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Spectroscopy – (Unit II)
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Unit -II Spectroscopy - EC  I B.Tech.pdf
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Unit -II Spectroscopy - EC  I B.Tech.pdf
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Applications
Fluorescent Spectroscopy
➢ Fluorescence spectroscopy (also known as fluorimetry) is a
type of electromagnetic spectroscopy that
analyses fluorescence from a sample.
➢ At a particular wavelength many compounds absorbs UV visible
light under electronic transition from low ground state to
excited state (lower to higher electronic energy levels). This
incident re-emission of the absorbed energy is called
Fluorescence.
➢ While the delayed re-emission of the absorbed energy is called
Phosphorescence.
➢ The energy of the radiation emitted is always less than the
energy of the incident radiation.
o The absorbed radiation can produce more than one excited state
depending on the energy of the radiation.
o The emission can follow two pathways: fluorescence when it goes from
the excited state to the lower energy state.
o On the other hand, when an internal energy transfer occurs from the
initial excited state to a second internal excited state (triplet in the
image) and later the molecule goes back to the lower state by emitting
light, it is called phosphorescence.
15
Instrumentation of fluorescence spectroscopy
❖ Fluorescence spectroscopy is an emerging diagnostic tool for various medical diseases
like multi-system cancer and pre-malignant and lesions and early cancer detection.
❖ Monitoring and confirmational changes in protein
❖ Effect of solvent, pH and temperature on protein structure, studying ligand bonding to
proteins.
❖ Widely used in bioanalysis for measuring small amounts of drug for studying drug-protein
binding.
❖ Determination of Vitamin-C
❖ It is used in medical microbiology field for various purposes like understanding the
pathological steps of various microorganisms.
❖ Spatial and temporal analysis of molecular interaction of extremely low concentrated
biomolecules in solution.
❖ It is used to detect and analyze biofilms and their derivatives such as deposits of dental
calculus.
❖ It can distinguish from healthy tissues to damaged tissues.
Medical Applications
18
19
Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
21
22
23
❑ MRI is the important medical application of NMR technique. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a
medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological
processes of the body.
❑ MRI does not involve X-rays or the use of ionizing radiation, which distinguishes it from CT and PET
scans.
❑ NMR spectroscopy is used to form cross-sectional images of body parts in living subjects by
displaying the intensity of particular p mri transition as the function of the coordinates in cross
sectional planes.
❑ This technique is used in diagnoses of cancer diseases, signals generated from the soft
tissues of brain, eye and spinal column ets.
MRI (Magnetic resonance images)
24
25
26
Surface characterization techniques
• Properties associate with surface . Typically measurement of surface area , surface roughness,
pore size and reflectivity constitutes. Information on surface characteristics is very important for the
possible applications of surfaces as semiconductors, heterogeneous catalysts and also in
biological research.
• There are different methods used to measure different surface properties.
• They are sensitive to the outermost atomic layers (depth of 2-3 atomic layers) of the bulk solids.
27
Spectroscopic methods: These methods make use of the principle that when a beam of electrons or high-energy radiation
(usually X-rays) are bombarded at the surface, the surface electrons from the upper layer of are ejected. These electrons are
called secondary electrons. Since the energy of these electrons is very low, these are assumed to be produced from only a few
layers of the surface. Electrons of this energy (10-30 eV) cannot reach the surface from underlying layers. In spectroscopic
methods, surfaces are analyzed by capturing secondary electrons of different energies, which are characteristic of their
environment. Based on spectroscopic theory some of the techniques are discussed below.
Spectroscopic methods:
❖ X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS)
❖ Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES)
❖ Low Energy Electron Diffraction(LEED)
28
X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS):
This technique provides a wide range of information regarding
atomic composition, oxidation states, and chemical structures.
Because of its versatility it is also called Electron Spectroscopy
for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). Basic principle of this
technique is based on phenomenon called photoelectric effect,.
When photons of known energy (usually X-rays) knock the
surface, an electron from K-shell is knocked out; kinetic energy
of this electron is measured in the spectroscopy. The spectrum is
given as the binding energy as function of electron counting
rate. Binding is one unique character of different elements.
Binding energy of an atom can be calculated from the following
equation.
Applications
1. Surface analysis for elemental composition
2. To determine different oxidation states of the elements
3. For structural analysis of molecules
4. It is also useful for qualitative analysis of the surfaces
29
30
31
Applications of AES
1. Qualitative analysis of solid surfaces
2. Depth profiling of solids
3. Line scanning (Characterizing surface composition of solid as function of distance along the line)
(c) Low Energy Electron Diffraction(LEED)
This technique is especially used in crystallography. If a crystal is cut along a certain plane, then the atoms near the surface may
be disturbed from their equilibrium positions. Such changes can be explored with LEED. The surface crystallography structures
can be determined by bombarding the surface with low energy electrons (10-200eV) and diffracted electrons are observed as spots
on a phosphorescent screen. The relative position of the spots on the screen shows the surface crystallographic structure.
The diffracted spots move as the energy of the incident electron changes and the intensity of the spots as function of
incident electron energy reveals much about surface reconstruction. In order to determine the true structure, much computer
analysis is to be done.
Applications:
This instrument is basically used for crystallographic surface analysis

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Unit -II Spectroscopy - EC I B.Tech.pdf

  • 2. 2
  • 3. 3
  • 4. 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. 6
  • 8. 8
  • 9. 9
  • 11. 11
  • 12. 12
  • 14. Fluorescent Spectroscopy ➢ Fluorescence spectroscopy (also known as fluorimetry) is a type of electromagnetic spectroscopy that analyses fluorescence from a sample. ➢ At a particular wavelength many compounds absorbs UV visible light under electronic transition from low ground state to excited state (lower to higher electronic energy levels). This incident re-emission of the absorbed energy is called Fluorescence. ➢ While the delayed re-emission of the absorbed energy is called Phosphorescence. ➢ The energy of the radiation emitted is always less than the energy of the incident radiation. o The absorbed radiation can produce more than one excited state depending on the energy of the radiation. o The emission can follow two pathways: fluorescence when it goes from the excited state to the lower energy state. o On the other hand, when an internal energy transfer occurs from the initial excited state to a second internal excited state (triplet in the image) and later the molecule goes back to the lower state by emitting light, it is called phosphorescence.
  • 15. 15
  • 17. ❖ Fluorescence spectroscopy is an emerging diagnostic tool for various medical diseases like multi-system cancer and pre-malignant and lesions and early cancer detection. ❖ Monitoring and confirmational changes in protein ❖ Effect of solvent, pH and temperature on protein structure, studying ligand bonding to proteins. ❖ Widely used in bioanalysis for measuring small amounts of drug for studying drug-protein binding. ❖ Determination of Vitamin-C ❖ It is used in medical microbiology field for various purposes like understanding the pathological steps of various microorganisms. ❖ Spatial and temporal analysis of molecular interaction of extremely low concentrated biomolecules in solution. ❖ It is used to detect and analyze biofilms and their derivatives such as deposits of dental calculus. ❖ It can distinguish from healthy tissues to damaged tissues. Medical Applications
  • 18. 18
  • 19. 19
  • 20. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy
  • 21. 21
  • 22. 22
  • 23. 23 ❑ MRI is the important medical application of NMR technique. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a medical imaging technique used in radiology to form pictures of the anatomy and the physiological processes of the body. ❑ MRI does not involve X-rays or the use of ionizing radiation, which distinguishes it from CT and PET scans. ❑ NMR spectroscopy is used to form cross-sectional images of body parts in living subjects by displaying the intensity of particular p mri transition as the function of the coordinates in cross sectional planes. ❑ This technique is used in diagnoses of cancer diseases, signals generated from the soft tissues of brain, eye and spinal column ets. MRI (Magnetic resonance images)
  • 24. 24
  • 25. 25
  • 26. 26 Surface characterization techniques • Properties associate with surface . Typically measurement of surface area , surface roughness, pore size and reflectivity constitutes. Information on surface characteristics is very important for the possible applications of surfaces as semiconductors, heterogeneous catalysts and also in biological research. • There are different methods used to measure different surface properties. • They are sensitive to the outermost atomic layers (depth of 2-3 atomic layers) of the bulk solids.
  • 27. 27 Spectroscopic methods: These methods make use of the principle that when a beam of electrons or high-energy radiation (usually X-rays) are bombarded at the surface, the surface electrons from the upper layer of are ejected. These electrons are called secondary electrons. Since the energy of these electrons is very low, these are assumed to be produced from only a few layers of the surface. Electrons of this energy (10-30 eV) cannot reach the surface from underlying layers. In spectroscopic methods, surfaces are analyzed by capturing secondary electrons of different energies, which are characteristic of their environment. Based on spectroscopic theory some of the techniques are discussed below. Spectroscopic methods: ❖ X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) ❖ Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) ❖ Low Energy Electron Diffraction(LEED)
  • 28. 28 X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS): This technique provides a wide range of information regarding atomic composition, oxidation states, and chemical structures. Because of its versatility it is also called Electron Spectroscopy for Chemical Analysis (ESCA). Basic principle of this technique is based on phenomenon called photoelectric effect,. When photons of known energy (usually X-rays) knock the surface, an electron from K-shell is knocked out; kinetic energy of this electron is measured in the spectroscopy. The spectrum is given as the binding energy as function of electron counting rate. Binding is one unique character of different elements. Binding energy of an atom can be calculated from the following equation. Applications 1. Surface analysis for elemental composition 2. To determine different oxidation states of the elements 3. For structural analysis of molecules 4. It is also useful for qualitative analysis of the surfaces
  • 29. 29
  • 30. 30
  • 31. 31 Applications of AES 1. Qualitative analysis of solid surfaces 2. Depth profiling of solids 3. Line scanning (Characterizing surface composition of solid as function of distance along the line) (c) Low Energy Electron Diffraction(LEED) This technique is especially used in crystallography. If a crystal is cut along a certain plane, then the atoms near the surface may be disturbed from their equilibrium positions. Such changes can be explored with LEED. The surface crystallography structures can be determined by bombarding the surface with low energy electrons (10-200eV) and diffracted electrons are observed as spots on a phosphorescent screen. The relative position of the spots on the screen shows the surface crystallographic structure. The diffracted spots move as the energy of the incident electron changes and the intensity of the spots as function of incident electron energy reveals much about surface reconstruction. In order to determine the true structure, much computer analysis is to be done. Applications: This instrument is basically used for crystallographic surface analysis