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1
ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND THE PRIMARY SECTOR
Q1-Read these words and write them in every box:
PART ONE . ECONOMIC
ACTIVITIES.
What´s the Economy?
The Economy deals with the use of the existing
resources in order to satisfy the needs of
human beings and groups of people.
Origin
The word Economy comes from the Greek
oikos (house) and nomeia(science). For the
Greeks, the oikos -nomeia was the domestic
science, that is to say, knowledge related to
the administration of the house. In the 19th
century, it happened to refer to the general
economy.
2
Definition:
Factors of production Economic agents Economic systems and
the market economy
Q.2 Do this crossword
Economic activities produce
economic goods using
different resources called
factors of production
An economic system is a way
in which a society organizes
its economy
The economic activity needs
economic agents to work
3
You can do this puzzle in internet:
http://www.armoredpenguin.com/crossword/bin/crossword.cgi?cmd=solve&filefrag=20
13.02/1511/15115315.130.html
Q.3 Finally complete this diagram with these words
Across
3-The state control the majority of the
factors of production and decides how the
economy must work
5- Material objects such as food, books or
computers.
7. Raw material such as water, plants,
animals.
9. Economic agent who intervenes in the
economy in different ways, for example, it
offers services such as healthcare or
education and collects taxes.
10. People who work in a company and
their labour.
12. Resources used to produce goods or
other services.
13. They produce the goods and services
that are on offer in the market.
14. They are produced by companies and
factories.
Down
1The State takes actions that affect the
economy.
2. Economic agent which is a organization that
produce goods and services to obtain financial
profits.
4. Businesses and consumers control the
economy with limited involvement by the State.
6. Work that is done for someone, but which
doesn´t produce a material product, such as
transport, education or hairdressing.
8 .A company needs to work things such as
money, building , machinery, equipment.
11. Economic agent which consists of one or
several people.
Economic Agents
4
Profit Difference between what costs to make something or provide a service and
what it is sold for (cost- price =profit)
Q.4 Work with a partner. Look at the products listed in the chart in activity 3. Then, tell
your partner how much of each product your family uses in a typical day or week.
Example: We eat a lot of bread everyday but have rice only once a week.
Q.5.Work with a partner.
a) Give three examples of products you have bought recently. Where did you buy them?
How much did they cost?
Example: I bought……..yesterday/last week/two months ago. I bought …..in a
shop/supermarket /market. I think it cost….
b) Give three examples of services that you use regularly.
Example: I use….everyday/very often/once a week.
c) Think of examples of products or services you can buy online with a computer.
Example: you can buy…..and…..online.
Q.6. In your exercise book , match the following words with the example sentences below:
income, salary, investment, profit, budget, expenses.
a) My father works in a bank. He earns €2000 a month.
b) This month I have to buy a lot of school books.
c) The factory bought a new machine to increase production .
d) This year we only have €1000 to spend on our holiday.
e) At the end of the year, the company´s sales were higher than its costs.
f) My uncle has two houses on the beach and He rents them out to tourists.
Q.7. Work with a partner. Answer the questions.
a) Do you like going to the sales? Why or why not?
Example:
A: Do you like going to the sales?
B:Yes, I do because things are…..so…. I can buy…..
Supply and demand
If the supply of a product is high, the Price goes down. For example, if a shop has
too many t-shirts of the same type for sale , it will lower the price to encourage
people to buy them
If the supply of a product is low , the price goes up because consumers are
prepared to pay more. For example , a popular band is having only one concert in
the next year. Since many people will want the few tickets that are available , the
band can charge higher prices.
5
b) what are the advantages and disadvantages of sales?
c) what was the last thing you bought in the sales and how much cheaper was it ?
Q.8. Work with a partner . Ask your partner the following questions.
a) What is a budget? Do you have one?
b) How do you get money? Do your parents give it to you, or do you have to do some chores
like housework?
c) what are your daily and weekly expenses ?
d) what do you spend most of your money on?
e) Are you saving up for anything?
The Globalization of the economy (listening). Fill in the blanks
In today´s _______ , all countries are interconnected . They ________on each other t a
large _______ and their economies have become ________ , so they form part of an
enormous ________ _________system.
This process of global __________ is called globalization:
ICT ________ companies all over the world to be ________ with each other. As a result we
have a _________ market
__________ and free trade zones are ________ in this big market.
The common __________ also remove _________ and allow the free movement of people
and capital between member countries. In practice, these __________ adopt a common
economic ___________ towards other states.
Q.9. Choose a multinational company that established in Spain .Look for information on the
internet and write a short report in your exercise book about the company.
Include the following:
a) Company name , year and place in which it was founded.
b) Products it makes or services it offers.
c) Number of employees in the world and in Spain
d) Number of countries in which it is present and some examples
e) Number of shops, factories or offices in Spain
f) Website address
Q.10. Find out how to say the names of some websites or email addresses in English.
Example
www.google.com
mycompany@yahoo.co.uk
Q.11. work with a partner. Ask and answer questions about the companies you wrote
about in activity 8.
Example a) Which product is the company best known for?
b) It is best known for producing sweets and chewing gum?
6
PART TWO -THE PRIMARY SECTOR
Definition
Physical factors
Here, there are some words and some definitions Q.11.First match them and have to
fill in blanks and write down the definitions:
The primary sector consists of
economic activities (crop agriculture ,
livestock farming, forestry, fishing and
mining) that obtain resources from
nature
Temperature
Frost, hail and hailstorms damage crops
Rainfall
Soil
Vegetation
Incline of slopes
Shady
Sunny
Altitude
Thickness; deep it is more appropriate for the
cultivation of most crops because roots have more
space to expand .Nutrients the more appropriate
nutrients it has, the better it is for agriculture.
South-facing sides are more appropriate for crops .
Plants need minimum rainfall ( 900-1200)to grow
North-facing sides aren´t appropriate for crops
Flat surfaces facilitate agricultural work and very steep
slopes make it more difficult
Plant need minimum temperatures (10 ºC) to grow
It provides the soil with humus, so the more
vegetation an area has, the more fertile the soil will
be.
Adverse
phenomena
For every 1000 m of altitude, temperatures fall by 6º C .
For this reason, after a certain altitude, cultivation is
no longer possible.
Strong winds can damage crops.
wind
7
Physical factors of the agrarian space.
Complete them
8
Human factors:
Q12. Match them
Population growth
Economic and technological
conditions
Land ownership
Population growth leads to the extension of agricultural
space because of the need to produce more food. A
decrease in population means that cultivated land is
abandoned because there are not enough people to work
the land or because it is not necessary to produce so
much.
They can be small (smallholdings)(minifundios) or large
(large estates)(latifundios)
Cultivated land can be owned by one person or several
people(cooperative or company…). The owner can work the
land directly or transfer it to other farmers who lease it or
work it as sharecroppers. The owner can also employ day
labourers
These also affect the composition of agricultural space. For
example, in some regions the land children inherit from their
parents is not divided up, while in other regions it is. That is
why some areas have many large estates and others many
smallholdings.
Agricultural policy
Agricultural space is a result of the measures and actions
taken by national government and international institutions
that affect crop agriculture and livestock farming.
A country´s economy and the demand for certain products
influence the choice of crops , the technology used
(machinery, fertilizers, pesticides, ) and therefore the
composition of agricultural space
Fram size
Customs
Structure of agricul
Q.13. Match the pictures w
- the Size :
Small (less than 1 ha) Me
- the shape:
Regular or geometrical; fiel
Irregular; plots (Parcelas) or
- plot boundaries(above):
Bocage; small fields are sep
Openfield; fields are open
they are used.
Q.14.Are the following sente
a)Mining does not belong to
b) Snowfall can destroy crop
c)The shade side of a mounta
gricultural space
res with:
a) Medium (between 1 ha and 10 ha) Large (mor
l; fields can be square , rectangular…
las) or fields don´t have a clear geometrical shap
ve):
re separated by hedges, trees, stone or wooden
open and can only be differentiated by the typ
g sentences true or false? Correct the false ones in y
ng to the primary sector.
y crops.
ountain is better for crops than the sunny side.
9
e (more than 1 ha)
l shape
oden fences.
he type or the way
n your notebook.
10
d)Human increases the fertility of the soil.
e) Fertilisers kill pests.
f)Strong winds can damage crops.
Q.15. Are these places appropriate for crop agriculture?
Explain why/ why not in your exercise book.
a) Mountainside with a very steep slope.
b) Flat area with annual temperatures around 15ºC and more than 1000 mm of
rainfall.
c) Flat area with annual temperatures around 6ºC and less than 400 mm of rainfall.
Q.16. In your exercise book, complete the sentences with these words: slope, inhabited,
humus, frost.
a) ---------is an atmospheric phenomenon that happens when temperatures are below
0ºC.
b) A ……….. is a piece of land that goes up or down.
c)…………………is organic matter that makes soil more fertile.
d)Villages are situated in …………space.
Crop agriculture practices
Q.17 Describe these pictures with the help of these linkers and words:
-Depending on the use of water:
Irrigated agriculture consists of…
……………… Irrigation systems …….
Therefore, Fruit trees are……..
…………..
Rainwater is the only……….so
Rain-fed agriculture means …..
As a result ,Olive trees, sunflowers……
11
-Depending on the variety of species:
-Depending on the utilization of the soil:
Monoculture is…………
That means ……….
You often grow…………….like this.
The cultivation of ……………………..is a
mixed cropping.
Although they use irrigated agriculture….
…………..(as shown in the picture) are
grown this way.
This is Intensive agriculture: high capital
investment and labour …………….
…………..
To obtain …………yield , crops are ………
……..commercial …..such as ……..gardens
In Valencia.
However, Extensive agriculture does not
use……………….……nor human………..
On the other hand, Production can be for
………………… in the United States or for
personal ……………
12
Agricultural landscapes
Subsistence agriculture ;
this method uses ancient
techniques and has low
productivity. Most crops
are for the farmer´s own
consumption
Commercial agricultura; this
characterised by high
investment, the use of advanced
techniques such as drip
irrigation, and high
productivity.Crops are produced
for commercial purpuses.
Slash and burn agriculture ; to
prepare the land , the
vegetation is cut down and
burnt, and the ashes are used
as fertilizer. Used to grow
millet, sorghum and tapioca is
located in tropical areas
Intensive agriculture of
Monsoon area; rice is
grown on small plots
Advanced agriculture of
Europe ; flowers , market
garden products and
cereals are among the
most, important crops
Mediterranean
agriculture; this is rain-
fed (wheat, vines and
olives) and irrigated
(fruit and vegetables)
Extensive New world
agriculture; large farms
employ few workers and
use a lot of machinery.
They mostly grow cereals.
It is located in new
countries.
Plantations; large estates
with monoxultures of
cocoa, tea, coffe , bananas
and pineapples for
example, the farms are
owned by big
multinational companies.
13
Q.18 .You are travelling around the world and write a postcard to your best
friend . Describe two agricultural landscapes in this postcard
Q.19 Complete the diagram below with the features of the following agricultural
landscapes: Look up on page 131
THE AGRICULTURE
Agricultural
landscapes
Localization Variety Features
Subsistence
Agriculture
Commercial
Agriculture
Q.20Act out a dialogue:
Dear
I have been in and I
Now I am visiting a
14
-Student A: Farmer A, the dark-skinned farmer wearing a hat
-Student B: Farmer B, the other farmer.
You can use these words and sentences for the dialogue:
Hi, mate Shall We ?
Here we go Hi, my friend
First, let`s start Okey, then we .
Finally, I will Well done
With the book” The Agriculture in the world” color the zones of different
agricultural landscapes. Look it in page 131
15
Livestock farming
Q.21 Listening. fill in blanks and answer the questions:
1- What´s the difference between Extensive and intensive farming?
2-where are animals kept in the confined livestock method?
3-How can you define semi-confined livestock?
4- What´s the name of the herding which is constantly moving?
5-How do sedentary livestock farming get their food?
Q.22. In your exercise book, match the following words with the examples below:
monoculture, irrigated crops, intensive agriculture, rain-fed crops.
a) Farmers use technology to water these crops.
b) A coffee plantation is an example of this type of crop.
c) If the summer is very dry, these crops suffer because they receive no water.
d)These crops need a lot of workers, machines and money.
1- Depending of Capital _____________ and labour it can be Extensive
livestock ________; capital investment (in feed, farms, etc.) is ________ and
productivity low. The _________ is mostly cattle and sheep, and grazes on
large _________ in the open air or __________ livestock farming ; capital
investment ( in feed, farms, etc…)__________and productivity are high.
Mostly cattle, pigs and ________ are farmed.
2- Depending of food and __________ methods it can be grazing livestock;
animals _______ on grass. This is an example of extensive _________ or
Confined livestock animals are kept in _______ and covered pens, and eat
feed. It is an example of ________ farming . finally semi-confined
livestock is when cattle in _______ eats grass and when there isn´t enough
________, they eat feed.
3-Depending ________ of livestock it can be Nomadic herding; herders and
their families are _________ moving with their animals in search of good
________ or Transhumance when herders move their animals several times
a year _________ winter and summer pastures. Finally sedentary livestock
farming when animals don´t have to move around to ________ food because
farmers give them _______.
16
Q.23. What type of livestock farming do these people practise?
a) Kumar is an Indian herder. He is constantly moving around with his family and his
float of goats , looking for pastures.
b) Harry is an Australian farmer. His sheep graze on the fields on his farm.
c) Pedro lives in Spain. Every summer , He moves his sheep from the valley to the
mountain pastures.
Q.24. John is a welsh farmer. Look at his timetable. In pairs, complete the questions
with the following words: why, after, often, time, who,many, when. Then answer the
questions in your exercise book.
5:25 am John gets up and begins milking between six o´clock and quarter past
six.
6:15 am John feeds the cows.
8:00 am John begins to do other jobs such as taking the cows out to pasture.
10.00 am In summer, John harvests grass, which He stores in order to feed the
animals in winter.
12:00 pm John continues with his other jobs.
2:00 pm A milk tanker comes to collect the milk.
4:30 pm The cows are milked again.
Source: www.oxfam.org.uk/education/resources/milking-
it/milkingit/information/realives/welsh/johns-day.htm#430
a) What……………does John start work?
b) How ……..does He milk the cows? At what time?
c) ……….does John feed the cows?
d) What other jobs ……John do?
e) ………does John harvest the grass?
f) What time do they collect the milk?...........collects it?
g) How ………hours a day does John work?
Q.25. Forest exploitation.
To make sure that forest exploitation does not lead to the disappearance of forests,
forestry (silviculture )has to be managed so that, although forests are cultivated to
obtain products from them, the trees are allowed to regenerate and the forest survives.
For forests to regenerate, only the amount of timber and other products that can be
replaced by natural growth is extracted in any one year. When natural growth proves
difficult, reforestation is undertaken.
Forestry uses agricultural practices such as special machinery and selection of seeds
and fertilizers.
17
25.1. Read the text above and answer the following questions:
A) How would you define Forestry or Silviculture?
B) Can natural growth regenerate forests? If not, What can be used to help?
C) How can agriculture be useful for forestry?
25.2. Pairs work: Imagine yourselves as some Greenpeace activists who are against
tree cutting. Think for a while what you could do to make people take notice of the
problem and help save the forests. ( Remember Lisa Simpson living on the top of a tree
which was to be cut down.)
-Advertising and TV ads. –Radio campaigns…..
- E-mails and text messages. –Brochures and leaflets
-Meetings, Demos, Lectures….. –Songs and videos in You tube.
-Live concerts in the forests….. – Excursions and Camping.
-Planting new trees everywhere…………. – Handing seeds door by door .
Fishing and the use of the sea
18
Q.26 Read and do this crossword.
19
Q.27 –Fill in the blanks with the crossword´s words.
Changes in rural areas.
There have been important changes in rural areas:
1-Demographic changes, because of ageing of the rural population
2-Changes in agricultural landscapes , techniques are changed such as greenhouses, cash
crops(propósitos solo comerciales).
3-Development of new activities; many rural areas have developed other activities besides
agriculture and livestock farming.
Industry: industries dedicated to the transformation of agricultural products.
Tourism uses beautiful landscapes or with unique vegetation or fauna.
4-Changes in construction there are a lot of rural areas close to big cities, new housing has
been built.
Q.28-Look at one photo of a greenhouse and complete this description with these words:
plastic, metal, constant, productivity, temperature, vegetables.
“A green house is a constyruction made with _________posts and _________panels. Inside
the______________and humidity remain___________to obtain high__________. ______and
flowers are some of the products cultivated in greenhouses”
Fishing is the practice of catching fish and other marine species for food or as raw
materials for industry .Different techniques are used for fishing,
including__________, __________ and ______________.
From the sea we can obtain ____________ and__________, minerals, salt and
____________ ________(salt is extracted from seawater in desalination plants) We
can also use the sea as a _______ __ _______.
The sea is also the transportation route used by boats. In coastal areas industries ,
ports and __________ _____________(apartments, hotels, restaurants…)
To avoid the _________ of ___________ ___________ aquaculture has been develop;
the reproduction of salt and fresh water plants and animals in ______ ________.
Gilthead , turbot and trout are some of the fish bred in this way.
There are different types of fishing such as ____________ __________ is near the
coast with small boats and ________ ____________ is in the deep sea with large
boats, freezer factory ships.
20
Q.29.
21
Q.30.
22
Environmental solutions
Q.31 Match the causes with their solution, writing the correct number in the solution
columns.
Causes Solutions
1 use of pesticides and fertilizers,
harmful techniques which
contaminate soil and water.
Improve irrigation systems
2 The overexploitation of forests
and forest fires cause
deforestation.
Reforestation with native
species
3Irrigated agriculture deplete water
resources
Increase efficiency in the
prevention and extinction of
forest fires.
4Reforestation with introduced
species, not native to the area,
impoverishes the soil.
Prohibition of some fishing
methods , and development
of aquaculture.
5 Fish catches are often excessive in
relation to marine resources
(overfishing)
Use of natural fertilizers and
seeds. Also natural ways to
combat pests.
6 some fishing methods, like
trawling, damage marine
environments.
Regulation of fishing: control
of the size of species caught,
reduction of catches.
Q.32 Talking points
Look back at section 7 and think about what you have learnt. As a class, discuss: Which
are the most serious environmental problems caused by the activities of the primary
sector? What can we do to solve them?
Example: I think………………is more serious than………………because……………….is not as
harmful as……………because…………….We should use more/less……………….. .
The term “belt” in agricultur
grown. Belts also have simila
description with the correct m
iculture describes an area or region where one parti
similar climactic and soil conditions. Can you mat
rrect map?
B. The Corn
Midwester
Illinois, an
crop. Appr
grown in th
states. The
a good clim
C. The Cotton B
Southern USA
primary cash c
into the 20th
ce
production occ
and Georgia. L
extended from
A. The Whea
American G
the domina
from Cana
divided int
wheat area
the souther
23
e particular crop is
u match the belt
Corn Belt: Is found in the
western states of Ohio, Indiana,
ois, and Iowa. Corn is the primary
. Approximately 50% of all corn
n in the USA is from these four
s. These regions have rich soil and
od climate for this type of farming.
tton Belt: Was a region of the
USA where cotton was the
cash crop from the late 18th
century
century. Before the cotton gin,
on occurred only in South Carolina
rgia. Later, the Cotton Belt
from Virginia to Texas.
Wheat Belt: Is the part of the
rican Great Plains where wheat is
ominant crop. The belt extends
Canadian border to Texas and is
ed into winter wheat and spring
at areas. Winter wheat is grown in
outhern areas.
United States Departme
REGIONS
10 major farm production regio
land, climate, distance to marke
they comprise the agricultural f
1. & 2. The Northeaster
milk producing areas.
3. The Appalachian regi
Peanuts, cattle, and dai
4. In the Southeast regio
peanuts are grown in th
5. In the Delta States, the
sugarcane are also grow
6. The Corn Belt has rich
cattle, hogs, and dairy p
7. & 8. Agriculture in the
western portion and by
About three-fifths of th
9. The Mountain States
are suited to raising cattle a
hay, sugar beets, potatoes,
10. The Pacific region incl
Hawaii. Farmers specia
raised throughout the region. In
Greenhouse/nursery and dairy p
Q.33 Answer the questions
1) What is grown in Hawai?
2) How are crops watered in t
rtment of Agriculture (USDA): FARM PRO
regions in the United States differ in soils, slope of
market, and storage and marketing facilities. Together
ltural face of the Nation.
eastern States and the Lake States are the Nation’s pr
reas.
n region is the major tobacco-producing region in the N
nd dairy production are also important there.
region, beef is an important livestock product. Fruits, v
n in this region.
, the principal cash crops are soybeans and cotton. Ri
o grown.
as rich soil and good climate for excellent farming. Cor
airy products are the major outputs of farms in the regi
in the northern and southern Plains is restricted by r
nd by cold winters and short growing seasons in the no
s of the Nation’s winter and spring wheat is produced i
tates provide a still different terrain. Vast areas of this r
attle and sheep. Irrigation in valleys provides water for
atoes, fruits, and vegetables.
includes the three Pacific Coast States plus Alaska
specialize in raising wheat, fruit, and potatoes, vegetab
ion. In Hawaii, sugarcane and pineapples are the major
dairy products are Alaska’s top-ranking commodities
ns about the text:
in the mountain States?
24
PRODUCTION
gether
n’s principal
in the Nation.
ruits, vegetables, and
ton. Rice and
g. Corn, beef,
he region.
ed by rainfall in the
the northern part.
uced in this region.
f this region
ter for such crops as
and
egetables, Cattle are
major crops.
25
3) which are the main milk areas?
4)Where is the main production of wheat?
5) where could you get beef and peanuts?
Q.34: Are the following sentences true or false? Correct the false ones in your exercise
book.
a) The more humus the soil has, the more fertile it is.
b) If the population falls, the demand for agricultural products goes up.
c) Cows and bulls are cattle.
d) Ecological agriculture is harmful to the natural environment.
e) Aquaculture is the reproduction of salt- and freshwater plants and animals in fish farms.
Q.35. In your exercise book, complete these passive sentences with the correct verb, using
the past participle: catch, cut, grow, feed, burn.
a) In slash-and-burn agriculture the trees are …………..down and then………..because the
ashes are used as a fertilizer.
b) In confined livestock farming, animals are ………..by the farmer.
c) Rice is …….in many Asian countries.
d) Many fish are ………..in the Atlantic Ocean.
Q.36: Look at the map next page and answer the questions in your exercise book.
a) In which parts of the world can we find slash-and-burn agriculture.
b) In which parts can we find plantations?
c) Do plantations or slash-and-burn agriculture produce cash crops?
d)what type of country is the United States? What type of agriculture is typical there?
e) What type of agriculture is typical in Italy and Spain? And in the rest of Europe
26
FINAL TASK :
1-Make a little report about agriculture in Baeza or your town.
KEYS:
Title:
Photo:
Explanation of
above features:
27
The Globalisation of the economy (listening) Q.8 Fill in the blanks
In today´s world , all countries are interconenected. They depend on each other t a large
extent and their economies have become integrated , so they form part of an enormous free
market system.
This process of global integration is called globalization:
ICT allows companies all over the world to be contact with each other. As a result we have
a global market
Multinationals and free trade zones are included in this big market.
The common markets also remove tariffs and allow the free movement of people and
capital between member countries. In practice, these countries adopt a common economic
policy towards other states.
1- Depending of Capital investment and labour it can be Extensive
livestock farming; capital investment (in feed, farms, etc.) is limited and
productivity low. The livestock is mostly cattle and sheep, and grazes on large
pastures in the open air or Intensive livestock farming ; capital investment (
in feed, farms, etc…) labour and productivity are high. Mostly cattle, pigs and
poultry are farmed.
2- Depending of food and feeding methods it can be grazing livestock;
animals feed on grass. This is an example of extensive farming or Confined
livestock animals are kept in sheds and covered pens, and eat feed. It is an
example of intensive farming . finally semi-confined livestock is when
cattle in summer eats grass and when there isn´t enough grass, they eat feed.
3-Depending mobility of livestock it can be Nomadic herding; herders and
their families are constantly moving with their animals in search of good
pasture or Transhumance when herders move their animals several times a
year between winter and summer pastures. Finally sedentary livestock
farming when animals don´t have to move around to obtain food because
farmers give them feed
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Unit five 3º eso economía y sector primario

  • 1. 1 ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES AND THE PRIMARY SECTOR Q1-Read these words and write them in every box: PART ONE . ECONOMIC ACTIVITIES. What´s the Economy? The Economy deals with the use of the existing resources in order to satisfy the needs of human beings and groups of people. Origin The word Economy comes from the Greek oikos (house) and nomeia(science). For the Greeks, the oikos -nomeia was the domestic science, that is to say, knowledge related to the administration of the house. In the 19th century, it happened to refer to the general economy.
  • 2. 2 Definition: Factors of production Economic agents Economic systems and the market economy Q.2 Do this crossword Economic activities produce economic goods using different resources called factors of production An economic system is a way in which a society organizes its economy The economic activity needs economic agents to work
  • 3. 3 You can do this puzzle in internet: http://www.armoredpenguin.com/crossword/bin/crossword.cgi?cmd=solve&filefrag=20 13.02/1511/15115315.130.html Q.3 Finally complete this diagram with these words Across 3-The state control the majority of the factors of production and decides how the economy must work 5- Material objects such as food, books or computers. 7. Raw material such as water, plants, animals. 9. Economic agent who intervenes in the economy in different ways, for example, it offers services such as healthcare or education and collects taxes. 10. People who work in a company and their labour. 12. Resources used to produce goods or other services. 13. They produce the goods and services that are on offer in the market. 14. They are produced by companies and factories. Down 1The State takes actions that affect the economy. 2. Economic agent which is a organization that produce goods and services to obtain financial profits. 4. Businesses and consumers control the economy with limited involvement by the State. 6. Work that is done for someone, but which doesn´t produce a material product, such as transport, education or hairdressing. 8 .A company needs to work things such as money, building , machinery, equipment. 11. Economic agent which consists of one or several people. Economic Agents
  • 4. 4 Profit Difference between what costs to make something or provide a service and what it is sold for (cost- price =profit) Q.4 Work with a partner. Look at the products listed in the chart in activity 3. Then, tell your partner how much of each product your family uses in a typical day or week. Example: We eat a lot of bread everyday but have rice only once a week. Q.5.Work with a partner. a) Give three examples of products you have bought recently. Where did you buy them? How much did they cost? Example: I bought……..yesterday/last week/two months ago. I bought …..in a shop/supermarket /market. I think it cost…. b) Give three examples of services that you use regularly. Example: I use….everyday/very often/once a week. c) Think of examples of products or services you can buy online with a computer. Example: you can buy…..and…..online. Q.6. In your exercise book , match the following words with the example sentences below: income, salary, investment, profit, budget, expenses. a) My father works in a bank. He earns €2000 a month. b) This month I have to buy a lot of school books. c) The factory bought a new machine to increase production . d) This year we only have €1000 to spend on our holiday. e) At the end of the year, the company´s sales were higher than its costs. f) My uncle has two houses on the beach and He rents them out to tourists. Q.7. Work with a partner. Answer the questions. a) Do you like going to the sales? Why or why not? Example: A: Do you like going to the sales? B:Yes, I do because things are…..so…. I can buy….. Supply and demand If the supply of a product is high, the Price goes down. For example, if a shop has too many t-shirts of the same type for sale , it will lower the price to encourage people to buy them If the supply of a product is low , the price goes up because consumers are prepared to pay more. For example , a popular band is having only one concert in the next year. Since many people will want the few tickets that are available , the band can charge higher prices.
  • 5. 5 b) what are the advantages and disadvantages of sales? c) what was the last thing you bought in the sales and how much cheaper was it ? Q.8. Work with a partner . Ask your partner the following questions. a) What is a budget? Do you have one? b) How do you get money? Do your parents give it to you, or do you have to do some chores like housework? c) what are your daily and weekly expenses ? d) what do you spend most of your money on? e) Are you saving up for anything? The Globalization of the economy (listening). Fill in the blanks In today´s _______ , all countries are interconnected . They ________on each other t a large _______ and their economies have become ________ , so they form part of an enormous ________ _________system. This process of global __________ is called globalization: ICT ________ companies all over the world to be ________ with each other. As a result we have a _________ market __________ and free trade zones are ________ in this big market. The common __________ also remove _________ and allow the free movement of people and capital between member countries. In practice, these __________ adopt a common economic ___________ towards other states. Q.9. Choose a multinational company that established in Spain .Look for information on the internet and write a short report in your exercise book about the company. Include the following: a) Company name , year and place in which it was founded. b) Products it makes or services it offers. c) Number of employees in the world and in Spain d) Number of countries in which it is present and some examples e) Number of shops, factories or offices in Spain f) Website address Q.10. Find out how to say the names of some websites or email addresses in English. Example www.google.com mycompany@yahoo.co.uk Q.11. work with a partner. Ask and answer questions about the companies you wrote about in activity 8. Example a) Which product is the company best known for? b) It is best known for producing sweets and chewing gum?
  • 6. 6 PART TWO -THE PRIMARY SECTOR Definition Physical factors Here, there are some words and some definitions Q.11.First match them and have to fill in blanks and write down the definitions: The primary sector consists of economic activities (crop agriculture , livestock farming, forestry, fishing and mining) that obtain resources from nature Temperature Frost, hail and hailstorms damage crops Rainfall Soil Vegetation Incline of slopes Shady Sunny Altitude Thickness; deep it is more appropriate for the cultivation of most crops because roots have more space to expand .Nutrients the more appropriate nutrients it has, the better it is for agriculture. South-facing sides are more appropriate for crops . Plants need minimum rainfall ( 900-1200)to grow North-facing sides aren´t appropriate for crops Flat surfaces facilitate agricultural work and very steep slopes make it more difficult Plant need minimum temperatures (10 ºC) to grow It provides the soil with humus, so the more vegetation an area has, the more fertile the soil will be. Adverse phenomena For every 1000 m of altitude, temperatures fall by 6º C . For this reason, after a certain altitude, cultivation is no longer possible. Strong winds can damage crops. wind
  • 7. 7 Physical factors of the agrarian space. Complete them
  • 8. 8 Human factors: Q12. Match them Population growth Economic and technological conditions Land ownership Population growth leads to the extension of agricultural space because of the need to produce more food. A decrease in population means that cultivated land is abandoned because there are not enough people to work the land or because it is not necessary to produce so much. They can be small (smallholdings)(minifundios) or large (large estates)(latifundios) Cultivated land can be owned by one person or several people(cooperative or company…). The owner can work the land directly or transfer it to other farmers who lease it or work it as sharecroppers. The owner can also employ day labourers These also affect the composition of agricultural space. For example, in some regions the land children inherit from their parents is not divided up, while in other regions it is. That is why some areas have many large estates and others many smallholdings. Agricultural policy Agricultural space is a result of the measures and actions taken by national government and international institutions that affect crop agriculture and livestock farming. A country´s economy and the demand for certain products influence the choice of crops , the technology used (machinery, fertilizers, pesticides, ) and therefore the composition of agricultural space Fram size Customs
  • 9. Structure of agricul Q.13. Match the pictures w - the Size : Small (less than 1 ha) Me - the shape: Regular or geometrical; fiel Irregular; plots (Parcelas) or - plot boundaries(above): Bocage; small fields are sep Openfield; fields are open they are used. Q.14.Are the following sente a)Mining does not belong to b) Snowfall can destroy crop c)The shade side of a mounta gricultural space res with: a) Medium (between 1 ha and 10 ha) Large (mor l; fields can be square , rectangular… las) or fields don´t have a clear geometrical shap ve): re separated by hedges, trees, stone or wooden open and can only be differentiated by the typ g sentences true or false? Correct the false ones in y ng to the primary sector. y crops. ountain is better for crops than the sunny side. 9 e (more than 1 ha) l shape oden fences. he type or the way n your notebook.
  • 10. 10 d)Human increases the fertility of the soil. e) Fertilisers kill pests. f)Strong winds can damage crops. Q.15. Are these places appropriate for crop agriculture? Explain why/ why not in your exercise book. a) Mountainside with a very steep slope. b) Flat area with annual temperatures around 15ºC and more than 1000 mm of rainfall. c) Flat area with annual temperatures around 6ºC and less than 400 mm of rainfall. Q.16. In your exercise book, complete the sentences with these words: slope, inhabited, humus, frost. a) ---------is an atmospheric phenomenon that happens when temperatures are below 0ºC. b) A ……….. is a piece of land that goes up or down. c)…………………is organic matter that makes soil more fertile. d)Villages are situated in …………space. Crop agriculture practices Q.17 Describe these pictures with the help of these linkers and words: -Depending on the use of water: Irrigated agriculture consists of… ……………… Irrigation systems ……. Therefore, Fruit trees are…….. ………….. Rainwater is the only……….so Rain-fed agriculture means ….. As a result ,Olive trees, sunflowers……
  • 11. 11 -Depending on the variety of species: -Depending on the utilization of the soil: Monoculture is………… That means ………. You often grow…………….like this. The cultivation of ……………………..is a mixed cropping. Although they use irrigated agriculture…. …………..(as shown in the picture) are grown this way. This is Intensive agriculture: high capital investment and labour ……………. ………….. To obtain …………yield , crops are ……… ……..commercial …..such as ……..gardens In Valencia. However, Extensive agriculture does not use……………….……nor human……….. On the other hand, Production can be for ………………… in the United States or for personal ……………
  • 12. 12 Agricultural landscapes Subsistence agriculture ; this method uses ancient techniques and has low productivity. Most crops are for the farmer´s own consumption Commercial agricultura; this characterised by high investment, the use of advanced techniques such as drip irrigation, and high productivity.Crops are produced for commercial purpuses. Slash and burn agriculture ; to prepare the land , the vegetation is cut down and burnt, and the ashes are used as fertilizer. Used to grow millet, sorghum and tapioca is located in tropical areas Intensive agriculture of Monsoon area; rice is grown on small plots Advanced agriculture of Europe ; flowers , market garden products and cereals are among the most, important crops Mediterranean agriculture; this is rain- fed (wheat, vines and olives) and irrigated (fruit and vegetables) Extensive New world agriculture; large farms employ few workers and use a lot of machinery. They mostly grow cereals. It is located in new countries. Plantations; large estates with monoxultures of cocoa, tea, coffe , bananas and pineapples for example, the farms are owned by big multinational companies.
  • 13. 13 Q.18 .You are travelling around the world and write a postcard to your best friend . Describe two agricultural landscapes in this postcard Q.19 Complete the diagram below with the features of the following agricultural landscapes: Look up on page 131 THE AGRICULTURE Agricultural landscapes Localization Variety Features Subsistence Agriculture Commercial Agriculture Q.20Act out a dialogue: Dear I have been in and I Now I am visiting a
  • 14. 14 -Student A: Farmer A, the dark-skinned farmer wearing a hat -Student B: Farmer B, the other farmer. You can use these words and sentences for the dialogue: Hi, mate Shall We ? Here we go Hi, my friend First, let`s start Okey, then we . Finally, I will Well done With the book” The Agriculture in the world” color the zones of different agricultural landscapes. Look it in page 131
  • 15. 15 Livestock farming Q.21 Listening. fill in blanks and answer the questions: 1- What´s the difference between Extensive and intensive farming? 2-where are animals kept in the confined livestock method? 3-How can you define semi-confined livestock? 4- What´s the name of the herding which is constantly moving? 5-How do sedentary livestock farming get their food? Q.22. In your exercise book, match the following words with the examples below: monoculture, irrigated crops, intensive agriculture, rain-fed crops. a) Farmers use technology to water these crops. b) A coffee plantation is an example of this type of crop. c) If the summer is very dry, these crops suffer because they receive no water. d)These crops need a lot of workers, machines and money. 1- Depending of Capital _____________ and labour it can be Extensive livestock ________; capital investment (in feed, farms, etc.) is ________ and productivity low. The _________ is mostly cattle and sheep, and grazes on large _________ in the open air or __________ livestock farming ; capital investment ( in feed, farms, etc…)__________and productivity are high. Mostly cattle, pigs and ________ are farmed. 2- Depending of food and __________ methods it can be grazing livestock; animals _______ on grass. This is an example of extensive _________ or Confined livestock animals are kept in _______ and covered pens, and eat feed. It is an example of ________ farming . finally semi-confined livestock is when cattle in _______ eats grass and when there isn´t enough ________, they eat feed. 3-Depending ________ of livestock it can be Nomadic herding; herders and their families are _________ moving with their animals in search of good ________ or Transhumance when herders move their animals several times a year _________ winter and summer pastures. Finally sedentary livestock farming when animals don´t have to move around to ________ food because farmers give them _______.
  • 16. 16 Q.23. What type of livestock farming do these people practise? a) Kumar is an Indian herder. He is constantly moving around with his family and his float of goats , looking for pastures. b) Harry is an Australian farmer. His sheep graze on the fields on his farm. c) Pedro lives in Spain. Every summer , He moves his sheep from the valley to the mountain pastures. Q.24. John is a welsh farmer. Look at his timetable. In pairs, complete the questions with the following words: why, after, often, time, who,many, when. Then answer the questions in your exercise book. 5:25 am John gets up and begins milking between six o´clock and quarter past six. 6:15 am John feeds the cows. 8:00 am John begins to do other jobs such as taking the cows out to pasture. 10.00 am In summer, John harvests grass, which He stores in order to feed the animals in winter. 12:00 pm John continues with his other jobs. 2:00 pm A milk tanker comes to collect the milk. 4:30 pm The cows are milked again. Source: www.oxfam.org.uk/education/resources/milking- it/milkingit/information/realives/welsh/johns-day.htm#430 a) What……………does John start work? b) How ……..does He milk the cows? At what time? c) ……….does John feed the cows? d) What other jobs ……John do? e) ………does John harvest the grass? f) What time do they collect the milk?...........collects it? g) How ………hours a day does John work? Q.25. Forest exploitation. To make sure that forest exploitation does not lead to the disappearance of forests, forestry (silviculture )has to be managed so that, although forests are cultivated to obtain products from them, the trees are allowed to regenerate and the forest survives. For forests to regenerate, only the amount of timber and other products that can be replaced by natural growth is extracted in any one year. When natural growth proves difficult, reforestation is undertaken. Forestry uses agricultural practices such as special machinery and selection of seeds and fertilizers.
  • 17. 17 25.1. Read the text above and answer the following questions: A) How would you define Forestry or Silviculture? B) Can natural growth regenerate forests? If not, What can be used to help? C) How can agriculture be useful for forestry? 25.2. Pairs work: Imagine yourselves as some Greenpeace activists who are against tree cutting. Think for a while what you could do to make people take notice of the problem and help save the forests. ( Remember Lisa Simpson living on the top of a tree which was to be cut down.) -Advertising and TV ads. –Radio campaigns….. - E-mails and text messages. –Brochures and leaflets -Meetings, Demos, Lectures….. –Songs and videos in You tube. -Live concerts in the forests….. – Excursions and Camping. -Planting new trees everywhere…………. – Handing seeds door by door . Fishing and the use of the sea
  • 18. 18 Q.26 Read and do this crossword.
  • 19. 19 Q.27 –Fill in the blanks with the crossword´s words. Changes in rural areas. There have been important changes in rural areas: 1-Demographic changes, because of ageing of the rural population 2-Changes in agricultural landscapes , techniques are changed such as greenhouses, cash crops(propósitos solo comerciales). 3-Development of new activities; many rural areas have developed other activities besides agriculture and livestock farming. Industry: industries dedicated to the transformation of agricultural products. Tourism uses beautiful landscapes or with unique vegetation or fauna. 4-Changes in construction there are a lot of rural areas close to big cities, new housing has been built. Q.28-Look at one photo of a greenhouse and complete this description with these words: plastic, metal, constant, productivity, temperature, vegetables. “A green house is a constyruction made with _________posts and _________panels. Inside the______________and humidity remain___________to obtain high__________. ______and flowers are some of the products cultivated in greenhouses” Fishing is the practice of catching fish and other marine species for food or as raw materials for industry .Different techniques are used for fishing, including__________, __________ and ______________. From the sea we can obtain ____________ and__________, minerals, salt and ____________ ________(salt is extracted from seawater in desalination plants) We can also use the sea as a _______ __ _______. The sea is also the transportation route used by boats. In coastal areas industries , ports and __________ _____________(apartments, hotels, restaurants…) To avoid the _________ of ___________ ___________ aquaculture has been develop; the reproduction of salt and fresh water plants and animals in ______ ________. Gilthead , turbot and trout are some of the fish bred in this way. There are different types of fishing such as ____________ __________ is near the coast with small boats and ________ ____________ is in the deep sea with large boats, freezer factory ships.
  • 22. 22 Environmental solutions Q.31 Match the causes with their solution, writing the correct number in the solution columns. Causes Solutions 1 use of pesticides and fertilizers, harmful techniques which contaminate soil and water. Improve irrigation systems 2 The overexploitation of forests and forest fires cause deforestation. Reforestation with native species 3Irrigated agriculture deplete water resources Increase efficiency in the prevention and extinction of forest fires. 4Reforestation with introduced species, not native to the area, impoverishes the soil. Prohibition of some fishing methods , and development of aquaculture. 5 Fish catches are often excessive in relation to marine resources (overfishing) Use of natural fertilizers and seeds. Also natural ways to combat pests. 6 some fishing methods, like trawling, damage marine environments. Regulation of fishing: control of the size of species caught, reduction of catches. Q.32 Talking points Look back at section 7 and think about what you have learnt. As a class, discuss: Which are the most serious environmental problems caused by the activities of the primary sector? What can we do to solve them? Example: I think………………is more serious than………………because……………….is not as harmful as……………because…………….We should use more/less……………….. .
  • 23. The term “belt” in agricultur grown. Belts also have simila description with the correct m iculture describes an area or region where one parti similar climactic and soil conditions. Can you mat rrect map? B. The Corn Midwester Illinois, an crop. Appr grown in th states. The a good clim C. The Cotton B Southern USA primary cash c into the 20th ce production occ and Georgia. L extended from A. The Whea American G the domina from Cana divided int wheat area the souther 23 e particular crop is u match the belt Corn Belt: Is found in the western states of Ohio, Indiana, ois, and Iowa. Corn is the primary . Approximately 50% of all corn n in the USA is from these four s. These regions have rich soil and od climate for this type of farming. tton Belt: Was a region of the USA where cotton was the cash crop from the late 18th century century. Before the cotton gin, on occurred only in South Carolina rgia. Later, the Cotton Belt from Virginia to Texas. Wheat Belt: Is the part of the rican Great Plains where wheat is ominant crop. The belt extends Canadian border to Texas and is ed into winter wheat and spring at areas. Winter wheat is grown in outhern areas.
  • 24. United States Departme REGIONS 10 major farm production regio land, climate, distance to marke they comprise the agricultural f 1. & 2. The Northeaster milk producing areas. 3. The Appalachian regi Peanuts, cattle, and dai 4. In the Southeast regio peanuts are grown in th 5. In the Delta States, the sugarcane are also grow 6. The Corn Belt has rich cattle, hogs, and dairy p 7. & 8. Agriculture in the western portion and by About three-fifths of th 9. The Mountain States are suited to raising cattle a hay, sugar beets, potatoes, 10. The Pacific region incl Hawaii. Farmers specia raised throughout the region. In Greenhouse/nursery and dairy p Q.33 Answer the questions 1) What is grown in Hawai? 2) How are crops watered in t rtment of Agriculture (USDA): FARM PRO regions in the United States differ in soils, slope of market, and storage and marketing facilities. Together ltural face of the Nation. eastern States and the Lake States are the Nation’s pr reas. n region is the major tobacco-producing region in the N nd dairy production are also important there. region, beef is an important livestock product. Fruits, v n in this region. , the principal cash crops are soybeans and cotton. Ri o grown. as rich soil and good climate for excellent farming. Cor airy products are the major outputs of farms in the regi in the northern and southern Plains is restricted by r nd by cold winters and short growing seasons in the no s of the Nation’s winter and spring wheat is produced i tates provide a still different terrain. Vast areas of this r attle and sheep. Irrigation in valleys provides water for atoes, fruits, and vegetables. includes the three Pacific Coast States plus Alaska specialize in raising wheat, fruit, and potatoes, vegetab ion. In Hawaii, sugarcane and pineapples are the major dairy products are Alaska’s top-ranking commodities ns about the text: in the mountain States? 24 PRODUCTION gether n’s principal in the Nation. ruits, vegetables, and ton. Rice and g. Corn, beef, he region. ed by rainfall in the the northern part. uced in this region. f this region ter for such crops as and egetables, Cattle are major crops.
  • 25. 25 3) which are the main milk areas? 4)Where is the main production of wheat? 5) where could you get beef and peanuts? Q.34: Are the following sentences true or false? Correct the false ones in your exercise book. a) The more humus the soil has, the more fertile it is. b) If the population falls, the demand for agricultural products goes up. c) Cows and bulls are cattle. d) Ecological agriculture is harmful to the natural environment. e) Aquaculture is the reproduction of salt- and freshwater plants and animals in fish farms. Q.35. In your exercise book, complete these passive sentences with the correct verb, using the past participle: catch, cut, grow, feed, burn. a) In slash-and-burn agriculture the trees are …………..down and then………..because the ashes are used as a fertilizer. b) In confined livestock farming, animals are ………..by the farmer. c) Rice is …….in many Asian countries. d) Many fish are ………..in the Atlantic Ocean. Q.36: Look at the map next page and answer the questions in your exercise book. a) In which parts of the world can we find slash-and-burn agriculture. b) In which parts can we find plantations? c) Do plantations or slash-and-burn agriculture produce cash crops? d)what type of country is the United States? What type of agriculture is typical there? e) What type of agriculture is typical in Italy and Spain? And in the rest of Europe
  • 26. 26 FINAL TASK : 1-Make a little report about agriculture in Baeza or your town. KEYS: Title: Photo: Explanation of above features:
  • 27. 27 The Globalisation of the economy (listening) Q.8 Fill in the blanks In today´s world , all countries are interconenected. They depend on each other t a large extent and their economies have become integrated , so they form part of an enormous free market system. This process of global integration is called globalization: ICT allows companies all over the world to be contact with each other. As a result we have a global market Multinationals and free trade zones are included in this big market. The common markets also remove tariffs and allow the free movement of people and capital between member countries. In practice, these countries adopt a common economic policy towards other states. 1- Depending of Capital investment and labour it can be Extensive livestock farming; capital investment (in feed, farms, etc.) is limited and productivity low. The livestock is mostly cattle and sheep, and grazes on large pastures in the open air or Intensive livestock farming ; capital investment ( in feed, farms, etc…) labour and productivity are high. Mostly cattle, pigs and poultry are farmed. 2- Depending of food and feeding methods it can be grazing livestock; animals feed on grass. This is an example of extensive farming or Confined livestock animals are kept in sheds and covered pens, and eat feed. It is an example of intensive farming . finally semi-confined livestock is when cattle in summer eats grass and when there isn´t enough grass, they eat feed. 3-Depending mobility of livestock it can be Nomadic herding; herders and their families are constantly moving with their animals in search of good pasture or Transhumance when herders move their animals several times a year between winter and summer pastures. Finally sedentary livestock farming when animals don´t have to move around to obtain food because farmers give them feed https://www.facebook.com/#