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z
Biological
Diversity
Unit A
z
• Over 1.5 million species of animals and 350 000 species of
plants are identified species.
• Estimate 30 million to 100 million kinds of organisms
existing today
zSpecies: A group of organisms that have the same structure
and can reproduce with one another
Biological Diversity: All different types of organisms on Earth
zAll Living Things:
1. Made of cells
2. Need energy
3. Grow and develop
4. Reproduce
5. Have adaptations
zThe Needs of Living Things:
• Water
• Food/Nutrients
• Energy
• Oxygen (Exchange of Gases)
• Suitable Living Conditions (Eg. Temperature)
z
Ecosystem: Particular environment where living things interact
with other biotic (living) an abiotic (non-living) things
(Ex. Boreal Forest)
Population: Group of individuals of the
same species living in the same area
z
Community: Populations of different species living in the same
area (biotic component of an ecosystem)
• Genetic diversity refers to the variations between
members of a population
(ex. Banded snail – colouring
and banding on shell)
• Some variations are not visible
(ex. Human blood types – A, B,
AB, O)
z
Species Distribution: Areas around the equator have the
greatest number of plant species. These diverse plant
communities in turn provide food and shelter to a wide variety of
organisms. The number of plant and animal species is greatest
in tropical regions. So the tropical rain forests in equatorial
regions contain the greatest biological diversity
z
Classifying
Biological Diversity
z
Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (18th
century) developed a system for naming and
classifying organisms
z
He used Latin as a common scientific language combining 2
words to name each living things:
1st name is the genus (ALWAYS Capitalized)
2nd name is the species (NEVER Capitalized)
No two species have the same name, although closely related
species can have the same genus
(ex. Canis rufus (redwolf) and Canis lupus (dog))
Naming Rules:
Linnaean Classification
z
MacrochelysM. temminckii
Chelydra C. serpentina
Chelodina longicollis
Chelonia mydas
Chelonoidis C. nigra complex
Chelonoidis C. chilensis
Which ones are most closely related?
z
MacrochelysM. temminckii
Chelydra C. serpentina
Chelodina longicollis
Chelonia mydas
Chelonoidis C. nigra complex
Chelonoidis C. chilensis
Which ones are most closely related?
z
Modern scientists further developed
Linnaeus’s classification system.
zWe use a 5 kingdom system:
1. Animalia (animals)
2. Plantae (plants)
3. Fungi (yeasts, moulds, mushrooms)
4. Protista (single celled organisms)
5. Monera (bacteria)*
*some scientists split this into 2 – Archaebacteria and
Eubacteria
z
z
z
z
z
How can I remember this?
(Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species, [Variety]):
“Dear King Philip Came Over For Good Soup"
Do Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk?
Dumb Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach
Do Kindly Place Cover On Fresh Green Spring Vegetables
Donald Kills People Cause Other Friends Get Sad
Don't Keep Playing Chess On Festering Green Salad
z
zWhich of these organisms are most closely
related?
Amanitaceae Amanita A. muscaria
Musaceae Musa M. acuminata
Muridae Mus M. musculus
Muridae Apodemus A. sylvaticus
zWhich of these organisms are most closely
related?
Amanitaceae Amanita A. muscaria
Musaceae Musa M. acuminata
Muridae Mus M. musculus
Muridae Apodemus A. sylvaticus
z
TEDEd Video
z
Types of Diversity
• Ecosystem Diversity
• Community Diversity
• Diversity between Species
• Diversity within Species
• Genetic Diversity
z1) Diversity Between Ecosystems
The number and type of species (biotic factors) and abiotic
factors (temperature, water, sunlight) differ ​from ecosystem
to ecosystem.
-ex: Boreal forest vs. prairie
z1) Diversity Between Ecosystems
Diversity of biotic factors between ecosystems:
• Type: number of different species
• Number: population of each species
Diversity of abiotic factors between ecosystems:
• Climate
• Habitat
• Energy sources
z2) Diversity Within Ecosystems
Communities within an ecosystem also exhibit
diversity.
ex: The organisms living in the area near Banff are
different from the organisms living near Jasper.
Population diversity between communities:
• number of organisms of a specific species
• the species with the highest population in the community
• the presence of different types of predator species and
prey species
z
Community near Banff Community near Jasper
woodland caribou only in Jasper
Moose only in Jasper
65 Grizzly bears
109 Grizzly bears
Gray Wolves only in Jasper
Many, many Black Wolves
45-50 black wolves
No Moose
No Gray Wolves
no woodland caribou
z3) Diversity Between Species
Species is often defined: "A group of
similar organisms capable of reproduction
within the group."Organisms that are
different enough that they are unable to
successfully reproduce together.
ex: A moose is a different species than an
octopus because they are so different that
they cannot successfully reproduce
together.
z4) Diversity Within Species
If you look closely between members of a population,
you will observe variation (differences). These
variations are caused by slight genetic differences
in these organisms (differences in the DNA).
ex: Magpie wingspan, Human eye color
z4) Diversity Within Species
The difference within a species are the result of
natural and sometimes artificial selection.
z5) Genetic Diversity
Genetic Diversity between communities:
the organisms of the same species in the same
community will likely share much of the same DNA
(genes and chromosomes)
the organisms of the same species from different
communities will likely not share much of the same
DNA (genes and chromosomes)
z
Relationships
Interdependence
- all species are dependent on other
species
z1) Predator - Prey
the interactions between two species where one
species is the hunted food source for the other.
The organism that feeds is called the predator and the
organism that is fed upon is the prey.
Both populations benefit – size of populations are
controlled
z1) Predator - Prey
the size of both populations are kept in check:
• reduced prey populations prevent the stripping of the
food source preventing starvation of surviving
members
• the weak members tend to be captured, leaving the
strong to produce similar offspring
z1) Predator - Prey
the size of both populations are kept in check:
z
Relationships
Symbiosis: Whenever different living things
live closely together where the relationship
may benefit one or both living things
z2) Symbiotic Relationships
Mutualism: Both species benefit ex: flowers & bees
Commensalism: Only one species benefits and neither
are harmed ex: barnacle & whale
Parasitism: Only one species benefits and the other is
harmed ex: ticks & deer
zSable Island
The species of wild horses on Sable island are genetically unique in
the world. They also have a unique relationship with the seals of the
island:
Seals get food from the ocean, and fertilize the grasses of Sable
island.
The horses eat the grass.
Horse population is closely tied to the seal population: more seals ->
more fertilizer -> more nutritious grass -> more horses.
zSable Island
Horse population is closely tied to the seal population: more seals ->
more fertilizer -> more nutritious grass -> more horses.
z3) Interspecies Competition
When two different species are competing for the same
resource.
The competitive exclusion principle states that if two
species with identical niches compete, then one will
inevitably drive the other to extinction.
z3) Interspecies Competition
When two different species are competing for the same
resource.
When two species differentiate their niches, they tend
to compete less strongly, and are thus more likely to
coexist.
Species can differentiate their niches in many ways,
such as by consuming different foods, or using different
parts of the environment.
z3) Interspecies Competition
Niche: How an organism satisfies its needs; how it "fits"
into the ecosystem.
An organism's niche can be described by any or all of the
following:
• habitat
• energy source
• water source
Species occupying the same niche are in competition.
z3) Interspecies Competition
z3) Interspecies Competition
Bio-invasion is an example of competition resulting from two species
occupying the same niche. Often the result is the extinction or
extirpation of the native species.
Purple loosestrife, a European invader introduced to Canada in the 1800s, degrades wetlands. It
can decimate and choke out native plants that make up the habitats where fish, birds and
animals feed, seek shelter and rear their young. A single plant can produce over 300,000 seeds.
The plant grows in ditches, irrigation canals, marshes and even standing water. In some
locations, purple loosestrife has also begun invading dry habitats like pastures and cropland.
z3) Interspecies Competition
Resource Partitioning: Species in competition coexisting by sharing a
resource by dividing it (partitioning).
Ex: 5 species of Warbles (small songbird) all feed off spruce
bud worms but in different parts of the spruce ​tree.
z Variation
zVariation: The differences found within a species
Variation is important because it is directly related to
adaptability: the specie's ability to adapt/respond to
changes in it's habitat or ecosystem.
zVariation: The differences found within a species
zVariation: The differences found within a species
Examples of variation within homo sapiens:
• blood type (A, B, AB, or O; positive or negative)
• eye colour
• height
• taste bud concentration
zAdaptations
How do living things meet their needs to survive? ...
They adapt!
Organisms "respond" to their environment:
• Organisms which are best suited will survive and
produce offspring
• over time successful characteristics will be more
common therefore the species will have adapted to
their environment
z
Structural Adaptations:
Physical features of an organism like the bill on a bird
or the fur on a bear.
Behavioural Adaptations:
The ways organisms "act" to survive. For example, bird
calls and migration are behavioural adaptations.
zList 3 examples of each kind of adaptation
Structural:
• Webbed feet
• Bird beaks
• Fur (winter/summer coats)
Behavioural:
• Hibernation
• Migration
• Instincts
z Earth Will Be No More
In an attempt to save the human ​population, classrooms
of students ​have been placed aboard rocket ships ​and
are being sent to various planets in ​various galaxies.
This class has been ​sent to IMAGINTHIS, a new planet
with unknown dangers.
zYou have arrived. Please stand up
All the initial tests show that it appears ​to be a planet
that humans can inhabit
The atmosphere is 50% oxygen.
Anyone who cannot breathe oxygen: sit down you have
died.
z
There appear to be no animals to serve as food for
humans but there are plenty of nuts.
Anyone who cannot survive on nuts alone: sit down you
have died.
z
There is some sort of unusual radiation on the planet
that seems to affect anyone with blue eyes. ​They
develop debilitating headaches and eventually die.
All blue eyed people grab your heads and cry out in
pain and sit down: you have died.
z
There are these incredible large flying eagle like birds
with a wing span of 13 meters. They are silent in
flight and seem to quickly pick off ​blond or black
haired humans but brown haired individuals are left
alone.
All blond or black haired people are dead : sit down.
z
The survivors will continue to live ​happily on the
planet.
You have just participated in a simulation of natural
selection.
When there is a change in the environment: the
organisms of the species that survive are the ones
that will continue that species.
z
The survivors will continue to live ​happily on the
planet.
You have just participated in a simulation of natural
selection.
When there is a change in the environment: the
organisms of the species that survive are the ones
that will continue that species.
zNatural Selection: Natural Selection occurs when a
particular organism reproduces more than another
because of differences between those organisms,
giving the appearance that one organisms has been
"selected" over another.
Coined by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace.
zDarwin also coined the phrase: "Survival of the Fittest"
which refers to the fact that the organisms which best
fits it's current situation will have advantages over other
organisms which will allow it to survive better/longer.
"Survival of the Fittest" does not mean survival of the
strongest.
Coined by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace.
z
On his visit to the Galapagos Islands, Charles Darwin
discovered several species of finches that varied from
island to island, which helped him to develop his theory
of natural selection.
z
Example:
The Cliff Swallows of Nebraska - In 1996: Although equally healthy, a
severe cold spell killed 70% of the population (hundreds of thousands).
Scientists that had been studying the population collected over 1856 of
the dead birds. Through careful observation, they found that the birds
that survived had larger bodies and a shorter wingspan (11% shorter)
than the ones that died.
z
Example:
Like many animals that evolved in isolation from significant predators, the
dodo was entirely fearless of humans. This fearlessness and its inability
to fly made the dodo easy prey for sailors. Also, sailors introduced dogs,
pigs, cats, rats, and crab-eating macaques, which plundered dodo nests
and competed for the limited food resources. At the same time, humans
destroyed the forest habitat of the dodos. The impact of the introduced
animals on the dodo population, especially the pigs and macaques, led to
the extinction of the Dodo in 1662.
z
z
Discrete Variation
Differences in characteristics ​that have a defined form.
binary: on or off; yes or no
no in-between.
Continuous Variation
Differences in characteristics ​that have a
range/spectrum of forms.
height in adults range from ​1.2m to 2.1m
z
Discrete Variation
Examples:
• eye color
• blood type
• albino
• hitchhiker’s thumb
• widow’s peak
Continuous Variation
Examples:
• height
• weight
• pigmentation of skin
• intelligence
• size of hand span
z Heritability
z
Heritable Characteristic:
Passed on from generation to generation.
Non-heritable Characteristic:
Acquired or learned. Not passed on from previous
generations.
z
Heritable Characteristic:
Examples:
• eye color
• hair color/type
• skin color
• blood type
• height
Non-heritable Characteristic:
Examples:
• dyed hair color
• sun tan
• ability to play piano
• ability to swim
• language
z
Close your eyes
Clasp your hands together above your head, interlocking your fingers.
Clasp your hands together above your head, interlocking your fingers.
Open your eyes. Which thumb is on top?
Try clasping the other thumb on top. Which feels more natural?
Is this discrete variation or continuous?
zPTC Paper!
zPTC Paper!
zPTC Paper!
z
The PTC gene, TAS2R38, was discovered in 2003.
There are two common forms (or alleles) of the PTC gene, and at least five rare forms. One of
the common forms is a tasting allele, and the other is a non-tasting allele. Each allele codes
for a bitter taste receptor protein with a slightly different shape. The shape of the receptor
protein determines how strongly it can bind to PTC. Since all people have two copies of every
gene, combinations of the bitter taste gene variants determine whether someone finds PTC
intensely bitter, somewhat bitter, or without taste at all.
PTC Paper!
z
Asexual
Reproduction
z
Asexual Reproduction:
Involves only one parent.
Offspring are identical to the parent.
Types: Binary Fission, Budding,
Spore Production, ​and Vegetative
Reproduction.
z
1. Binary Fission:
A one-celled organism splits exactly into 2.
-ex: bacteria, amoeba, some algae.
Paramecium
z
2. Budding
The parent produces a small bud that develops
into a ​new but identical individual.
-ex: yeast, hydra, coral
hydra
yellow yeast
asexualbudding-d.wmv
The_Asexual_Reproduction_of_the_Hydra.asf
z3. Spores
• Similar to seeds, but are produced by the division
of ​the single parents cells.
• each spore can develop into a new but identical
individual.
-ex: fungi, green algae, some molds, ferns, and other
non-flowering plants.
Fern spores
Green algae spores
z4. Vegetative Reproduction
• Reproduction of a plant without seeds, in all cases
the ​offspring are again identical.
• ex: cuttings from a plant, runners
(strawberry ​ plant), tubers (potatoes), bulbs (tulip),
shoots or​ suckers (aspen)
Potato Tuber
Strawberry Runner
z
What now? Answer the following questions:
1. Define asexual reproduction. List three examples
of ​asexual reproduction.
2. An individual produced by asexual reproduction may
be identical to one of its parents. Do you agree or
disagree with this statement? Support your answer.
z
Sexual
Reproduction
z
Sexual Reproduction:
Involves two parents.
Offspring have a mix of ​characteristics from
both ​parents
z
-During this process the male gametes (sperm) meet
with female gametes(eggs) in a process called
fertilization; each gamete has only half the DNA of a
normal cell.
- When the two gametes meet they form a zygote that
will then divide rapidly.
z
In Animals:
z
In Animals:
Sperm Cell: Male sex cell (gamete). In humans it has
23 chromosomes
Egg Cell (Ova): Female sex cell (gamete). In humans it
has 23 chromosomes
Fertilization: Union of a female sex cell and male sex
cell
z
In Animals:
Zygote: First cell created by the joining of the gametes,
which then divides. It has 46 chromosomes in humans
(23 from egg, 23 from sperm)
Cleavage: First divisions of a
fertilized egg
Embryo: An undeveloped organism in its early
development (all cells in an embryo have 46 cells)
z
1. fertilization occurs when a sperm cell penetrates an egg cell
2. the joining of the male gamete with the female gamete produces
a ​single-celled zygote
3. cell division of the zygote (cleavage) takes place
4. cell division continues
5. a multicellular embryo develops
In Animals:
z
In Animals:
z
In Plants:
z
In Plants (Male Parts):
Stamen: Male part of the flower
Anther: Part of the flower that produces pollen and
stores it
Pollen: Fine yellow powder on the anthers of flowers,
consisting of grains that contain male gametes
z
In Plants (Female Parts):
Pistils: Refers to the entire female
reproductive organ of the flower
Stigma: Female part of a flower, which receives pollen
Style: Structure that supports the stigma and connects
it with the ovary of a plant
Ovary: Female reproductive organ in which egg cells
are produced, the structure contains the ovules, and
develops as the fruit of flowering plants
Ovules: Sac containing the female gametes of a plant
z
1. Pollination occurs when pollen is transferred from the anther to
the ​stigma.
2. Fertilization occurs when the pollen grain, which encases
the ​sperm nuclei, develops a long tube that grows down the style
and into ​the ovary that contains the ovules (eggs).
3. The joining of the male and female gametes produces a single-
​celled zygote.
4. Cell division occurs.
5. A multi-celled embryo develops inside a seed that offers
it ​protection and food.
6. Unlike animals, the embryo may remain dormant within the
seed ​until growing conditions are favorable.
In Plants:
z
In Plants:
Pollination: Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma
Cross Pollination: When the pollen of one plant is
carried to the stigma of another by wind, water, or
animals
A, B = Pollination
C = Cross Pollination
z
In Plants:
Cross Fertilization: When a grain of pollen produces a
long tube that eventually grows down the style into the
ovary and the 2 gametes join to form a zygote
• Zygote forms into a an embryo located inside a seed
• Seed provides protection for the embryo and stores
food
z
Advantages and
Disadvantages of
Asexual
Reproduction
zAdvantages:
• Does not require specialized cells
• Can produce lots of individuals quickly if the
conditions are good
• Does not require a minimum population
Disadvantages:
• If conditions become unfavourable, the entire
population could be wiped out (extinction)
• Limits variation within the species
z
Advantages and
Disadvantages of
Sexual
Reproduction
z
Advantages:
• Provides lots of variation which helps a species
survive environmental change
• Increases diversity of organisms
Disadvantages:
• Requires a lot of energy and therefore produces a
limited number of offspring
• Requires finding a partner
• Requires specialized sex cells
• Requires a minimum population to reproduce
z
Organisms That
Reproduce Both
Asexually and
Sexually
z• Many plant organisms reproduce both sexually and
asexually
• Some animals can reproduce both ways ex: Aphids
• Aphids – females produce females without fertilization
during the summer. In the fall, when the temperatures drop,
males and females are produced and they reproduce
sexually
• Corals can reproduce buds, and reproduce sexually
• Some plants develop seeds without the contribution of
sperm cells (ex. Some grasses, sunflowers, etc.)
z
DNA
z
DNA:
• Deoxyribonucleic acid
• The “blueprint” for making a copy of a cell.
• It is the inherited material responsible for variation
• All living organisms contain DNA in their cell nuclei
z
DNA:
z
DNA:
• The DNA molecule is helical in shape, like
a ​spiraling ladder
• Each rung is made from any 2 of the following
four ​chemicals: guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine
(A), and thiamine (T).
z
DNA:
DNA Strand:
double helix
T, A, G, C
shapes bond​ together.
T-A, G-C
z
DNA:
Genetic Code: Arrangement of 4 chemical “letters” on
a DNA molecule that can be arranged into “words” that
form instructions for making an organism
Chromosomes: Organisms arrange the DNA into
packages whose contents are neatly put together into
structures that easily fit into the cell.
Nucleotide: the rungs of the ladder in DNA (Made up
of the 4 GCAT chemicals)
z
Human Chromosomes:
Alzheimers may be linked to chromosome 14.
ALS may be linked to chromosome 9.
47 chromosomes (an extra #21) causes Down ​Syndrome.
45X chromosomes (missing 1X ) causes Turner ​Syndrome. (females are under-developed).
z
Genes: An uninterrupted segment of DNA, which
contains coded instructions responsible for the
inheritance of an organism’s characteristic features
Alleles: Possible 'forms' of a gene. (think of genes like
light switches, and alleles as either on or off)
Ex. Alleles for brown eyes or blue eyes.
z
z
David Vetter, ​"bubble
boy", lived ​for 12 years
inside a ​plastic bubble.
He ​has Severe ​Combined
Immune ​Deficiency
(SCID), ​a genetic
disorder ​that made his
body ​incapable
of ​fighting diseases. ​The
gene for SCID ​is found on
the X ​chromosome.
David died at age 13 after getting sick from a ​bone marrow
transplant from his sister.
z
Mitosis:
Mitosis : Mitosis is the name given to the reproduction
of normal body cells in multicellular organisms. (It is
very similar to the binary fission of bacteria.)
z
Mitosis:
Steps:
1. DNA in the nucleus is doubled
2. Each set of DNA moves to the sides of the cell.
3. The cell begins to pinch off (cleavage) dividing into 2
identical daughter cells.
z
Meiosis:
Meiosis : Meiosis is a special form of cell division that
results in the formation of 4 unique gametes (sperm
or eggs). Each gamete only has a half set of DNA.
z
Meiosis:
Steps:
1.Like mitosis the DNA doubles
2. Similar pieces of DNA (chromosomes) pair up and exchange
pieces. This is called crossing over and increases variation.
3. The cells divide once
4. The two new cells immediately divide a second time leaving
4 gamete cells with unique sets of DNA and only half as much
DNA as the starting cell.
z
Patterns of
Inheritance
z
Patterns of Inheritance:
Traits: Desired characteristics
Hybrid: the result of crossing two purebred parents in
order to achieve different traits.
Purebred: plant/animal whose ancestors all have the
same traits.
Dominant Traits: a trait that dominates over all others,
ex: black fur coat, brown eyes, dark hair.
Recessive Traits: only seen when two non-dominant
alleles are inherited, ex: white fur coat, blue eyes,
blonde hair.
z
Punnett Square
Ex.1 White Purebred Female, White Purebred Male
W W
W
W
W W
W W
W W
W W
4/4 Recessive white
z
Punnett Square
Ex.2 White Purebred Female, Black Purebred Male
B B
W
W
W B
W B
W B
W B
4/4 Hybrid black
z
Punnett Square
Ex.2 White Purebred Female, Black Purebred Male
B B
b
b
b B
b B
b B
b B
4/4 Hybrid black
z
Punnett Square
Ex.3 Black Hybrid Female, Black Hybrid Male
B W
B
W
B B
W B
B W
W W
1/4 Dominant black
2/4 Hybrid black
1/4 Recessive white
z
Punnett Square
Ex.3 Black Hybrid Female, Black Hybrid Male
B b
B
b
B B
b B
B b
b b
1/4 Dominant black
2/4 Hybrid black
1/4 Recessive white
z
Patterns of Inheritance:
Incomplete Dominance: occurs when both alleles ​play
a part in determining the characteristics.
Ex: Purebred snapdragon with red flowers crosses ​ with a
purebred snapdragon with white flowers, produces hybrid
offspring with pink flowers.
*In truth, the inheritance of many characteristics may ​have
many gene locations and several possible alleles. ​This
explains why 2 blue-eyed parents can produce a ​brown-eyed
offspring or why a person can have 2 ​different colored eyes!*
z
Practice Punnett Squares:
1. A purebred white (recessive) cow and a purebred brown
(dominant) ​bull.
2. A hybrid brown (dominant) cow and a purebred white (recessive) ​bull.
3. A green-eyed (recessive) female and a brown-eyed (dominant) ​male.
4. A hybrid brown-eyed (dominant) female and a blue-eyed ​(recessive)
male.
5. A purebred long-legged (dominant) fruit fly and a short-legged
(recessive) fruit fly.
z
Human Activity
Affects Biological
Diversity
zExtinct: Organisms that die out completely and do
not ​exist anywhere. Ex: Dinosaurs
Endangered: Organisms become very rare and are
in ​serious danger of becoming extinct. Ex. Polar
Bears/Pandas
Threatened: Those species whose numbers are
declining. A species at risk of extinction. Ex. Humpback
Whale
Extirpated: A species that no longer has any living
members in a certain area or region. Ex. No timber
wolves in USA
Special Concern: Species that are particularly
vulnerable to natural events or human activates ex.
Amphibians like frogs
z
2. What are the natural causes of extinction/extirpation?
1. Natural Disasters - Volcanic eruptions, Floods &
Fires
2. Overspecialization – Having to narrow a niche. –
Koalas only eat one type of plant
3. Lack of food – Due to draught or loss of habitat
4. Disease – Honey Bee Disease
z
z3. What are the human causes of Extinction/extirpation?
1. Habitat destruction
2. Introduction of non-native species (Bio-invasion)
3. Over hunting
4. What are the effects of extinction and extirpation? Why
should we be concerned?
Extinctions and extirpations reduce biological diversity.
Extinctions reduce the number of species on the planet.
Extirpations reduce biological diversity in areas from
which the organism has disappeared. It is important to
maintain species diversity
z
5. What is artificial selection and biotechnology?
a) Artificial selection: Humans selecting desirable traits and
breeding to maintain or enhance them.
Humans have practiced artificial selection since we first began to
farm about 10 000 years ago. After so many generations of artificial
selection, most of our plants no longer resemble the wild species
from which they were bred.
b) Biotechnology: Technology humans use for artificial selection
and selective breeding.
For instance, livestock breeders have to breed cows over many
generations to get a whole herd that produces large quantities of
milk. Scientists and breeders have, therefore, developed
technologies that can speed up this process. These technologies
can range from “low tech” to extremely “high tech.”
z6. What are the 4 forms of biotechnology with examples?
1. Cloning plants – Using a cutting from a plant and
growing an identical plant from the cutting or using
cells in a petri dish to create a clone
2. Artificial insemination – Taking sperm from a bull and
planting it in a female
3. In vitro fertilization – Taking both sperm and eggs and
combining them in a petri dish
4. Genetic engineering – Changing the genes of a
species (glowing genes)
z
z
z7. What are the risks of biotechnology or artificial
selection?
a) In Animals: Reduced genetic variation & risk of
disease
b) In Plants: Risk of cross pollinating weeds that would
be resistant to herbicides
z
8. What are the 5 ways of conserving biodiversity? Give an
explanation and example of each. What are the advantages
and disadvantages of each way of conservation?
1. Protected areas – In-situ conservation – Banff national
park
Advantage: allow organisms to live relatively undisturbed in their natural habitats.
Disadvantage: It takes work and cooperation from the government as well as money
2. Restoration of ecosystems & species- In-situ conservation
– replanting forests
Advantage: allow organisms to live relatively undisturbed in their natural habitats.
Disadvantage: It takes work, manpower (Volunteer groups, private landowners etc.) as well as
money
3. Federal & provincial laws to protect species & natural
areas. (parks & wetlands) – no hunting laws
Advantage: prevent species in Canada from becoming extinct as a consequence of human
activity.
Disadvantage: It takes work and cooperation from the government
z8. What are the 5 ways of conserving biodiversity? Give
an explanation and example of each. What are the
advantages and disadvantages of each way of
conservation?
4. Controlling the spread of exotic species – purple
loosestrife
Advantage: keeps natural order of an ecosystem and keeps diversity alive in an
ecosystem
Disadvantage: It takes work and cooperation from the government or other group if bio
invasion does occur
5. Conserving genetic resources (like seed storage) - Ex-situ
conservation / Conservations in zoos
Advantage: chance of survival for some endangered species and plays an
important role in conserving economically valuable genetic resources for forest,
aquatic, and agricultural purposes.
Disadvantage: This is a huge task since some scientists estimate that there are
as many as 10 million different species in the world.

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Unit a biologicaldiversitynotes

  • 2. z • Over 1.5 million species of animals and 350 000 species of plants are identified species. • Estimate 30 million to 100 million kinds of organisms existing today
  • 3. zSpecies: A group of organisms that have the same structure and can reproduce with one another Biological Diversity: All different types of organisms on Earth
  • 4. zAll Living Things: 1. Made of cells 2. Need energy 3. Grow and develop 4. Reproduce 5. Have adaptations
  • 5. zThe Needs of Living Things: • Water • Food/Nutrients • Energy • Oxygen (Exchange of Gases) • Suitable Living Conditions (Eg. Temperature)
  • 6. z Ecosystem: Particular environment where living things interact with other biotic (living) an abiotic (non-living) things (Ex. Boreal Forest) Population: Group of individuals of the same species living in the same area
  • 7. z Community: Populations of different species living in the same area (biotic component of an ecosystem) • Genetic diversity refers to the variations between members of a population (ex. Banded snail – colouring and banding on shell) • Some variations are not visible (ex. Human blood types – A, B, AB, O)
  • 8. z Species Distribution: Areas around the equator have the greatest number of plant species. These diverse plant communities in turn provide food and shelter to a wide variety of organisms. The number of plant and animal species is greatest in tropical regions. So the tropical rain forests in equatorial regions contain the greatest biological diversity
  • 10. z Swedish botanist Carolus Linnaeus (18th century) developed a system for naming and classifying organisms
  • 11. z He used Latin as a common scientific language combining 2 words to name each living things: 1st name is the genus (ALWAYS Capitalized) 2nd name is the species (NEVER Capitalized) No two species have the same name, although closely related species can have the same genus (ex. Canis rufus (redwolf) and Canis lupus (dog)) Naming Rules: Linnaean Classification
  • 12. z MacrochelysM. temminckii Chelydra C. serpentina Chelodina longicollis Chelonia mydas Chelonoidis C. nigra complex Chelonoidis C. chilensis Which ones are most closely related?
  • 13. z MacrochelysM. temminckii Chelydra C. serpentina Chelodina longicollis Chelonia mydas Chelonoidis C. nigra complex Chelonoidis C. chilensis Which ones are most closely related?
  • 14. z Modern scientists further developed Linnaeus’s classification system.
  • 15. zWe use a 5 kingdom system: 1. Animalia (animals) 2. Plantae (plants) 3. Fungi (yeasts, moulds, mushrooms) 4. Protista (single celled organisms) 5. Monera (bacteria)* *some scientists split this into 2 – Archaebacteria and Eubacteria
  • 16. z
  • 17. z
  • 18. z
  • 19. z
  • 20. z How can I remember this? (Domain, Kingdom, Phylum, Class, Order, Family, Genus, Species, [Variety]): “Dear King Philip Came Over For Good Soup" Do Kings Play Chess On Fine Green Silk? Dumb Kids Prefer Cheese Over Fried Green Spinach Do Kindly Place Cover On Fresh Green Spring Vegetables Donald Kills People Cause Other Friends Get Sad Don't Keep Playing Chess On Festering Green Salad
  • 21. z
  • 22. zWhich of these organisms are most closely related? Amanitaceae Amanita A. muscaria Musaceae Musa M. acuminata Muridae Mus M. musculus Muridae Apodemus A. sylvaticus
  • 23. zWhich of these organisms are most closely related? Amanitaceae Amanita A. muscaria Musaceae Musa M. acuminata Muridae Mus M. musculus Muridae Apodemus A. sylvaticus
  • 25. z Types of Diversity • Ecosystem Diversity • Community Diversity • Diversity between Species • Diversity within Species • Genetic Diversity
  • 26. z1) Diversity Between Ecosystems The number and type of species (biotic factors) and abiotic factors (temperature, water, sunlight) differ ​from ecosystem to ecosystem. -ex: Boreal forest vs. prairie
  • 27. z1) Diversity Between Ecosystems Diversity of biotic factors between ecosystems: • Type: number of different species • Number: population of each species Diversity of abiotic factors between ecosystems: • Climate • Habitat • Energy sources
  • 28. z2) Diversity Within Ecosystems Communities within an ecosystem also exhibit diversity. ex: The organisms living in the area near Banff are different from the organisms living near Jasper. Population diversity between communities: • number of organisms of a specific species • the species with the highest population in the community • the presence of different types of predator species and prey species
  • 29. z Community near Banff Community near Jasper woodland caribou only in Jasper Moose only in Jasper 65 Grizzly bears 109 Grizzly bears Gray Wolves only in Jasper Many, many Black Wolves 45-50 black wolves No Moose No Gray Wolves no woodland caribou
  • 30. z3) Diversity Between Species Species is often defined: "A group of similar organisms capable of reproduction within the group."Organisms that are different enough that they are unable to successfully reproduce together. ex: A moose is a different species than an octopus because they are so different that they cannot successfully reproduce together.
  • 31. z4) Diversity Within Species If you look closely between members of a population, you will observe variation (differences). These variations are caused by slight genetic differences in these organisms (differences in the DNA). ex: Magpie wingspan, Human eye color
  • 32. z4) Diversity Within Species The difference within a species are the result of natural and sometimes artificial selection.
  • 33. z5) Genetic Diversity Genetic Diversity between communities: the organisms of the same species in the same community will likely share much of the same DNA (genes and chromosomes) the organisms of the same species from different communities will likely not share much of the same DNA (genes and chromosomes)
  • 34. z Relationships Interdependence - all species are dependent on other species
  • 35. z1) Predator - Prey the interactions between two species where one species is the hunted food source for the other. The organism that feeds is called the predator and the organism that is fed upon is the prey. Both populations benefit – size of populations are controlled
  • 36. z1) Predator - Prey the size of both populations are kept in check: • reduced prey populations prevent the stripping of the food source preventing starvation of surviving members • the weak members tend to be captured, leaving the strong to produce similar offspring
  • 37. z1) Predator - Prey the size of both populations are kept in check:
  • 38. z Relationships Symbiosis: Whenever different living things live closely together where the relationship may benefit one or both living things
  • 39. z2) Symbiotic Relationships Mutualism: Both species benefit ex: flowers & bees Commensalism: Only one species benefits and neither are harmed ex: barnacle & whale Parasitism: Only one species benefits and the other is harmed ex: ticks & deer
  • 40. zSable Island The species of wild horses on Sable island are genetically unique in the world. They also have a unique relationship with the seals of the island: Seals get food from the ocean, and fertilize the grasses of Sable island. The horses eat the grass. Horse population is closely tied to the seal population: more seals -> more fertilizer -> more nutritious grass -> more horses.
  • 41. zSable Island Horse population is closely tied to the seal population: more seals -> more fertilizer -> more nutritious grass -> more horses.
  • 42. z3) Interspecies Competition When two different species are competing for the same resource. The competitive exclusion principle states that if two species with identical niches compete, then one will inevitably drive the other to extinction.
  • 43. z3) Interspecies Competition When two different species are competing for the same resource. When two species differentiate their niches, they tend to compete less strongly, and are thus more likely to coexist. Species can differentiate their niches in many ways, such as by consuming different foods, or using different parts of the environment.
  • 44. z3) Interspecies Competition Niche: How an organism satisfies its needs; how it "fits" into the ecosystem. An organism's niche can be described by any or all of the following: • habitat • energy source • water source Species occupying the same niche are in competition.
  • 46. z3) Interspecies Competition Bio-invasion is an example of competition resulting from two species occupying the same niche. Often the result is the extinction or extirpation of the native species. Purple loosestrife, a European invader introduced to Canada in the 1800s, degrades wetlands. It can decimate and choke out native plants that make up the habitats where fish, birds and animals feed, seek shelter and rear their young. A single plant can produce over 300,000 seeds. The plant grows in ditches, irrigation canals, marshes and even standing water. In some locations, purple loosestrife has also begun invading dry habitats like pastures and cropland.
  • 47. z3) Interspecies Competition Resource Partitioning: Species in competition coexisting by sharing a resource by dividing it (partitioning). Ex: 5 species of Warbles (small songbird) all feed off spruce bud worms but in different parts of the spruce ​tree.
  • 49. zVariation: The differences found within a species Variation is important because it is directly related to adaptability: the specie's ability to adapt/respond to changes in it's habitat or ecosystem.
  • 50. zVariation: The differences found within a species
  • 51. zVariation: The differences found within a species Examples of variation within homo sapiens: • blood type (A, B, AB, or O; positive or negative) • eye colour • height • taste bud concentration
  • 52. zAdaptations How do living things meet their needs to survive? ... They adapt! Organisms "respond" to their environment: • Organisms which are best suited will survive and produce offspring • over time successful characteristics will be more common therefore the species will have adapted to their environment
  • 53. z Structural Adaptations: Physical features of an organism like the bill on a bird or the fur on a bear. Behavioural Adaptations: The ways organisms "act" to survive. For example, bird calls and migration are behavioural adaptations.
  • 54. zList 3 examples of each kind of adaptation Structural: • Webbed feet • Bird beaks • Fur (winter/summer coats) Behavioural: • Hibernation • Migration • Instincts
  • 55. z Earth Will Be No More In an attempt to save the human ​population, classrooms of students ​have been placed aboard rocket ships ​and are being sent to various planets in ​various galaxies. This class has been ​sent to IMAGINTHIS, a new planet with unknown dangers.
  • 56. zYou have arrived. Please stand up All the initial tests show that it appears ​to be a planet that humans can inhabit The atmosphere is 50% oxygen. Anyone who cannot breathe oxygen: sit down you have died.
  • 57. z There appear to be no animals to serve as food for humans but there are plenty of nuts. Anyone who cannot survive on nuts alone: sit down you have died.
  • 58. z There is some sort of unusual radiation on the planet that seems to affect anyone with blue eyes. ​They develop debilitating headaches and eventually die. All blue eyed people grab your heads and cry out in pain and sit down: you have died.
  • 59. z There are these incredible large flying eagle like birds with a wing span of 13 meters. They are silent in flight and seem to quickly pick off ​blond or black haired humans but brown haired individuals are left alone. All blond or black haired people are dead : sit down.
  • 60. z The survivors will continue to live ​happily on the planet. You have just participated in a simulation of natural selection. When there is a change in the environment: the organisms of the species that survive are the ones that will continue that species.
  • 61. z The survivors will continue to live ​happily on the planet. You have just participated in a simulation of natural selection. When there is a change in the environment: the organisms of the species that survive are the ones that will continue that species.
  • 62. zNatural Selection: Natural Selection occurs when a particular organism reproduces more than another because of differences between those organisms, giving the appearance that one organisms has been "selected" over another. Coined by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace.
  • 63. zDarwin also coined the phrase: "Survival of the Fittest" which refers to the fact that the organisms which best fits it's current situation will have advantages over other organisms which will allow it to survive better/longer. "Survival of the Fittest" does not mean survival of the strongest. Coined by Charles Darwin and Alfred Wallace.
  • 64. z On his visit to the Galapagos Islands, Charles Darwin discovered several species of finches that varied from island to island, which helped him to develop his theory of natural selection.
  • 65. z Example: The Cliff Swallows of Nebraska - In 1996: Although equally healthy, a severe cold spell killed 70% of the population (hundreds of thousands). Scientists that had been studying the population collected over 1856 of the dead birds. Through careful observation, they found that the birds that survived had larger bodies and a shorter wingspan (11% shorter) than the ones that died.
  • 66. z Example: Like many animals that evolved in isolation from significant predators, the dodo was entirely fearless of humans. This fearlessness and its inability to fly made the dodo easy prey for sailors. Also, sailors introduced dogs, pigs, cats, rats, and crab-eating macaques, which plundered dodo nests and competed for the limited food resources. At the same time, humans destroyed the forest habitat of the dodos. The impact of the introduced animals on the dodo population, especially the pigs and macaques, led to the extinction of the Dodo in 1662.
  • 67. z
  • 68. z Discrete Variation Differences in characteristics ​that have a defined form. binary: on or off; yes or no no in-between. Continuous Variation Differences in characteristics ​that have a range/spectrum of forms. height in adults range from ​1.2m to 2.1m
  • 69. z Discrete Variation Examples: • eye color • blood type • albino • hitchhiker’s thumb • widow’s peak Continuous Variation Examples: • height • weight • pigmentation of skin • intelligence • size of hand span
  • 71. z Heritable Characteristic: Passed on from generation to generation. Non-heritable Characteristic: Acquired or learned. Not passed on from previous generations.
  • 72. z Heritable Characteristic: Examples: • eye color • hair color/type • skin color • blood type • height Non-heritable Characteristic: Examples: • dyed hair color • sun tan • ability to play piano • ability to swim • language
  • 73. z Close your eyes Clasp your hands together above your head, interlocking your fingers. Clasp your hands together above your head, interlocking your fingers. Open your eyes. Which thumb is on top? Try clasping the other thumb on top. Which feels more natural? Is this discrete variation or continuous?
  • 77. z The PTC gene, TAS2R38, was discovered in 2003. There are two common forms (or alleles) of the PTC gene, and at least five rare forms. One of the common forms is a tasting allele, and the other is a non-tasting allele. Each allele codes for a bitter taste receptor protein with a slightly different shape. The shape of the receptor protein determines how strongly it can bind to PTC. Since all people have two copies of every gene, combinations of the bitter taste gene variants determine whether someone finds PTC intensely bitter, somewhat bitter, or without taste at all. PTC Paper!
  • 79. z Asexual Reproduction: Involves only one parent. Offspring are identical to the parent. Types: Binary Fission, Budding, Spore Production, ​and Vegetative Reproduction.
  • 80. z 1. Binary Fission: A one-celled organism splits exactly into 2. -ex: bacteria, amoeba, some algae. Paramecium
  • 81. z 2. Budding The parent produces a small bud that develops into a ​new but identical individual. -ex: yeast, hydra, coral hydra yellow yeast asexualbudding-d.wmv The_Asexual_Reproduction_of_the_Hydra.asf
  • 82. z3. Spores • Similar to seeds, but are produced by the division of ​the single parents cells. • each spore can develop into a new but identical individual. -ex: fungi, green algae, some molds, ferns, and other non-flowering plants. Fern spores Green algae spores
  • 83. z4. Vegetative Reproduction • Reproduction of a plant without seeds, in all cases the ​offspring are again identical. • ex: cuttings from a plant, runners (strawberry ​ plant), tubers (potatoes), bulbs (tulip), shoots or​ suckers (aspen) Potato Tuber Strawberry Runner
  • 84. z What now? Answer the following questions: 1. Define asexual reproduction. List three examples of ​asexual reproduction. 2. An individual produced by asexual reproduction may be identical to one of its parents. Do you agree or disagree with this statement? Support your answer.
  • 86. z Sexual Reproduction: Involves two parents. Offspring have a mix of ​characteristics from both ​parents
  • 87. z -During this process the male gametes (sperm) meet with female gametes(eggs) in a process called fertilization; each gamete has only half the DNA of a normal cell. - When the two gametes meet they form a zygote that will then divide rapidly.
  • 89. z In Animals: Sperm Cell: Male sex cell (gamete). In humans it has 23 chromosomes Egg Cell (Ova): Female sex cell (gamete). In humans it has 23 chromosomes Fertilization: Union of a female sex cell and male sex cell
  • 90. z In Animals: Zygote: First cell created by the joining of the gametes, which then divides. It has 46 chromosomes in humans (23 from egg, 23 from sperm) Cleavage: First divisions of a fertilized egg Embryo: An undeveloped organism in its early development (all cells in an embryo have 46 cells)
  • 91. z 1. fertilization occurs when a sperm cell penetrates an egg cell 2. the joining of the male gamete with the female gamete produces a ​single-celled zygote 3. cell division of the zygote (cleavage) takes place 4. cell division continues 5. a multicellular embryo develops In Animals:
  • 94. z In Plants (Male Parts): Stamen: Male part of the flower Anther: Part of the flower that produces pollen and stores it Pollen: Fine yellow powder on the anthers of flowers, consisting of grains that contain male gametes
  • 95. z In Plants (Female Parts): Pistils: Refers to the entire female reproductive organ of the flower Stigma: Female part of a flower, which receives pollen Style: Structure that supports the stigma and connects it with the ovary of a plant Ovary: Female reproductive organ in which egg cells are produced, the structure contains the ovules, and develops as the fruit of flowering plants Ovules: Sac containing the female gametes of a plant
  • 96. z 1. Pollination occurs when pollen is transferred from the anther to the ​stigma. 2. Fertilization occurs when the pollen grain, which encases the ​sperm nuclei, develops a long tube that grows down the style and into ​the ovary that contains the ovules (eggs). 3. The joining of the male and female gametes produces a single- ​celled zygote. 4. Cell division occurs. 5. A multi-celled embryo develops inside a seed that offers it ​protection and food. 6. Unlike animals, the embryo may remain dormant within the seed ​until growing conditions are favorable. In Plants:
  • 97. z In Plants: Pollination: Transfer of pollen from anther to stigma Cross Pollination: When the pollen of one plant is carried to the stigma of another by wind, water, or animals A, B = Pollination C = Cross Pollination
  • 98. z In Plants: Cross Fertilization: When a grain of pollen produces a long tube that eventually grows down the style into the ovary and the 2 gametes join to form a zygote • Zygote forms into a an embryo located inside a seed • Seed provides protection for the embryo and stores food
  • 100. zAdvantages: • Does not require specialized cells • Can produce lots of individuals quickly if the conditions are good • Does not require a minimum population Disadvantages: • If conditions become unfavourable, the entire population could be wiped out (extinction) • Limits variation within the species
  • 102. z Advantages: • Provides lots of variation which helps a species survive environmental change • Increases diversity of organisms Disadvantages: • Requires a lot of energy and therefore produces a limited number of offspring • Requires finding a partner • Requires specialized sex cells • Requires a minimum population to reproduce
  • 104. z• Many plant organisms reproduce both sexually and asexually • Some animals can reproduce both ways ex: Aphids • Aphids – females produce females without fertilization during the summer. In the fall, when the temperatures drop, males and females are produced and they reproduce sexually • Corals can reproduce buds, and reproduce sexually • Some plants develop seeds without the contribution of sperm cells (ex. Some grasses, sunflowers, etc.)
  • 105. z DNA
  • 106. z DNA: • Deoxyribonucleic acid • The “blueprint” for making a copy of a cell. • It is the inherited material responsible for variation • All living organisms contain DNA in their cell nuclei
  • 107. z DNA:
  • 108. z DNA: • The DNA molecule is helical in shape, like a ​spiraling ladder • Each rung is made from any 2 of the following four ​chemicals: guanine (G), cytosine (C), adenine (A), and thiamine (T).
  • 109. z DNA: DNA Strand: double helix T, A, G, C shapes bond​ together. T-A, G-C
  • 110. z DNA: Genetic Code: Arrangement of 4 chemical “letters” on a DNA molecule that can be arranged into “words” that form instructions for making an organism Chromosomes: Organisms arrange the DNA into packages whose contents are neatly put together into structures that easily fit into the cell. Nucleotide: the rungs of the ladder in DNA (Made up of the 4 GCAT chemicals)
  • 111. z Human Chromosomes: Alzheimers may be linked to chromosome 14. ALS may be linked to chromosome 9. 47 chromosomes (an extra #21) causes Down ​Syndrome. 45X chromosomes (missing 1X ) causes Turner ​Syndrome. (females are under-developed).
  • 112. z Genes: An uninterrupted segment of DNA, which contains coded instructions responsible for the inheritance of an organism’s characteristic features Alleles: Possible 'forms' of a gene. (think of genes like light switches, and alleles as either on or off) Ex. Alleles for brown eyes or blue eyes.
  • 113. z
  • 114. z David Vetter, ​"bubble boy", lived ​for 12 years inside a ​plastic bubble. He ​has Severe ​Combined Immune ​Deficiency (SCID), ​a genetic disorder ​that made his body ​incapable of ​fighting diseases. ​The gene for SCID ​is found on the X ​chromosome. David died at age 13 after getting sick from a ​bone marrow transplant from his sister.
  • 115. z Mitosis: Mitosis : Mitosis is the name given to the reproduction of normal body cells in multicellular organisms. (It is very similar to the binary fission of bacteria.)
  • 116. z Mitosis: Steps: 1. DNA in the nucleus is doubled 2. Each set of DNA moves to the sides of the cell. 3. The cell begins to pinch off (cleavage) dividing into 2 identical daughter cells.
  • 117. z Meiosis: Meiosis : Meiosis is a special form of cell division that results in the formation of 4 unique gametes (sperm or eggs). Each gamete only has a half set of DNA.
  • 118. z Meiosis: Steps: 1.Like mitosis the DNA doubles 2. Similar pieces of DNA (chromosomes) pair up and exchange pieces. This is called crossing over and increases variation. 3. The cells divide once 4. The two new cells immediately divide a second time leaving 4 gamete cells with unique sets of DNA and only half as much DNA as the starting cell.
  • 120. z Patterns of Inheritance: Traits: Desired characteristics Hybrid: the result of crossing two purebred parents in order to achieve different traits. Purebred: plant/animal whose ancestors all have the same traits. Dominant Traits: a trait that dominates over all others, ex: black fur coat, brown eyes, dark hair. Recessive Traits: only seen when two non-dominant alleles are inherited, ex: white fur coat, blue eyes, blonde hair.
  • 121. z Punnett Square Ex.1 White Purebred Female, White Purebred Male W W W W W W W W W W W W 4/4 Recessive white
  • 122. z Punnett Square Ex.2 White Purebred Female, Black Purebred Male B B W W W B W B W B W B 4/4 Hybrid black
  • 123. z Punnett Square Ex.2 White Purebred Female, Black Purebred Male B B b b b B b B b B b B 4/4 Hybrid black
  • 124. z Punnett Square Ex.3 Black Hybrid Female, Black Hybrid Male B W B W B B W B B W W W 1/4 Dominant black 2/4 Hybrid black 1/4 Recessive white
  • 125. z Punnett Square Ex.3 Black Hybrid Female, Black Hybrid Male B b B b B B b B B b b b 1/4 Dominant black 2/4 Hybrid black 1/4 Recessive white
  • 126. z Patterns of Inheritance: Incomplete Dominance: occurs when both alleles ​play a part in determining the characteristics. Ex: Purebred snapdragon with red flowers crosses ​ with a purebred snapdragon with white flowers, produces hybrid offspring with pink flowers. *In truth, the inheritance of many characteristics may ​have many gene locations and several possible alleles. ​This explains why 2 blue-eyed parents can produce a ​brown-eyed offspring or why a person can have 2 ​different colored eyes!*
  • 127. z Practice Punnett Squares: 1. A purebred white (recessive) cow and a purebred brown (dominant) ​bull. 2. A hybrid brown (dominant) cow and a purebred white (recessive) ​bull. 3. A green-eyed (recessive) female and a brown-eyed (dominant) ​male. 4. A hybrid brown-eyed (dominant) female and a blue-eyed ​(recessive) male. 5. A purebred long-legged (dominant) fruit fly and a short-legged (recessive) fruit fly.
  • 129. zExtinct: Organisms that die out completely and do not ​exist anywhere. Ex: Dinosaurs Endangered: Organisms become very rare and are in ​serious danger of becoming extinct. Ex. Polar Bears/Pandas Threatened: Those species whose numbers are declining. A species at risk of extinction. Ex. Humpback Whale Extirpated: A species that no longer has any living members in a certain area or region. Ex. No timber wolves in USA Special Concern: Species that are particularly vulnerable to natural events or human activates ex. Amphibians like frogs
  • 130. z 2. What are the natural causes of extinction/extirpation? 1. Natural Disasters - Volcanic eruptions, Floods & Fires 2. Overspecialization – Having to narrow a niche. – Koalas only eat one type of plant 3. Lack of food – Due to draught or loss of habitat 4. Disease – Honey Bee Disease
  • 131. z
  • 132. z3. What are the human causes of Extinction/extirpation? 1. Habitat destruction 2. Introduction of non-native species (Bio-invasion) 3. Over hunting 4. What are the effects of extinction and extirpation? Why should we be concerned? Extinctions and extirpations reduce biological diversity. Extinctions reduce the number of species on the planet. Extirpations reduce biological diversity in areas from which the organism has disappeared. It is important to maintain species diversity
  • 133. z 5. What is artificial selection and biotechnology? a) Artificial selection: Humans selecting desirable traits and breeding to maintain or enhance them. Humans have practiced artificial selection since we first began to farm about 10 000 years ago. After so many generations of artificial selection, most of our plants no longer resemble the wild species from which they were bred. b) Biotechnology: Technology humans use for artificial selection and selective breeding. For instance, livestock breeders have to breed cows over many generations to get a whole herd that produces large quantities of milk. Scientists and breeders have, therefore, developed technologies that can speed up this process. These technologies can range from “low tech” to extremely “high tech.”
  • 134. z6. What are the 4 forms of biotechnology with examples? 1. Cloning plants – Using a cutting from a plant and growing an identical plant from the cutting or using cells in a petri dish to create a clone 2. Artificial insemination – Taking sperm from a bull and planting it in a female 3. In vitro fertilization – Taking both sperm and eggs and combining them in a petri dish 4. Genetic engineering – Changing the genes of a species (glowing genes)
  • 135. z
  • 136. z
  • 137. z7. What are the risks of biotechnology or artificial selection? a) In Animals: Reduced genetic variation & risk of disease b) In Plants: Risk of cross pollinating weeds that would be resistant to herbicides
  • 138. z 8. What are the 5 ways of conserving biodiversity? Give an explanation and example of each. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each way of conservation? 1. Protected areas – In-situ conservation – Banff national park Advantage: allow organisms to live relatively undisturbed in their natural habitats. Disadvantage: It takes work and cooperation from the government as well as money 2. Restoration of ecosystems & species- In-situ conservation – replanting forests Advantage: allow organisms to live relatively undisturbed in their natural habitats. Disadvantage: It takes work, manpower (Volunteer groups, private landowners etc.) as well as money 3. Federal & provincial laws to protect species & natural areas. (parks & wetlands) – no hunting laws Advantage: prevent species in Canada from becoming extinct as a consequence of human activity. Disadvantage: It takes work and cooperation from the government
  • 139. z8. What are the 5 ways of conserving biodiversity? Give an explanation and example of each. What are the advantages and disadvantages of each way of conservation? 4. Controlling the spread of exotic species – purple loosestrife Advantage: keeps natural order of an ecosystem and keeps diversity alive in an ecosystem Disadvantage: It takes work and cooperation from the government or other group if bio invasion does occur 5. Conserving genetic resources (like seed storage) - Ex-situ conservation / Conservations in zoos Advantage: chance of survival for some endangered species and plays an important role in conserving economically valuable genetic resources for forest, aquatic, and agricultural purposes. Disadvantage: This is a huge task since some scientists estimate that there are as many as 10 million different species in the world.