ityopia (Emperor Menilek and Ethiopia) and Mengistna Yehizb Astedader (Government and Public Administration) to his name.
  • 21.  Blatten Geta Hiruy Wolde-Selassie. He was the most prolific writer of the early twentieth century Ethiopia was, He published four major works namely  Ethiopiana Ena Metema (Ethiopia and Metema),  Wazema (Eve),  Yehiwot Tarik (A Biographical Dictionary)  Yeityopia Tarik (A History of Ethiopia).
  • 22.  Writer who came from after liberation  Tekle-Tsadik Mekuria He formed a bridge between writers in pre-1935 and Ethiopia professional historians who came after him. He has published about eight historical works. He made better evaluation of his sources than his predecessors.  Yilma Deressa  Blatten Geta Mahteme-Selassie Wolde-Meskel  Gebre-Wold Engidawork. Etc…
  • 23.  The 1960s was a crucial decade in the development of Ethiopian historiography for it was in this period that history emerged as an academic discipline.  This was happened because of the following factors. The opening of the Department of History It was opened in 1963 at the then Haile Selassie I University. The production of BA theses began towards the end of the decade. The Department launched its MA and PhD programs in 1979 and 1990 respectively.
  • 24. The establishment of Institute of Ethiopian Studies (IES) Became the other institutional home of professional historiography of Ethiopia. The IES was founded in 1963. The Institute housed a number of historians of whom the late Richard Pankhurst, the first Director and founding member of the Institute.
  • 25.  Regarding African historiography It was developed in a post-colonial phenomenon. After independence, a deeper interest in exploring their own past quickly emerged among African populations To do this, critical use of oral data and using disciplines like archaeology, anthropology and linguistics became crucial.