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ROHINI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY
DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINERING
OCS352- IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS L T P C
2 0 2 3
Presented by
Dr. D. Binu,
Associate Professor,
EEE Department,
RCET.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 1
COURSE OBJECTIVES:
 To apprise students with basic knowledge of IoT that paves a
platform to understand physical and logical design of IOT.
 To teach a student how to analyse requirements of various
communication models and protocols for cost-effective design of
IoT applications on different IoT platforms.
 To introduce the technologies behind Internet of Things(IoT).
 To explain the students how to code for an IoT application using
Arduino/Raspberry Pi open platform.
 To apply the concept of Internet of Things in real world scenario.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 2
UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET OF THINGS 5
• Evolution of Internet of Things
• – Enabling Technologies
• – IoT Architectures: oneM2M, IoT World Forum (IoTWF) and
Alternative IoT Models
• – Simplified IoT Architecture and Core IoT Functional Stack
• – Fog, Edge and Cloud in IoT
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 3
UNIT II COMPONENTS IN INTERNET OF THINGS 5
• Functional Blocks of an IoT Ecosystem
• – Sensors, Actuators, and Smart Objects
• – Control Units
• - Communication modules (Bluetooth, Zigbee,Wifi, GPS, GSM
Modules)
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 4
UNIT III PROTOCOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES BEHIND IOT 6
• IOT Protocols
• - IPv6, 6LoWPAN, MQTT, CoAP
• - RFID, Wireless Sensor Networks, BigData Analytics, Cloud
Computing, Embedded Systems.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 5
UNIT IV OPEN PLATFORMS AND PROGRAMMING 7
• IOT deployment for Raspberry Pi /Arduino platform
• -Architecture
• –Programming
• – Interfacing
• – Accessing GPIO Pins
• – Sending and Receiving Signals Using GPIO Pins
• – Connecting to the Cloud.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 6
UNIT V IOT APPLICATIONS 7
• Business models for the internet of things,
• Smart city,
• Smart mobility and transport,
• Industrial IoT,
• Smart health,
• Environment monitoring and surveillance
• – Home Automation
• – Smart Agriculture
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 7
PRACTICAL EXERCISES:
1. Introduction to Arduino platform and programming
2. Interfacing Arduino to Zigbee module
3. Interfacing Arduino to GSM module
4. Interfacing Arduino to Bluetooth Module
5 Introduction to Raspberry PI platform and python programming
6. Interfacing sensors to Raspberry PI
7. Communicate between Arduino and Raspberry PI using any wireless
medium
8. Setup a cloud platform to log the data
9. Log Data using Raspberry PI and upload to the cloud platform
10.Design an IOT based system
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COURSE OUTCOMES:
• CO1:Explain the concept of IoT.
• CO2:Understand the communication models and various protocols for
IoT.
• CO3:Design portable IoT using Arduino/Raspberry Pi /open platform
• CO4:Apply data analytics and use cloud offerings related to IoT.
• CO5:Analyze applications of IoT in real time scenario.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 9
TEXTBOOKS
1. Robert Barton, Patrick Grossetete, David Hanes, Jerome Henry,
Gonzalo Salgueiro, “IoT Fundamentals: Networking Technologies,
Protocols, and Use Cases for the Internet of Things”, CISCO Press, 2017
2. Samuel Greengard, The Internet of Things, The MIT Press, 2015
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 10
REFERENCES
1. Perry Lea, “Internet of things for architects”, Packt, 2018
2. Olivier Hersent, David Boswarthick, Omar Elloumi , “The Internet of Things
– Key applications and Protocols”, Wiley, 2012
3. IOT (Internet of Things) Programming: A Simple and Fast Way of Learning,
IOT Kindle Edition.
4. Dieter Uckelmann, Mark Harrison, Michahelles, Florian (Eds), “Architecting
the Internet of Things”, Springer, 2011.
5. ArshdeepBahga, Vijay Madisetti, “Internet of Things – A hands-on
approach”, Universities Press, 2015
6. https://www.arduino.cc/
https://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/?ca=v_smarterplanet
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UNIT-1
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INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET OFTHINGS
INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET OF THINGS
Evolution of Internet of Things
Enabling Technologies
IoT Architectures: oneM2M, IoT World Forum (IoTWF) and
Alternative IoT Models
Simplified IoT Architecture and Core IoT Functional Stack
Fog, Edge and Cloud in IoT
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 13
What is IOT?
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 14
IoT stands for Internet of Things.
IoT is a network of physical objects or "things" embedded with
electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity that allow
these objects to collect and exchange data.
It refers to the interconnected of physical devices, such as appliances
and vehicles, that are embedded with software, sensors, and
connectivity which enables these objects to connect and exchange
data.
 This technology allows for the collection and sharing of data from a
vast network of devices, creating opportunities for more efficient and
automated systems.
Example of IOT
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 15
A light bulb can be switched on/off from miles away using a
mobile device is an example of an IoT device.
A motion sensor inside an office combined with a thermostat
and a display which provides temperature, ambient lighting
and presence inside a conference room at regular intervals is
another example of an IoT device.
Characteristics of IoT
•Dynamic & Self-Adapting
•Self-Configuring
•Interoperable Communication Protocols
•Unique Identity
•Integrated into Information Network
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History of IOT
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Why IoT?
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With the development of technologies like M2M (machine-to-
machine communication) and widespread of Internet,
communication over long distance became possible.
This useful exchange of information across the globe with minimal
human intervention led to an innovative concept called Internet of
Things (IoT) where objects represent themselves as a digitally
forming large network of connected devices that can communicate
over the internet.
Components comprising IoT
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 19
IoT Hardware – These include sensors, micro-controller
devices for control, servers, an edge or gateway.
IoTsoftware – It includes mobile and
web applications that are responsible for
data collection, device integration, real-time analysis
and application and process extension.
•Sensors and Actuators: Sensing devices (thermostat, microphone)
which interact with the environment and an actuator (Electric motor) for
turning energy into motion.
•Connectivity or Gateway: A communication channel through which
devices can communicate and share information.
•Analytics: Data coming from devices and sensors is converted into a
format that is easy to read and process.
•Cloud: IoT generates a lot of data and cloud platform allows us to store
and process the IoT data received.
•Artificial Intelligence: Automation and artificial intelligence provide
better control over the system and help us achieve the real potential of
technology.
•User Interface: IoT provides a visible interface that can be easily
accessed and controlled by the user.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 20
Components comprising IoT
IoT Lifecycle
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 Collect: The life cycle of IoT starts with collecting data from different sources deployed in a particular region.
These sources could be any sensors or device capable of transmitting data connected to a gateway. Data are
efficiently collected and passed forward through a communication channel for analysis.
 Communicate: This phase involves secure and reliable transfer of data. Routers, switches and firewall
technologies play a vital role in establishing communication between devices. The Data is sent to the cloud or other
data centers using the internet which is our major means of communication in IoT.
 Analysis: This phase is an important part of the IoT lifecycle. In this phase data collected from different sensor
devices are collected and analysed based on the use case to extract some useful output/information.
 Action: This is the final stage of IoT lifecycle. Information obtained by the analysis of sensor data is acted upon
and proper actions and measures are taken based on the analysis result.
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IoTApplications
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IoTApplications
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IoTApplications
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IoTApplications
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IoTApplications
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The Evolution of Internet of Things
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The Evolution of Internet of Things
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The Evolution of Internet of Things…
• The world is the index
• • The world is the index that we will use to classify and identify the
things that surround us.
• • For example, the photos that we take have ever more frequently
the location of the photographer and the photos can be organized
according to location using Google Earth14.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 33
The Evolution of Internet of Things…
• Take the world on line
• The things that are surrounding us can have an information shadow
on the Internet.
• The radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, devices that contain
chips that can be read by nearby sensors for example the Champion
chip
• Domestic animals can wear RFID collars that are recognized by
doors that can open to let them enter.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 34
The Evolution of Internet of Things…
• Take control of the world
• The world around us can talk to us and tell us its needs.
• To monitor any object connected to the Internet there’s a platform
called Pachube that makes it possible for sensors connected to the
Internet to send data about themselves and make them viewable in
different ways that can be over time and according to place, but
above all to trigger actions when certain values are reached (for
example, to open a window when a certain temperature is reached).
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 35
The Evolution of Internet of Things…
• Let the things talk to each other
• Objects can interact with each other to exchange and integrate
data, to trigger actions and to integrate how they work together.
• Even plants can signal their needs. In fact, with Botanicalls, plants
can communicate on Twitter when they need watering and the
communication can go to a sprinkler system connected to the
Internet.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 36
IoT Enabling Technologies
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1. Wireless Sensor Network
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 Distributed Devices with sensors used to monitor
the environmental and physical conditions. Or
 It is a network formed by large no. of sensor
nodes to detect light, heat, pressure ect. Used
to monitor environmental and physical
conditions.
 Each Node can have several sensors attached to
it.
 Each node can also act as a routers.
 Coordinator collects data from all nodes
 Coordinator acts as gateway that connect WSN
to the internet.
Applications of WSN
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 39
• Internet ofThings (IoT)
• Surveillance and Monitoring for security, threat detection.
• Environmental temperature, humidity, and air pressure.
• Noise Level of the surrounding.
• Medical applications like patient monitoring.
• Agriculture.
• Landslide Detection
2. Cloud Computing
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 40
• cloud computing is the delivery of computing
services—including servers, storage,
databases, networking, software, analytics,
and intelligence—over the internet (“the
cloud”) to offer faster innovation, flexible
resources, and economies of scale.
There are also three main types of cloud computing
services:
Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)-Virtual
machine,virtual storage
Platforms-as-a-Service (PaaS)-Arduino IDE, C
IDE,software libraries
Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)-online image
converter, doc converter
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 41
• 3.Big Data analytics
Collection of data whose Volume,Velocity or variety is too large and difficult
to store, manage, process and analyze the data using traditional databases.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 42
Data wrangling is the process of transforming and mapping data from one "raw" data form into
another format with the intent of making it more appropriate and valuable for a variety of downstream
purposes such as analytics.
In big data analytics
• BIG refers to 5 Vs.
• Volume
• Velocity
• Variety
• Veracity
• Value
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 43
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IBM-International Business Machines
Variety:
• Structured data: The data which has a fixed format to be stored is known as
structured data.
• The data stored in database like oracle, mysql is an example of structured data.
With a simple query data can be retrieved from the database.
• Semi-structured data: The data which has not a fixed format to be stored but
uses some elements and components through which they can be analyzed easily
is known as semi structured data.
• Ex: HTML, XML, JSON data
• Unstructured data: The data which has not any fixed format. It is difficult to store
and analyse. It can be analyzed after converting into structured data.
• Ex: Audio, video (gif, audio with lyrics), Text (containing special symbols).
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Big data analytics….
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Veracity:
• The data in doubt is known as veracity.
• Sometimes what happen it is very difficult accept the data
stored in database.
• This happens due to typical error, corrupted storage or
data.
Value:
• It is efficient to access big data if we can turn it into values i.e
we can find greater insights from it so that we can
perform some action to get the desired output.
• This will be beneficial for the organisation.
• Otherwise it has no use.
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4.Communication protocols
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 48
• Back bone of IOT systems
• Allows devices to exchange data over networks
• Define data exchange formats
• Data encoding
• Addressing schemes
• Routing of packets from source to destination.
• Other functions
• Sequence of control ( ordering data packets)
• FlowControl ( controlling transfer rate)
• Transmission of lost packets
5. Embedded Systems
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The One M2M IoT StandardizedArchitecture
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 To standardize the rapidly growing field of machine-to-machine (M2M)
communications.
 Common architecture that would help accelerate the
adoption of M2M applications and devices.
 OneM2M’s framework focuses on IoT services, applications, and platforms.
 These include smart metering applications, smart grid,
smart city automation, e-health, and connected vehicles.
The Main Elements of the one M2M IoT Architecture
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Fleet management is an administrative approach that allows companies to organize
and coordinate work vehicles with the aim to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and
provide compliance with government regulations
(i) Applications layer
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 52
The oneM2M architecture gives major attention to
connectivity between devices and their applications.
This domain includes the application-layer
protocols and attempts to standardize
northbound API (Application programming interface )
definitions for interaction with business intelligence (BI) systems.
Applications tend to be industry-specific and have their own
sets of data models, and thus they are shown as vertical entities.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 53
(ii) Services layer
 Include the physical network that the IoT applications run on, the underlying management protocols,
and the hardware.
 Adds APIs and middleware supporting third-party services and applications.
(iii) Network layer
 This is the communication domain for the IoT devices and endpoints.
 It includes the devices themselves and the communications network that links them.
 Embodiments of this communications infrastructure include wireless mesh technologies, such as
IEEE 802.15.4, and wireless point-to-multipoint systems, such as IEEE 801.11ah.
 Also included are wired device connections, such as IEEE 1901 power line communications.
• The IoT World Forum (IoTWF) Standardized Architecture is a set of
rules that enable those who deal with the Internet of Things
(IoT) to accomplish their jobs better.
These recommendations were developed in 2014 by a consortium of
large corporations, including Cisco and IBM.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 54
The IoT World Forum (IoTWF) Standardized Architecture
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 55
Layer 1: Physical Devices and Controllers Layer
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•This layer is home to the “things” in the Internet of Things,
including the various endpoint devices and sensors that
send and receive information.
•The size of these “things” can range from almost
microscopic sensors to giant machines in a factory.
•Their primary function is generating data and being
capable of being queried and/or controlled over a
network.
Layer 2: Connectivity Layer
Reliable and timely transmission of data.
This includes transmissions between Layer 1 devices and the network and between the
network and information processing that occurs at Layer 3 (the edge computing layer).
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 57
Layer 3: Edge Computing Layer
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 58
The emphasis is on data reduction and converting network data flows into information that
is ready for storage and processing by higher layers.
Information processing is initiated as early and as close to the edge of the network as possible
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 59
Upper Layers: Layers 4–7
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The upper layers deal with handling and processing the IoT data generated by the bottom layer.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 61
Defines a set of levels with control flowing from the center (this could be either a cloud
service or a dedicated data center), to the edge, which includes sensors, devices,
machines, and other types of intelligent end nodes.
In general, data travels up the stack, originating from the edge, and goes northbound
to the center.
Decompose the IoT problem into smaller parts
Identify different technologies at each layer and how they relate to one another
Define a system in which different parts can be provided by different vendors
Have a process of defining interfaces that leads to interoperability
Define a tiered security model that is enforced at the transition points between levels
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Alternative IoT models
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 63
Alternative IoT Models
• These models are endorsed by various organizations and standards
bodies and are often specific to certain industries or IoT applications.
• (i) Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy
The Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy is a common and well-
understood model that segments devices and equipment into
hierarchical levels and functions.
 It is used as the basis for ISA-95 for control hierarchy, and in turn for
the IEC- 62443 (formerly ISA-99) cyber security standard.
It has been used as a base for many IoT-related models and
standards across industry.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 64
Alternative IoT Models….
(ii) Industrial Internet Reference Architecture (IIRA) by Industrial Internet
Consortium (IIC)
• The IIRA is a standards-based open architecture for Industrial Internet
Systems (IISs).
• To maximize its value, the IIRA has broad industry applicability to drive
interoperability, to map applicable technologies, and to guide technology
and standard development.
• The description and representation of the architecture are generic and at a
high level of abstraction to support the requisite broad industry
applicability.
• The IIRA distils and abstracts common characteristics, features and
patterns from use cases well understood at this time, predominantly those
that have been defined in the IIC.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 65
Alternative IoT Models….
(iii)Internet of Things– Architecture (IoT-A)
• IoT-A created an IoT architectural reference model and defined an
initial set of key building blocks that are foundational in fostering
the emerging Internet of Things.
• Using an experimental paradigm, IoT-A combined top-down
reasoning about architectural principles and design guidelines with
simulation and prototyping in exploring the technical consequences
of architectural design choices.
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A Simplified IoTArchitecture
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 67
• An IoT framework that highlights the fundamental building blocks that are common to most IoT
systems and which is intended to help you in designing an IoT network.
• Presented as two parallel stacks.
The Core IoT Functional Stack
Layer 1: Things: Sensors and Actuators Layer
Battery-powered or power-connected:
• Whether the object carries its own energy supply or receives continuous power
from an external power source.
Mobile or static:
 A sensor may be mobile because it is moved from one object to another -
viscosity sensor moved from batch to batch in a chemical plant.
 Attached to a moving object -a location sensor on moving goods in a
warehouse or factory floor.
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Layer 1: Things: Sensors and Actuators Layer…
Low or high reporting frequency:
• Based on how often the object should report monitored parameters
• Rust sensor may report values once a month.
• Motion sensor may report acceleration several hundred times per second
Simple or rich data:
• Based on the quantity of data exchanged at each report cycle.
• Humidity sensor in a field may report a simple daily index value (on a binary scale from 0
to 255)
• Engine sensor may report hundreds of parameters, from temperature to pressure, gas
velocity, compression speed, carbon index, and many others.
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Layer 1: Things: Sensors and Actuators Layer…
Report range:
• Based on the distance at which the gateway is located.
• Your fitness band to communicate with your phone, it needs to be located a few
meters away at most.
• Moisture sensor in the asphalt of a road may need to communicate with its
reader several hundred meters or even kilometers away.
Object density per cell:
• Based on the number of smart objects.
• Oil pipeline may utilize a single sensor at key locations every few miles.
• Telescopes like the SETI Colossus telescope at the Whipple Observatory deploy
hundreds, and sometimes thousands, of mirrors over a small area, each with
multiple gyroscopes, gravity, and vibration sensors.
OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 70
13 February 2024
The Core IoT Functional Stack…..
Layer 2: Communications Network Layer
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The Core IoT Functional Stack…..
Layer 3: Applications and Analytics Layer
Analytics Versus Control Applications
• Analytics application:This type of application collects data from multiple
smart objects, processes the collected data, and displays information
resulting from the data that was processed.
• Control application: This type of application controls the behavior of the
smart object or the behavior of an object related to the smart object.
 Eg.Pressure sensor may be connected to a pump. A control application
increases the pump speed when the connected sensor detects a drop in
pressure.
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Layer 3: Applications and Analytics Layer..
Data Versus Network Analytics
Data analytics:
• Processes the data collected by smart objects and
• Combines it to provide an intelligent view related to the IoT system.
Basic level- dashboard can display an alarm when a weight sensor detects
that a shelf is empty in a store.
Complex case-temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, and light levels
collected from thousands of sensors may be combined and then processed to
determine the likelihood of a storm and its possible path.
Network analytics:
• A loss or degradation in connectivity is likely to affect the efficiency of the
system.
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Stage 1 (Sensors/Actuators):
• A thing in the context of
“Internet of Things”, should
be equipped with sensors
and actuators thus giving
the ability to emit, accept
and process signals.
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Stage 2 (Data Acquisition Systems):
• The data from the sensors
starts in analogue form
which needs to be
aggregated and converted
into digital streams for
further processing. Data
acquisition systems perform
these data aggregation and
conversion functions.
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Stage 3 (Edge Analytics):
• Once IoT data has been digitized and
aggregated, it may require further
processing before it enters the data
center, this is where Edge Analytics
comes in.
• Edge analytics is a model of data
analysis where incoming data
streams are analyzed at a non-central
point in the system such as a switch,
a peripheral node, or a connected
device or sensor. ... Importantly, it
has evolved because of the need for
fast response times and quick data
analytics IoT networks impose.
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Stage 4 (Cloud Analytics):
• Data that needs more
in-depth processing
gets forwarded to
physical data centers
or cloud-based
systems.
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Fog, Edge and Cloud in IoT
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Fog Computing
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To distribute data management throughout the IoT system, as close to
the edge of the IP network as possible.
The best-known embodiment of edge services in IoT is fog computing.
 Any device with computing, storage, and network connectivity can be
a fog node.
Examples include industrial controllers, switches, routers, embedded
servers, and IoT gateways.
Fog Computing…….
Analyzing IoT data close to where it is collected minimizes latency,
offloads gigabytes of network traffic from the core network.
A real-life example of fog computing would be an embedded
application on a production line, where a temperature sensor
connected to an edge server would measure the temperature every
single second.
 This data would then be forwarded to the cloud application for
monitoring of temperature.
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Characteristic of fog computing
• Contextual location awareness and low latency: The fog node sits as
close to the IoT endpoint as possible to deliver distributed
computing.
• Geographic distribution: In sharp contrast to the more centralized
cloud, the services and applications targeted by the fog nodes
demand widely distributed deployments.
• Deployment near IoT endpoints: Fog nodes are typically deployed in
the presence of a large number of IoT endpoints. For example,
typical metering deployments often see 3000 to 4000 nodes per
gateway router, which also functions as the fog computing node.
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Characteristic of fog computing……
• Wireless communication between the fog and the IoT endpoint:
Although it is possible to connect wired nodes, the advantages of fog
are greatest when dealing with a large number of endpoints, and
wireless access is the easiest way to achieve such scale.
• Use for real-time interactions: Important fog applications involve
real-time interactions rather than batch processing. Pre-processing of
data in the fog nodes allows upper-layer applications to perform
batch processing on a subset of the data.
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Advantages of fog computing in IoT
• Low latency - Fog tends to be closer to users and can provide a
quicker response.
• There is no problem with bandwidth - pieces of information are
aggregated at separate points rather than sent through a channel to a
single hub.
• Due to the many interconnected channels - loss of connection is
impossible.
• High Security - because the data is processed by multiple nodes in a
complex distributed system.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 86
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 87
• Improved User Experience - Quick responses and no
downtime make users satisfied.
• Power-efficiency - Edge nodes run power-efficient
protocols such as Bluetooth, Zigbee,or Z-Wave.
• An advantage of this structure
 is that the fog node allows intelligence gathering (such as
analytics) and control from the closest possible point, and in
doing so, it allows better performance over constrained
networks.
Advantages of fog computing in IoT…..
Disadvantages of fog computing in IoT
• Fog is an additional layer in a more complex system - a data
processing and storage system.
• Additional expenses - companies must buy edge devices: routers,
hubs, gateways.
• Limited scalability - Fog is not scalable like a cloud.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 88
Edge Computing
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 89
The natural place for a fog node is in the network device that sits
closest to the IoT endpoints, and these nodes are typically spread
throughout an IoT network.
However, in recent years, the concept of IoT computing has been
pushed even further to the edge, and in some cases it now
resides directly in the sensors and IoT devices.
Edge Computing……
Edge computing is also sometimes called “mist” computing.
If clouds exist in the sky, and fog sits near the ground, then mist is what actually
sits on the ground.
Thus, the concept of mist is to extend fog to the furthest point possible, right into the
IoT endpoint device itself.
IoT devices and sensors often have constrained resources, however, as compute
capabilities increase.
Some new classes of IoT endpoints have enough compute capabilities to perform at
least low-level analytics and filtering to make basic decisions.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 90
Example of Edge Computing
• Consider a water sensor on a fire hydrant.
• While a fog node sitting on an electrical pole in the distribution
network may have an excellent view of all the fire hydrants in a local
neighborhood, a node on each hydrant would have clear view of a
water pressure drop on its own line and would be able to quickly
generate an alert of a localized problem.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 91
Example of Edge Computing….
• Another example is in the use of smart meters.
• Edge compute–capable meters are able to communicate with each
other to share information on small subsets of the electrical
distribution grid to monitor localized power quality and
consumption, and they can inform fog node of events that may
pertain to only tiny sections of the grid.
• Models such as these help ensure the highest quality of power
delivery to customers.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 92
Cloud computing
• The delivery of on-demand computing services is known as cloud
computing.
• We may use applications to store and process power over the Internet.
• Without owning any computing infrastructure or data center, anyone can
rent access to anything from applications to storage from a cloud service
provider.
• It is a pay-as-you-go service.
• By using cloud computing services and paying for what we use, we can avoid
the complexity of owning and maintaining infrastructure.
• Cloud computing service providers can benefit from significant economies of
scale by providing similar services to customers.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 93
Cloud computing technology provides a variety
of services
• IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) - A remote data center with data
storage capacity, processing power, and networking resources.
• PaaS (Platform as a Service) - A development platform with tools and
components to build, test, and launch applications.
• SaaS (Software as a Service) - Software tailored to suit various
business needs.
Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)-Virtual machine,virtual storage
Platforms-as-a-Service (PaaS)-Arduino IDE, C IDE,software libraries
Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)-online image converter, doc converter
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 94
Advantages of Cloud for IoT
• Improved performance - faster communication between IoT
sensors and data processing systems.
• Storage Capacity - Highly scalable and unlimited storage space can
integrate, aggregate, and share huge data.
• Processing Capabilities - Remote data centers provide unlimited
virtual processing capabilities on demand.
• Low Cost - The license fee is less than the cost of on-premises
equipment and its ongoing maintenance.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 95
Disadvantages of Cloud for IoT
• High latency - More and more IoT apps require very low latency, but the
Cloud cannot guarantee this due to the distance between client devices and
data processing centers.
• Downtimes - Technical issues and network interruptions can occur in any
Internet-based system and cause customers to suffer from outages; Many
companies use multiple connection channels with automatic failover to
avoid problems.
• Security and Privacy - your data is transferred via globally connected
channels along with thousands of gigabytes of other users' information; No
wonder the system is vulnerable to cyber-attacks or data loss;
the problem can be partially solved with the help of hybrid or private
clouds.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 96
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 97
Difference between Fog Computing and Cloud Computing:
Fog Computing
• Data is received from IoT devices
using any protocol.
• Structure:
• Fog has a decentralized
architecture where information
is located on different nodes at
the source closest to the user.
Cloud Computing
• Receives and summarizes data
from different fog nodes.
• There are many centralized data
centers in the Cloud, making it
difficult for users to access
information on the networking
area at their nearest source.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 98
Fog Computing
• Protection:
• Fog is a more secure system with
different protocols and standards,
which minimizes the chances of it
collapsing during networking.
• Component:
• Fog has some additional features in
addition to the features provided by
the components of the Cloud that
enhance its storage and
performance at the end gateway.
Cloud Computing
• Cloud operates on the Internet, it is
more likely to collapse in case of
unknown network connections.
• Cloud has different parts such as
frontend platform (e.g., mobile
device), backend platform (storage
and servers), cloud delivery, and
network (Internet, intranet, inter-
cloud).
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 99
Fog Computing
• Accountability:
• The system's response time is
relatively higher compared to the
Cloud as fogging separates the data
and then sends it to the Cloud.
Cloud Computing
• Cloud service does not provide any
isolation in the data while
transmitting the data at the gate,
increasing the load and thus making
the system less responsive.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 100
Edge computing
• Application:
• Edge computing can be used
for smart city traffic
management, automating
smart buildings, visual Security,
self-maintenance trains, wireless
sensor networks, etc.
Cloud Computing
• Cloud computing can be applied
to e-commerce software, word
processing, online file storage,
web applications, creating image
albums, various applications,
etc.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 101
Fog Computing
• Reduces latency:
• Fog computing cascades system failure by reducing latency in operation. It
analyzes the data close to the device and helps in averting any disaster.
• Flexibility in Network Bandwidth:
• Large amounts of data are transferred from hundreds or thousands of edge
devices to the Cloud, requiring fog-scale processing and storage.
• For example, commercial jets generate 10 TB for every 30 minutes of
flight. Fog computing sends selected data to the cloud for historical
analysis and long-term storage.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 102
Fog Computing
• Wide geographic reach:
• Fog computing provides better quality of services by processing data
from devices that are also deployed in areas with high network
density.
• Cloud servers communicate only with IP and not with the endless
other protocols used by IoT devices.
• Real-time analysis:
• Fog computing analyzes the most time-sensitive data and operates on
the data in less than a second, whereas cloud computing does not
provide round-the-clock technical support.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 103
Fog Computing
• Operating Expenses:
• The license fee and on-premises maintenance for cloud computing
are lower than fog computing. Companies have to buy edge device
routers.
13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 104

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UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET OF THINGS

  • 1. ROHINI COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING AND TECHNOLOGY DEPARTMENT OF ELECTRICAL AND ELECTRONICS ENGINERING OCS352- IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS L T P C 2 0 2 3 Presented by Dr. D. Binu, Associate Professor, EEE Department, RCET. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 1
  • 2. COURSE OBJECTIVES:  To apprise students with basic knowledge of IoT that paves a platform to understand physical and logical design of IOT.  To teach a student how to analyse requirements of various communication models and protocols for cost-effective design of IoT applications on different IoT platforms.  To introduce the technologies behind Internet of Things(IoT).  To explain the students how to code for an IoT application using Arduino/Raspberry Pi open platform.  To apply the concept of Internet of Things in real world scenario. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 2
  • 3. UNIT I INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET OF THINGS 5 • Evolution of Internet of Things • – Enabling Technologies • – IoT Architectures: oneM2M, IoT World Forum (IoTWF) and Alternative IoT Models • – Simplified IoT Architecture and Core IoT Functional Stack • – Fog, Edge and Cloud in IoT 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 3
  • 4. UNIT II COMPONENTS IN INTERNET OF THINGS 5 • Functional Blocks of an IoT Ecosystem • – Sensors, Actuators, and Smart Objects • – Control Units • - Communication modules (Bluetooth, Zigbee,Wifi, GPS, GSM Modules) 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 4
  • 5. UNIT III PROTOCOLS AND TECHNOLOGIES BEHIND IOT 6 • IOT Protocols • - IPv6, 6LoWPAN, MQTT, CoAP • - RFID, Wireless Sensor Networks, BigData Analytics, Cloud Computing, Embedded Systems. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 5
  • 6. UNIT IV OPEN PLATFORMS AND PROGRAMMING 7 • IOT deployment for Raspberry Pi /Arduino platform • -Architecture • –Programming • – Interfacing • – Accessing GPIO Pins • – Sending and Receiving Signals Using GPIO Pins • – Connecting to the Cloud. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 6
  • 7. UNIT V IOT APPLICATIONS 7 • Business models for the internet of things, • Smart city, • Smart mobility and transport, • Industrial IoT, • Smart health, • Environment monitoring and surveillance • – Home Automation • – Smart Agriculture 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 7
  • 8. PRACTICAL EXERCISES: 1. Introduction to Arduino platform and programming 2. Interfacing Arduino to Zigbee module 3. Interfacing Arduino to GSM module 4. Interfacing Arduino to Bluetooth Module 5 Introduction to Raspberry PI platform and python programming 6. Interfacing sensors to Raspberry PI 7. Communicate between Arduino and Raspberry PI using any wireless medium 8. Setup a cloud platform to log the data 9. Log Data using Raspberry PI and upload to the cloud platform 10.Design an IOT based system 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 8
  • 9. COURSE OUTCOMES: • CO1:Explain the concept of IoT. • CO2:Understand the communication models and various protocols for IoT. • CO3:Design portable IoT using Arduino/Raspberry Pi /open platform • CO4:Apply data analytics and use cloud offerings related to IoT. • CO5:Analyze applications of IoT in real time scenario. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 9
  • 10. TEXTBOOKS 1. Robert Barton, Patrick Grossetete, David Hanes, Jerome Henry, Gonzalo Salgueiro, “IoT Fundamentals: Networking Technologies, Protocols, and Use Cases for the Internet of Things”, CISCO Press, 2017 2. Samuel Greengard, The Internet of Things, The MIT Press, 2015 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 10
  • 11. REFERENCES 1. Perry Lea, “Internet of things for architects”, Packt, 2018 2. Olivier Hersent, David Boswarthick, Omar Elloumi , “The Internet of Things – Key applications and Protocols”, Wiley, 2012 3. IOT (Internet of Things) Programming: A Simple and Fast Way of Learning, IOT Kindle Edition. 4. Dieter Uckelmann, Mark Harrison, Michahelles, Florian (Eds), “Architecting the Internet of Things”, Springer, 2011. 5. ArshdeepBahga, Vijay Madisetti, “Internet of Things – A hands-on approach”, Universities Press, 2015 6. https://www.arduino.cc/ https://www.ibm.com/smarterplanet/us/en/?ca=v_smarterplanet 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 11
  • 12. UNIT-1 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 12 INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET OFTHINGS
  • 13. INTRODUCTION TO INTERNET OF THINGS Evolution of Internet of Things Enabling Technologies IoT Architectures: oneM2M, IoT World Forum (IoTWF) and Alternative IoT Models Simplified IoT Architecture and Core IoT Functional Stack Fog, Edge and Cloud in IoT 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 13
  • 14. What is IOT? 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 14 IoT stands for Internet of Things. IoT is a network of physical objects or "things" embedded with electronics, software, sensors, and network connectivity that allow these objects to collect and exchange data. It refers to the interconnected of physical devices, such as appliances and vehicles, that are embedded with software, sensors, and connectivity which enables these objects to connect and exchange data.  This technology allows for the collection and sharing of data from a vast network of devices, creating opportunities for more efficient and automated systems.
  • 15. Example of IOT 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 15 A light bulb can be switched on/off from miles away using a mobile device is an example of an IoT device. A motion sensor inside an office combined with a thermostat and a display which provides temperature, ambient lighting and presence inside a conference room at regular intervals is another example of an IoT device.
  • 16. Characteristics of IoT •Dynamic & Self-Adapting •Self-Configuring •Interoperable Communication Protocols •Unique Identity •Integrated into Information Network 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 16
  • 17. History of IOT 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 17
  • 18. Why IoT? 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 18 With the development of technologies like M2M (machine-to- machine communication) and widespread of Internet, communication over long distance became possible. This useful exchange of information across the globe with minimal human intervention led to an innovative concept called Internet of Things (IoT) where objects represent themselves as a digitally forming large network of connected devices that can communicate over the internet.
  • 19. Components comprising IoT 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 19 IoT Hardware – These include sensors, micro-controller devices for control, servers, an edge or gateway. IoTsoftware – It includes mobile and web applications that are responsible for data collection, device integration, real-time analysis and application and process extension.
  • 20. •Sensors and Actuators: Sensing devices (thermostat, microphone) which interact with the environment and an actuator (Electric motor) for turning energy into motion. •Connectivity or Gateway: A communication channel through which devices can communicate and share information. •Analytics: Data coming from devices and sensors is converted into a format that is easy to read and process. •Cloud: IoT generates a lot of data and cloud platform allows us to store and process the IoT data received. •Artificial Intelligence: Automation and artificial intelligence provide better control over the system and help us achieve the real potential of technology. •User Interface: IoT provides a visible interface that can be easily accessed and controlled by the user. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 20 Components comprising IoT
  • 21. IoT Lifecycle 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 21  Collect: The life cycle of IoT starts with collecting data from different sources deployed in a particular region. These sources could be any sensors or device capable of transmitting data connected to a gateway. Data are efficiently collected and passed forward through a communication channel for analysis.  Communicate: This phase involves secure and reliable transfer of data. Routers, switches and firewall technologies play a vital role in establishing communication between devices. The Data is sent to the cloud or other data centers using the internet which is our major means of communication in IoT.  Analysis: This phase is an important part of the IoT lifecycle. In this phase data collected from different sensor devices are collected and analysed based on the use case to extract some useful output/information.  Action: This is the final stage of IoT lifecycle. Information obtained by the analysis of sensor data is acted upon and proper actions and measures are taken based on the analysis result.
  • 22. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 22
  • 23. IoTApplications 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 23
  • 24. IoTApplications 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 24
  • 25. IoTApplications 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 25
  • 26. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 26
  • 27. IoTApplications 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 27
  • 28. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 28
  • 29. IoTApplications 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 29
  • 30. The Evolution of Internet of Things 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 30
  • 31. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 31 The Evolution of Internet of Things
  • 32. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 32
  • 33. The Evolution of Internet of Things… • The world is the index • • The world is the index that we will use to classify and identify the things that surround us. • • For example, the photos that we take have ever more frequently the location of the photographer and the photos can be organized according to location using Google Earth14. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 33
  • 34. The Evolution of Internet of Things… • Take the world on line • The things that are surrounding us can have an information shadow on the Internet. • The radio frequency identification (RFID) tags, devices that contain chips that can be read by nearby sensors for example the Champion chip • Domestic animals can wear RFID collars that are recognized by doors that can open to let them enter. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 34
  • 35. The Evolution of Internet of Things… • Take control of the world • The world around us can talk to us and tell us its needs. • To monitor any object connected to the Internet there’s a platform called Pachube that makes it possible for sensors connected to the Internet to send data about themselves and make them viewable in different ways that can be over time and according to place, but above all to trigger actions when certain values are reached (for example, to open a window when a certain temperature is reached). 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 35
  • 36. The Evolution of Internet of Things… • Let the things talk to each other • Objects can interact with each other to exchange and integrate data, to trigger actions and to integrate how they work together. • Even plants can signal their needs. In fact, with Botanicalls, plants can communicate on Twitter when they need watering and the communication can go to a sprinkler system connected to the Internet. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 36
  • 37. IoT Enabling Technologies 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 37
  • 38. 1. Wireless Sensor Network 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 38  Distributed Devices with sensors used to monitor the environmental and physical conditions. Or  It is a network formed by large no. of sensor nodes to detect light, heat, pressure ect. Used to monitor environmental and physical conditions.  Each Node can have several sensors attached to it.  Each node can also act as a routers.  Coordinator collects data from all nodes  Coordinator acts as gateway that connect WSN to the internet.
  • 39. Applications of WSN 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 39 • Internet ofThings (IoT) • Surveillance and Monitoring for security, threat detection. • Environmental temperature, humidity, and air pressure. • Noise Level of the surrounding. • Medical applications like patient monitoring. • Agriculture. • Landslide Detection
  • 40. 2. Cloud Computing 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 40 • cloud computing is the delivery of computing services—including servers, storage, databases, networking, software, analytics, and intelligence—over the internet (“the cloud”) to offer faster innovation, flexible resources, and economies of scale. There are also three main types of cloud computing services: Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)-Virtual machine,virtual storage Platforms-as-a-Service (PaaS)-Arduino IDE, C IDE,software libraries Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)-online image converter, doc converter
  • 41. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 41
  • 42. • 3.Big Data analytics Collection of data whose Volume,Velocity or variety is too large and difficult to store, manage, process and analyze the data using traditional databases. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 42 Data wrangling is the process of transforming and mapping data from one "raw" data form into another format with the intent of making it more appropriate and valuable for a variety of downstream purposes such as analytics.
  • 43. In big data analytics • BIG refers to 5 Vs. • Volume • Velocity • Variety • Veracity • Value 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 43
  • 44. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 44 IBM-International Business Machines
  • 45. Variety: • Structured data: The data which has a fixed format to be stored is known as structured data. • The data stored in database like oracle, mysql is an example of structured data. With a simple query data can be retrieved from the database. • Semi-structured data: The data which has not a fixed format to be stored but uses some elements and components through which they can be analyzed easily is known as semi structured data. • Ex: HTML, XML, JSON data • Unstructured data: The data which has not any fixed format. It is difficult to store and analyse. It can be analyzed after converting into structured data. • Ex: Audio, video (gif, audio with lyrics), Text (containing special symbols). 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 45
  • 46. Big data analytics…. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 46 Veracity: • The data in doubt is known as veracity. • Sometimes what happen it is very difficult accept the data stored in database. • This happens due to typical error, corrupted storage or data. Value: • It is efficient to access big data if we can turn it into values i.e we can find greater insights from it so that we can perform some action to get the desired output. • This will be beneficial for the organisation. • Otherwise it has no use.
  • 47. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 47
  • 48. 4.Communication protocols 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 48 • Back bone of IOT systems • Allows devices to exchange data over networks • Define data exchange formats • Data encoding • Addressing schemes • Routing of packets from source to destination. • Other functions • Sequence of control ( ordering data packets) • FlowControl ( controlling transfer rate) • Transmission of lost packets
  • 49. 5. Embedded Systems 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 49
  • 50. The One M2M IoT StandardizedArchitecture 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 50  To standardize the rapidly growing field of machine-to-machine (M2M) communications.  Common architecture that would help accelerate the adoption of M2M applications and devices.  OneM2M’s framework focuses on IoT services, applications, and platforms.  These include smart metering applications, smart grid, smart city automation, e-health, and connected vehicles.
  • 51. The Main Elements of the one M2M IoT Architecture 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 51 Fleet management is an administrative approach that allows companies to organize and coordinate work vehicles with the aim to improve efficiency, reduce costs, and provide compliance with government regulations
  • 52. (i) Applications layer 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 52 The oneM2M architecture gives major attention to connectivity between devices and their applications. This domain includes the application-layer protocols and attempts to standardize northbound API (Application programming interface ) definitions for interaction with business intelligence (BI) systems. Applications tend to be industry-specific and have their own sets of data models, and thus they are shown as vertical entities.
  • 53. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 53 (ii) Services layer  Include the physical network that the IoT applications run on, the underlying management protocols, and the hardware.  Adds APIs and middleware supporting third-party services and applications. (iii) Network layer  This is the communication domain for the IoT devices and endpoints.  It includes the devices themselves and the communications network that links them.  Embodiments of this communications infrastructure include wireless mesh technologies, such as IEEE 802.15.4, and wireless point-to-multipoint systems, such as IEEE 801.11ah.  Also included are wired device connections, such as IEEE 1901 power line communications.
  • 54. • The IoT World Forum (IoTWF) Standardized Architecture is a set of rules that enable those who deal with the Internet of Things (IoT) to accomplish their jobs better. These recommendations were developed in 2014 by a consortium of large corporations, including Cisco and IBM. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 54 The IoT World Forum (IoTWF) Standardized Architecture
  • 55. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 55
  • 56. Layer 1: Physical Devices and Controllers Layer 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 56 •This layer is home to the “things” in the Internet of Things, including the various endpoint devices and sensors that send and receive information. •The size of these “things” can range from almost microscopic sensors to giant machines in a factory. •Their primary function is generating data and being capable of being queried and/or controlled over a network.
  • 57. Layer 2: Connectivity Layer Reliable and timely transmission of data. This includes transmissions between Layer 1 devices and the network and between the network and information processing that occurs at Layer 3 (the edge computing layer). 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 57
  • 58. Layer 3: Edge Computing Layer 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 58 The emphasis is on data reduction and converting network data flows into information that is ready for storage and processing by higher layers. Information processing is initiated as early and as close to the edge of the network as possible
  • 59. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 59
  • 60. Upper Layers: Layers 4–7 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 60 The upper layers deal with handling and processing the IoT data generated by the bottom layer.
  • 61. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 61
  • 62. Defines a set of levels with control flowing from the center (this could be either a cloud service or a dedicated data center), to the edge, which includes sensors, devices, machines, and other types of intelligent end nodes. In general, data travels up the stack, originating from the edge, and goes northbound to the center. Decompose the IoT problem into smaller parts Identify different technologies at each layer and how they relate to one another Define a system in which different parts can be provided by different vendors Have a process of defining interfaces that leads to interoperability Define a tiered security model that is enforced at the transition points between levels 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 62
  • 63. Alternative IoT models 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 63
  • 64. Alternative IoT Models • These models are endorsed by various organizations and standards bodies and are often specific to certain industries or IoT applications. • (i) Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy The Purdue Model for Control Hierarchy is a common and well- understood model that segments devices and equipment into hierarchical levels and functions.  It is used as the basis for ISA-95 for control hierarchy, and in turn for the IEC- 62443 (formerly ISA-99) cyber security standard. It has been used as a base for many IoT-related models and standards across industry. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 64
  • 65. Alternative IoT Models…. (ii) Industrial Internet Reference Architecture (IIRA) by Industrial Internet Consortium (IIC) • The IIRA is a standards-based open architecture for Industrial Internet Systems (IISs). • To maximize its value, the IIRA has broad industry applicability to drive interoperability, to map applicable technologies, and to guide technology and standard development. • The description and representation of the architecture are generic and at a high level of abstraction to support the requisite broad industry applicability. • The IIRA distils and abstracts common characteristics, features and patterns from use cases well understood at this time, predominantly those that have been defined in the IIC. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 65
  • 66. Alternative IoT Models…. (iii)Internet of Things– Architecture (IoT-A) • IoT-A created an IoT architectural reference model and defined an initial set of key building blocks that are foundational in fostering the emerging Internet of Things. • Using an experimental paradigm, IoT-A combined top-down reasoning about architectural principles and design guidelines with simulation and prototyping in exploring the technical consequences of architectural design choices. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 66
  • 67. A Simplified IoTArchitecture 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 67 • An IoT framework that highlights the fundamental building blocks that are common to most IoT systems and which is intended to help you in designing an IoT network. • Presented as two parallel stacks.
  • 68. The Core IoT Functional Stack Layer 1: Things: Sensors and Actuators Layer Battery-powered or power-connected: • Whether the object carries its own energy supply or receives continuous power from an external power source. Mobile or static:  A sensor may be mobile because it is moved from one object to another - viscosity sensor moved from batch to batch in a chemical plant.  Attached to a moving object -a location sensor on moving goods in a warehouse or factory floor. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 68
  • 69. Layer 1: Things: Sensors and Actuators Layer… Low or high reporting frequency: • Based on how often the object should report monitored parameters • Rust sensor may report values once a month. • Motion sensor may report acceleration several hundred times per second Simple or rich data: • Based on the quantity of data exchanged at each report cycle. • Humidity sensor in a field may report a simple daily index value (on a binary scale from 0 to 255) • Engine sensor may report hundreds of parameters, from temperature to pressure, gas velocity, compression speed, carbon index, and many others. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 69
  • 70. Layer 1: Things: Sensors and Actuators Layer… Report range: • Based on the distance at which the gateway is located. • Your fitness band to communicate with your phone, it needs to be located a few meters away at most. • Moisture sensor in the asphalt of a road may need to communicate with its reader several hundred meters or even kilometers away. Object density per cell: • Based on the number of smart objects. • Oil pipeline may utilize a single sensor at key locations every few miles. • Telescopes like the SETI Colossus telescope at the Whipple Observatory deploy hundreds, and sometimes thousands, of mirrors over a small area, each with multiple gyroscopes, gravity, and vibration sensors. OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 70 13 February 2024
  • 71. The Core IoT Functional Stack….. Layer 2: Communications Network Layer 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 71
  • 72. The Core IoT Functional Stack….. Layer 3: Applications and Analytics Layer Analytics Versus Control Applications • Analytics application:This type of application collects data from multiple smart objects, processes the collected data, and displays information resulting from the data that was processed. • Control application: This type of application controls the behavior of the smart object or the behavior of an object related to the smart object.  Eg.Pressure sensor may be connected to a pump. A control application increases the pump speed when the connected sensor detects a drop in pressure. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 72
  • 73. Layer 3: Applications and Analytics Layer.. Data Versus Network Analytics Data analytics: • Processes the data collected by smart objects and • Combines it to provide an intelligent view related to the IoT system. Basic level- dashboard can display an alarm when a weight sensor detects that a shelf is empty in a store. Complex case-temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, and light levels collected from thousands of sensors may be combined and then processed to determine the likelihood of a storm and its possible path. Network analytics: • A loss or degradation in connectivity is likely to affect the efficiency of the system. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 73
  • 74. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 74
  • 75. Stage 1 (Sensors/Actuators): • A thing in the context of “Internet of Things”, should be equipped with sensors and actuators thus giving the ability to emit, accept and process signals. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 75
  • 76. Stage 2 (Data Acquisition Systems): • The data from the sensors starts in analogue form which needs to be aggregated and converted into digital streams for further processing. Data acquisition systems perform these data aggregation and conversion functions. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 76
  • 77. Stage 3 (Edge Analytics): • Once IoT data has been digitized and aggregated, it may require further processing before it enters the data center, this is where Edge Analytics comes in. • Edge analytics is a model of data analysis where incoming data streams are analyzed at a non-central point in the system such as a switch, a peripheral node, or a connected device or sensor. ... Importantly, it has evolved because of the need for fast response times and quick data analytics IoT networks impose. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 77
  • 78. Stage 4 (Cloud Analytics): • Data that needs more in-depth processing gets forwarded to physical data centers or cloud-based systems. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 78
  • 79. Fog, Edge and Cloud in IoT 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 79
  • 80. Fog Computing 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 80 To distribute data management throughout the IoT system, as close to the edge of the IP network as possible. The best-known embodiment of edge services in IoT is fog computing.  Any device with computing, storage, and network connectivity can be a fog node. Examples include industrial controllers, switches, routers, embedded servers, and IoT gateways.
  • 81. Fog Computing……. Analyzing IoT data close to where it is collected minimizes latency, offloads gigabytes of network traffic from the core network. A real-life example of fog computing would be an embedded application on a production line, where a temperature sensor connected to an edge server would measure the temperature every single second.  This data would then be forwarded to the cloud application for monitoring of temperature. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 81
  • 82. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 82
  • 83. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 83
  • 84. Characteristic of fog computing • Contextual location awareness and low latency: The fog node sits as close to the IoT endpoint as possible to deliver distributed computing. • Geographic distribution: In sharp contrast to the more centralized cloud, the services and applications targeted by the fog nodes demand widely distributed deployments. • Deployment near IoT endpoints: Fog nodes are typically deployed in the presence of a large number of IoT endpoints. For example, typical metering deployments often see 3000 to 4000 nodes per gateway router, which also functions as the fog computing node. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 84
  • 85. Characteristic of fog computing…… • Wireless communication between the fog and the IoT endpoint: Although it is possible to connect wired nodes, the advantages of fog are greatest when dealing with a large number of endpoints, and wireless access is the easiest way to achieve such scale. • Use for real-time interactions: Important fog applications involve real-time interactions rather than batch processing. Pre-processing of data in the fog nodes allows upper-layer applications to perform batch processing on a subset of the data. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 85
  • 86. Advantages of fog computing in IoT • Low latency - Fog tends to be closer to users and can provide a quicker response. • There is no problem with bandwidth - pieces of information are aggregated at separate points rather than sent through a channel to a single hub. • Due to the many interconnected channels - loss of connection is impossible. • High Security - because the data is processed by multiple nodes in a complex distributed system. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 86
  • 87. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 87 • Improved User Experience - Quick responses and no downtime make users satisfied. • Power-efficiency - Edge nodes run power-efficient protocols such as Bluetooth, Zigbee,or Z-Wave. • An advantage of this structure  is that the fog node allows intelligence gathering (such as analytics) and control from the closest possible point, and in doing so, it allows better performance over constrained networks. Advantages of fog computing in IoT…..
  • 88. Disadvantages of fog computing in IoT • Fog is an additional layer in a more complex system - a data processing and storage system. • Additional expenses - companies must buy edge devices: routers, hubs, gateways. • Limited scalability - Fog is not scalable like a cloud. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 88
  • 89. Edge Computing 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 89 The natural place for a fog node is in the network device that sits closest to the IoT endpoints, and these nodes are typically spread throughout an IoT network. However, in recent years, the concept of IoT computing has been pushed even further to the edge, and in some cases it now resides directly in the sensors and IoT devices.
  • 90. Edge Computing…… Edge computing is also sometimes called “mist” computing. If clouds exist in the sky, and fog sits near the ground, then mist is what actually sits on the ground. Thus, the concept of mist is to extend fog to the furthest point possible, right into the IoT endpoint device itself. IoT devices and sensors often have constrained resources, however, as compute capabilities increase. Some new classes of IoT endpoints have enough compute capabilities to perform at least low-level analytics and filtering to make basic decisions. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 90
  • 91. Example of Edge Computing • Consider a water sensor on a fire hydrant. • While a fog node sitting on an electrical pole in the distribution network may have an excellent view of all the fire hydrants in a local neighborhood, a node on each hydrant would have clear view of a water pressure drop on its own line and would be able to quickly generate an alert of a localized problem. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 91
  • 92. Example of Edge Computing…. • Another example is in the use of smart meters. • Edge compute–capable meters are able to communicate with each other to share information on small subsets of the electrical distribution grid to monitor localized power quality and consumption, and they can inform fog node of events that may pertain to only tiny sections of the grid. • Models such as these help ensure the highest quality of power delivery to customers. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 92
  • 93. Cloud computing • The delivery of on-demand computing services is known as cloud computing. • We may use applications to store and process power over the Internet. • Without owning any computing infrastructure or data center, anyone can rent access to anything from applications to storage from a cloud service provider. • It is a pay-as-you-go service. • By using cloud computing services and paying for what we use, we can avoid the complexity of owning and maintaining infrastructure. • Cloud computing service providers can benefit from significant economies of scale by providing similar services to customers. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 93
  • 94. Cloud computing technology provides a variety of services • IaaS (Infrastructure as a Service) - A remote data center with data storage capacity, processing power, and networking resources. • PaaS (Platform as a Service) - A development platform with tools and components to build, test, and launch applications. • SaaS (Software as a Service) - Software tailored to suit various business needs. Infrastructure-as-a-Service (IaaS)-Virtual machine,virtual storage Platforms-as-a-Service (PaaS)-Arduino IDE, C IDE,software libraries Software-as-a-Service (SaaS)-online image converter, doc converter 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 94
  • 95. Advantages of Cloud for IoT • Improved performance - faster communication between IoT sensors and data processing systems. • Storage Capacity - Highly scalable and unlimited storage space can integrate, aggregate, and share huge data. • Processing Capabilities - Remote data centers provide unlimited virtual processing capabilities on demand. • Low Cost - The license fee is less than the cost of on-premises equipment and its ongoing maintenance. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 95
  • 96. Disadvantages of Cloud for IoT • High latency - More and more IoT apps require very low latency, but the Cloud cannot guarantee this due to the distance between client devices and data processing centers. • Downtimes - Technical issues and network interruptions can occur in any Internet-based system and cause customers to suffer from outages; Many companies use multiple connection channels with automatic failover to avoid problems. • Security and Privacy - your data is transferred via globally connected channels along with thousands of gigabytes of other users' information; No wonder the system is vulnerable to cyber-attacks or data loss; the problem can be partially solved with the help of hybrid or private clouds. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 96
  • 97. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 97
  • 98. Difference between Fog Computing and Cloud Computing: Fog Computing • Data is received from IoT devices using any protocol. • Structure: • Fog has a decentralized architecture where information is located on different nodes at the source closest to the user. Cloud Computing • Receives and summarizes data from different fog nodes. • There are many centralized data centers in the Cloud, making it difficult for users to access information on the networking area at their nearest source. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 98
  • 99. Fog Computing • Protection: • Fog is a more secure system with different protocols and standards, which minimizes the chances of it collapsing during networking. • Component: • Fog has some additional features in addition to the features provided by the components of the Cloud that enhance its storage and performance at the end gateway. Cloud Computing • Cloud operates on the Internet, it is more likely to collapse in case of unknown network connections. • Cloud has different parts such as frontend platform (e.g., mobile device), backend platform (storage and servers), cloud delivery, and network (Internet, intranet, inter- cloud). 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 99
  • 100. Fog Computing • Accountability: • The system's response time is relatively higher compared to the Cloud as fogging separates the data and then sends it to the Cloud. Cloud Computing • Cloud service does not provide any isolation in the data while transmitting the data at the gate, increasing the load and thus making the system less responsive. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 100
  • 101. Edge computing • Application: • Edge computing can be used for smart city traffic management, automating smart buildings, visual Security, self-maintenance trains, wireless sensor networks, etc. Cloud Computing • Cloud computing can be applied to e-commerce software, word processing, online file storage, web applications, creating image albums, various applications, etc. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 101
  • 102. Fog Computing • Reduces latency: • Fog computing cascades system failure by reducing latency in operation. It analyzes the data close to the device and helps in averting any disaster. • Flexibility in Network Bandwidth: • Large amounts of data are transferred from hundreds or thousands of edge devices to the Cloud, requiring fog-scale processing and storage. • For example, commercial jets generate 10 TB for every 30 minutes of flight. Fog computing sends selected data to the cloud for historical analysis and long-term storage. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 102
  • 103. Fog Computing • Wide geographic reach: • Fog computing provides better quality of services by processing data from devices that are also deployed in areas with high network density. • Cloud servers communicate only with IP and not with the endless other protocols used by IoT devices. • Real-time analysis: • Fog computing analyzes the most time-sensitive data and operates on the data in less than a second, whereas cloud computing does not provide round-the-clock technical support. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 103
  • 104. Fog Computing • Operating Expenses: • The license fee and on-premises maintenance for cloud computing are lower than fog computing. Companies have to buy edge device routers. 13 February 2024 OCS352 IOT CONCEPTS AND APPLICATIONS 104