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YCB LEVEL-
3
UNIT- 1
Foundation of Yoga
CONTENT
• Etymology and Definitions of Yoga (Patanjala Yoga Sutra, Bhagwad Gita,
Kathopanishad).
• Brief Introduction to origin, history and development of Yoga (Pre- Vedic
period contemporary times). to
• Yoga in Principle Upanishads
• Yoga tradition in Jainism: Syadvada (theory of seven fold predictions);
Concept of Kayotsarga or Preksha meditation)
• Yoga Tradition in Buddhism: concept of Aryasatyas (four noble truths).
• Salient features and branches of Bharatiya Darshana (Astika and Nastika
Darshana).
• General introduction to Shad Darshana with special emphasis on
Samkhya, Yoga and Vedanta Darshana.
• Brief survey of Yoga in Modem and Contemporary Times (Shri
Ramakrishna, Shri Aurobindo, Maharishi Raman, Swami Vivekananda,
Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Swami Shivananda, Paramhansa Madhava Das
ji, Yogacharya Shri T. Krishnamacharya).
• Guiding principles to be followed by the practioner
• Brief introduction to Schools of Yoga; Jnana, Bhakti, Karma, Raja &
Hatha.
• Principles and Practices of Jnana Yoga
UNIT-1
CONTENT
• Principles and Practices of Bhakti Yoga.
• Principles and Practices of Karma Yoga.
• Concept and Principles of Sukshma Vyayama, Sthula Vyayama,
Surya Namaskars and their significance in Yoga Sadhana
• Concept and Principles of Shatkarma: Meaning, Types, Principles
and their significance in Yoga Sadhana.
• Concept and Principles of Yogasana: Meaning, definition, types
and their significance in Yoga Sadhana.
• Concept and Principles of Pranayama: Meaning, definition, types
and their significance in Yoga Sadhana.
• Introduction to Bandha & Mudra and their health benefits.
• Introduction to Yogic relaxation techniques with special reference
to Yoga Nidra.
• Introduction to Dhyana and its role in health and well being.
UNIT-1
Etymology of Yoga
 योग शब्द मूल शब्द "युज्" से बना है जजसका अर्थ है जोड़ना।
 पाजिनीय संस्क
ृ त व्याकरि क
े अनुसार तीन 'युज' धातु हैं। (Ganapatha)
1. 'युज् समाधौ’ (समाजध)
2. 'युजजर योगे’ [दो वस्तुओं या दो तत्त्ों को जमलाना या उनका जमलन योग है। जीवात्मा को परमात्मा
से जमलाना योग है।]
3. 'युज्-संयमने’ (संयमन या संयजमत) मन तर्ा इन्द्रियों का संयजमत कर लेना ही इसका तात्पयथ है।
Definitions of Yoga
योगश्चित्तवृश्चत्त श्चिरोधः।“- Patanjala Yoga Sutra – 1.2
जित्त की वृजत्तयों का जनरोध योग कहलाता है।
योगस्र्ः क
ु रु कमाथजि सङ्ग त्यक्त्वा धनञ्जय।
जसद्धयजसद्धयोः समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते ।। - Bhagavad Gita – 2.48 2/48
अर्ाथत् हे धनञ्जय। तू आसन्द्रि को त्यागकर तर्ा जसन्द्रद्ध और अजसन्द्रद्ध में समान बुन्द्रद्ध वाला होकर
योग में न्द्रस्र्त हुआ कतथव्य कमों को कर, क्ोंजक समत्व ही योग कहलाता है।
बुन्द्रद्धयुिोजहातीह उभे सुक
ृ तवुष्क
ृ ते।
तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योगः कमथसु कौशलम् । - Bhagavad Gita – 2.50 2/50
अर्ाथत् समबुन्द्रद्धयुि पुरुष पुण्य और पाप दोनों को इसी लोक में त्याग देता है अर्ाथत् उनसे मुि हो जाता है।
इससे तू समत्वरूप योग में लग जा. यह समत्व रूपयोग ही कमों में क
ु शलता है अर्ाथत् कमथबन्धन से छ
ू टने का
उपाय है।
Definitions of Yoga
तां योगजमजत मन्यन्ते न्द्रस्र्राजमियः धारिम् । - Katha Upanishad – 2.3.11
इन्द्रियों की न्द्रस्र्र धारिा योग की अवस्र्ा है।
 तं जवद्याद् दुःखसंयोगजवयोगं योगसंजितम्।
स जनश्चयेन योिव्यो योगोऽजनजवथण्णिेतसा।।- Bhagavad Gita – 6.23
जो दुःख रूप संसार क
े संयोग से रजहत है तर्ा जजसका नाम योग है, उसको जानना िाजहए। वह योग न
उकताए हुए अर्ाथत् धैयथ और उत्साहयुि जित्त से जनश्चयपूवथक करना कत्तथव्य है।
युिाहारजवहारस्य युििेष्टस्य कमथसु ।
युिस्वप्नावबोधस्य योगो भवजत दुःखहा ॥ - Bhagavad Gita – 6.17
लेजकन जो आहार और आमोद-प्रमोद को संयजमत रखते हैं, कमथ को संतुजलत रखते हैं और जनद्रा पर
जनयंत्रि रखते हैं, वे योग का अभ्यास कर अपने दुखों को कम कर सकते हैं।
Origin of Yoga
नार् परम्परा -आजदनार् जशव
श्रुजत और स्मृजत ग्रन्ों में :- जहरण्यगभथ
1. यािवल्क्य स्मृजत - जहरण्यगभो योगस्य विा नान्यः पुरातनः| 12/5
2. महाभारत - सांख्यस्य विा कजपलः परमजषथः स उच्यते |
जहरण्यगभो योगस्य विा नान्यः पुरातनः|| 12/349/65||
{ऋग्वेद, ‘अद् भुत रामायि' -'जहरण्यगभो जगदन्तरात्मा |’(ब्रह्मा )}
3. 'जहरण्यगभो समवतथताग्रे भूतस्य जातः पजतरेक आसीत्।
सदाधारपृथ्ीः द्यामुतेमां कस्मै देवाय हजवशा जवधेम ॥ - ऋग्वेद – 10.121.1
सवथप्रर्म जहरण्यगभथ ही उत्पन्न हुए, जो सम्पूिथ जवश्व क
े एक मात्र स्वामी हैं, जजन्होोंने
अन्तररक्ष, स्वगथ व पृथ्ी सबको धारि जकया अर्ाथत् उपयुि स्र्ान पर न्द्रस्र्र जकया, उन
प्रजापजत देव का हवन द्वारा पूजन करते हैं। इसी प्रकार का विथन 'अद् भुत रामायि' में जकया है।
History of Yoga
जवश्व क
े प्रािीनतम् साजहत्य वेद में सवथप्रर्म योग का संक
े त जमलता है।
क
ु छ जवद्वानों की मान्यता है जक योग सैन्धव (जसन्धु घाटी सभ्यता) की देन
है|
योग का उद्गम वेदों की रिना से पूवथ ही हुआ।
अतः यही कहना उजित होगा जक सृजष्ट क
े आरम्भ से ही योग जवद्या
जवद्यमान र्ी।
Development of Yoga
योग क
े ऐजतहाजसक जवकास को हम पााँि खण्ों में जवभाजजत कर सकते हैं-
(1) Pre-Vedic period – 2700 - 1500 BC
(2) Vedic period – 1500- 500 BC
(3) Classical Period – 500 BC – 800 AD
(4) Post-classical Period – 800-1700AD
(5) Modern Period – 1800 AD Onwards
2700-1500 BC
Pre-Vedic Period
1500-500 BC
Vedic Period
500 BC-800 AD
Classical Period
800-1700 AD
Post-classical
Period
1800 Onwards
Modern Period
Development of Yoga
PRE-VEDIC PERIOD
• Indus valley civilization (जसन्धु घाटी सभ्यता)
• योग जसन्धु घाटी सभ्यता से प्रारम्भ हुआ है। जसन्धु घाटी सभ्यता क
े अनेक जीवाश्म
अवशेष एवं मुहरें भारत में योग की मौजूदगी क
े संक
े त देती हैं। मोहनजोदड़ो में भी
क
ु छ नर देवी-देवताओं की योगमुद्रा में बैठी हुई मूजतथयााँ प्राप्त हुई हैं, जजससे यह जसद्ध
होता है जक जसन्धु घाटी क
े लोग यौजगक जविारधारा से भजलभााँजत पररजित र्े।
Development of Yoga
VEDIC PERIOD
• वेदों क
े प्रकट्य- Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva Ved
• Jnana Kanda, Upasana and Karma Kanda practices
• Jnana Yoga and Karma Yoga
Development of Yoga
 CLASSICAL PERIOD
• Various beliefs originated
• Patanjala Yog Sutra
• Ashtanga Yoga
Development of Yoga
 POST CLASSICAL PERIOD
• Adi Shankaracharya, Madhavacharya, Ramanujacharya
• Bhashya
• Tantra Yoga
• Hatha Yoga
• Bhakti Yoga
• Sudras, Tulsidas and Meera bai
Development of Yoga
MODERN PERIOD
• Swami Vivekananda
• Babaji Maharaj, Shyamacharan Lahiri, Yukteshwar Giri, Swami Yogananda – Kriya Yoga
• Swami Kuvalyanand ji - Kaivalyadhama
• T Krishnamacharya- Father of modern Yoga
• Swami Sivananda- Divine Life Society
• BKS Iyengar – Iyengar Yoga
• Shri K Pattabhis Jois – Ashtanga Vinyasa
• Swami Ramdevji – Patanjali Yog Pitha
• Swami Satyanada Saraswati- Bihar School of Yoga
• Sri Ravi Shankar – Art of Living
• Dr. H R Nagendra – S-VYASA
Yoga in Principle Upanishads
• 'वेदोऽन्द्रखलो धमथमूलम्’- मनुस्मृजत
• सावथभौजमक, सावथकाजलक, शब्द प्रमाि, अपौरुषेय
• Vid dhatu which means to know
• Ved -1. ऋग्वेद 2. यजुवेद 3. सामवेद 4. अथवववेद। (Krishna Dwaipayana)
• Divides into four parts-
1. Samhita (Mantras)
2. Brahman (mantras for yajnas, rituals)
3. Aranyaka (mantras for sadhana)
4. Upanishad (jnana 108)
• Mukhya Upanishad- Isha, Kena, Katha, Prashna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya
Brihadaranyaka
Yoga in Principle Upanishads
• उपजनषद् शब्द 'उप' और 'जन' उपसगथ पूवथक, षद् लृ प्रत्यय लगाकर जनष्पन्न है। उप, जन और षद् लृ का अर्थ क्रमशः समीप,
जनश्चयपूवथक तर्ा बैठना है। अतः उपजनषद् का अर्थ है गुरु क
े समीप जवनम्रतापूवथक बैठकर िान की प्रान्द्रप्त करना।
• दू सरे शब्दों में 'उप' 'जन' इन दो उपसगों क
े सार् 'सद् ' धातु से न्द्रिप् प्रत्यय क
े प्रयोग से 'उपजनषद् शब्द बना है। 'सद् ' धातु
क
े तीन अर्थ मान्य हैं- (१) जवशरि (२) गजत (िान और प्रान्द्रप्त) (३) अवसादन (जशजर्ल करना), इस आधार पर उपजनषद् का
अर्थ हुआ- “जो पाप-ताप का नाश करे, सच्चा िान प्रदान करे, आत्मा की प्रान्द्रप्त कराए और अिान अजवद्या को जशजर्ल करे,
वह उपजनषद् है।”
• वैजदक साजहत्य क
े अन्त में रिे जाने क
े कारि इन्होें वेदान्त भी कहा गया है।
• उपजनषदों का महत्त्पूिथ जसद्धान्त एवं प्रजतपाद्य जवषय जनम्नजलन्द्रखत हैं-
1. ब्रह्म का स्वरूप।
2. कमथ जसद्धान्त और पुनजथन्म
3. कमों की उपयोजगता
4. मोक्षप्रान्द्रप्त क
े साधन
5. नैजतकता।
Yoga in Principle Upanishads
• Also known as jnana kanda of Vedas
• Smallest Upanishad – Mandukya Upanishad (12 mantra)
• Largest Upanishad – Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (450 mantras)
• Mahavakya- the great sayings (summarises the Upanishads)
1. ॐ प्रज्ञािं ब्रह्म:। ऋग्वेद की ऐतरेय उपजनषद में कहा गया है । “प्रिान ब्रह्म है”।
2. ॐ अहं ब्रह्मास्मि:।यजुवेद की बृहदारण्यक उपजनषद में यह वाक् है ।“मैं ब्रह्म हाँ”।
3. ॐ तत्त्वमश्चस:। सामवेद की छान्दोग्य उपजनषद में यह वाक् है । “तू वह ब्रह्म है”।
4. ॐ अयमात्मा ब्रह्म:। अर्वथवेद की माण्
ू क् उपजनषद में यह वाक् है। “यह आत्मा ब्रह्म है”।
Yoga in Principle Upanishads
UPANISHAD VEDA OUTLINE
ISHA SHUKLA YAJURVEDA 18 SHLOKA
KENA/ TALVAKAR SAMA VEDA 4 khanda (8,5 shlokas; 12,9
prose)
KATHA KRISHNA YAJURVEDA 2 chapters, each divided into 3
valli
PRASHNA ATHARVA VEDA 6 questions each is a chapter
MUNDAKA ATHARVA VEDA 3 chapters each divides in 2
sections
MANDUKYA ATHARVA VEDA 12 shlokas
AITREYA RIG VEDA 3 CHAPTERS
CHANDOGYA SAMA VEDA 8 CHAPTERS
TATTIRYA YAJURVEDA Shiksha, Brahmananda, Bhrigu
valli
BRIHADARANYAK SHUKLA YAJURVEDA 6 chapters
Yoga in Principle Upanishads
• ISHA UPANISHAD – Concept of vidya and avidya (jnana and karma)
• KENA UPANISHAD – Story of Yaksha (concept of atman, brahman, mind)
• KATHA UPANISHAD – Vajashrava, Nachiketa and Yama
3 boons to Nachiketa (father shouldn’t be angry, how to perform
yajna, what happens after death)
• PRASHNA UPANISHAD- Rishi Pipplada and 6 disciples (Kabandhin, Bhargava, Kausalya,
Gargya, Satyakama, Bharadwaj)
Yoga in Principle Upanishads
• MUNDAKA UPANISHAD – Para and Apara knowledge, “What is one thing by knowing which
everything becomes known?”; Concept of brahma and to ways to attain Brahma
• MANDUKYA UPANISHAD – OM; Jagrat, Swapna, Susupti, Turiya
• AITREYA UPANISHAD – process of creation (Atman, Lokas, Guardian’s, humans, food)
• TAITTRRIYA UPANISHAD – Story of Bhrigu and Varuna, Pancha Kosha theory, Ananada Mimamsa
• CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD- different techniques of meditation and Udgitha
• BRIHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD- Process of bondage and liberation, Brahman
Yoga in Principle Upanishads
Isha Vasya Upanishad (18 shlokas)
 Shukla Yajur Ved
 Name derived from 1st mantra of Upanishad
 Concept of karma (100 years- vairagya –जवजहत कमथ – Karma Bandhan Mukti)
Concept of jnana ( Atma Swarup jnana and prakriti jnana)
 Vidya (jnana) and Avidya (Karma) Upasana
 Importance of following both karma and jnana simultaneously - Amartava
 Asambhuti (Vyakt brahma) and Asambhuti (Avyakt brahma) {Bhakti}
 Importance of following Asambhuti (mrityu Vijay) and Asambhuti (Amartava)
Yoga in Principle Upanishads
 KENA UPANISHAD
 Sama Veda (तलवकार ब्राह्मि)
 Name derived from 1st mantra of the Upanishad
 Also named as Talavakara Upanishad (Talavakara Brahman)
 Structure- 1st Khenda – 8 verses (gadhya)
2nd Khenda – 5 verses
3rd Khenda – 12 proses
4th Khenda – 9 proses (padya)
Yoga in Principle Upanishads
पहले दो खण्ो मे सवाथजधष्ठान परब्रह्म क
े पारमाजर्थक स्वरूप का लक्षिा से जनदेश करते हुए परमार्थ िान की
अजनवथिनीयता तर्ा िेय क
े सार् उसका अभेद प्रदजशथत जकया है। इसक
े पश्चात् तीसरे और िौर्े खण् मे
यक्षोपाख्यान द्वारा भगवान्का सवथप्रेरकत्व (omnipotence) और सवथकतृथत्व जदखलाया गया है|
 Brahma Vidya
 Story of Yaksha and devas
 Ego sense and doer concept
 Uma
Yoga tradition in Jainism
• जजन् = जवजेता, - conquerors over inner enemies
• 24 Tirthankaras
• 1st- Rishabhdev
• 24th- Mahavira
'मुक्खेन जोयिाओ जोगो’ (योजगजबंशका)
अर्ाथत् जजन-जजन साधनों से आत्मा की
शुन्द्रद्ध और मोक्ष होता है|
'यतः सजमजतगुन्द्रप्तनां प्रपंिो योग उत्तमः।’
- द्वाजत्रंशका
अर्ाथत् मन, विन, शरीर आजद को की
संयत करने वाला धमथ व्यापार ही योग है।
Yoga tradition in Jainism
पञ्च महाव्रत योग साधना क
े जलए जैन मत मे पञ्चमहाव्रतों का विथन
जकया गया है-
1. अजहंसा,2. सत्य,3. अस्तेय,4. ब्रह्मियथ, 5. अपररग्रह’
इनक
े अजतररि जैन दशथन में दस धमों कापालन भी बताया गया है।
उत्तम क्षमा, उत्तम मादथव, उत्तम आजथव,
उत्तम शौि, उत्तम सत्य, उत्तम संयम,
उत्तम तप, उत्तम त्याग, उत्तम आजक
ं िन्य,
उत्तम ब्रह्मियथ
 Nirjara
Jivan and Videh Mukti
Syadvada
• Syadvada or the Theory that Every Judgment is Relative.
• Every judgment expresses one aspect of reality and is therefore
relative and subject to some condition .
• Every judgment should be qualified by some word like 'some-how'
(syat), expressing conditionality.
• सप्तभंगीनय :- सप्त seven, भंग= types नय= judgment :
1. स्याद् अन्द्रस्त -in some ways , it is,
2. स्याद नान्द्रस्त -in some ways, it is not,
3. स्याद अन्द्रस्त नान्द्रस्त-in some ways, it is, and it is not,
Syadvada
4. स्याद अविव्यम् -in some it is indescribable.
5. स्याद अन्द्रस्त अविव्यम् -in some ways, it is, and it is
indescribable,
6. स्याद नान्द्रस्त अविव्यम् -in some ways, it is not, and it is
indescribable,
7. स्याद अन्द्रस्त नान्द्रस्त अविव्यम् -in some ways, it is, it is not, and it
is indescribable,
Preksha Meditation
• Ancient Jain meditation practice
• श्वेताश्तर तेरापंर्ी जैनािायथ श्रीतुलसी जी
• 'प्रेक्षा' शब्द ईक्ष् धातु से बना है, जजसका अर्थ है- देखना। प्र+ईक्षा = प्रेक्षा । याजन गहराई से देखना।
• STEPS-
1. ध्यान का पहला िरि कायोत्सगथ या शवासन
i. शरीर का जशजर्लीकरि।
ii. शरीर क
े प्रत्येक अवयव क
े प्रजत जागरुकता।
iii. शरीर क
े प्रजत ममत्व अर्वा आसन्द्रि का जवसजथन करें।
iv. जित्त को पैर से जसर तक क्रमशः घुमाना।
v. पूरे भागों में जित्त की यात्रा करें।
2. ध्यान का दू सरा िरि अन्तयाथत्रा - अन्तयाथत्रा की इस जवजध में जित्त को शन्द्रि-क
े ि से क्रमशः प्रत्येक िैतन्य-
क
े ि की यात्रा करते हुए पुनः शन्द्रि क
े ि पर लाने का अभ्यास जकया जाता है।
3. ध्यान का तीसरा िरि - श्वास प्रेक्षा - अपनी आती-जाती सांसों को 'देखने' की साधना।
Preksha Meditation
4 िौर्ा िरि - शरीर प्रेक्षा - आाँखें बन्द कर मानस िक्षु से शरीर क
े जवजभन्न अंगों को देखने की साधना।
5 ध्यान का पााँिवााँ िरि - िैतन्य क
े ि प्रेक्षा - अपनी िेतना क
े स्रोत और उसक
े क
े ि को देखने की
साधना। इसमें जित्त को ललाट क
े मध्य भाग में ज्योजत क
े ि पर क
े न्द्रित कर, वहााँ पर िमकते हुए श्वेत
रंग का ध्यान जकया जाता है।
6 ध्यान का छटवााँ िरि - लेश्या ध्यान - शरीर और मानस क
े आभा मंडल क
े रंगों को देखने की साधना।
7 ध्यान का सातवााँ िरि – अनुप्रेक्षा - स्वभाव पररवतथन क
े जलए संकल्प लेना और उन संकल्पों को 'देखने’
की साधना।
8. भावना या समापन -आखरी स्टेप है भावनाओं का अवलोकन करना। जो भी संकल्प क
े बीज आपने
डाले, उसक
े पूरा होने की कल्पना से आपक
े मन में क
ै सी भावना उत्पन्न होती है उसका अवलोकन करें।
उस भावनाओं को इतनी गहराइयों में देखें जक ध्यान क
े बाद भी वह आपको सत्य ही लगे।
Yoga Tradition in Buddhism
• Lord Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama)
• Nastik darshan
• Nirvana (moksha)
• Araya Satya-
1. सवथदुःखम् - संसार दुःखमय है। (मृत्यु जरा व्याजध)
2. दुःख समुदय - दुःखों का कारि है। { द्वादश जनदान - अजवद्या (ignorance)संस्कार (impression) जविान
(consciousness) नामरूप (mind body organism) षडायतन (six sense organs) स्पशथ (sense Contact )
वेदना (sense experience) तृष्णा (craving) उपादान (mental clinging) भव (the will to be born) जाजत
(rebirth) जरा-मरि (suffering)}
3. दुःख जनरोधः - दुःखों से मुन्द्रि पाई जा सकती है। (Renunciation of Tanah or Trishna)
4. दुःख जनरोधगामी प्रजतपर् - “दुःख से मुन्द्रि का मागथ”। (Arya Ashtangik marg)
Yoga Tradition in Buddhism
• Yama and Niyama- अजहंसा, अपररग्रह, ब्रह्मियथ, सत्य, धमथ में श्रद्धा, दोपहर क
े बाद का भोजन जनषेध, सुखप्रद
शय्या तर्ा आसन का पररत्याग, जवलास से जवरन्द्रि, सुगंजधत द्रव्यों का जनषेध तर्ा स्विथ या िााँदी आजद मूल्यवान
वस्तुओं को अस्वीकार करना।
• बौद्ध साधना क
े आठ मागव जनम्न हैं-
1. सम्यक
् दृजष्ट 2. सम्यक
् संकल्प 3. सम्यक
् वाक
् 4. सम्यक
् कमथ
5. सम्यक
् आजीव 6. सम्यक
् व्यायाम 7. सम्यक
् स्मृजत 8. सम्यक
् समाजध
• 'श्चिक्षात्रय’-
शील - अर्ाथत् शारीररक मानजसक शुन्द्रद्ध।
समाजध - अर्ाथत् जित्त की एकाग्रता ।
प्रिा अर्ाथत् परम िान।
Yoga Tradition in Buddhism
Salient features of Bharatiya Darshana
• दृि् means to see
• दृश्यते अिेि इश्चत दिविम्|
• Salient features-
1. All systems accept the views of the great world rhythm: - Creation/ Maintenance/ Dissolution - they follow each
other.
2. Transcendental consciousness of Self (Intuition, Revelation, Cosmic Realization of Eternal Truths Spiritual
orientation.
3. Naturalness of life
4. Practices of Yoga/Meditation/Salvation/Moksha.
5. Intellectualism/Wisdom/Discussion/ Debates
6. Faith in the past action (Karma), God (Surrender to God), Rebirth
7. Ignorance as the root cause of suffering
8. Philosophy as a Practical Necessity
9. Belief in an Eternal moral order
10. Liberation as the ultimate goal of life
Branches of Bharatiya Darshana
Ethics – Achar Mimamsa
Aesthetics - Saundrayshashtra
Branches of Bharatiya Darshana
PRAMANA
General introduction to Shad Darshana
Samkhya Darshan
General introduction to Shad Darshana
General introduction to Shad Darshana
General introduction to Shad Darshana
General introduction to Shad Darshana
Purva Mimamsa
General introduction to Shad Darshana
Uttar Mimamsa
Charvaka Darshan
A brief survey of Yoga in Modem and
Contemporary Times
• Shri Ramakrishna
• Shri Aurobindo
• Maharishi Raman
• Swami Vivekananda
• Swami Dayananda Saraswati
• Swami Shivananda
• Paramhansa Madhava Das ji
• Yogacharya Shri T. Krishnamacharya
Shri Ramakrishna
 Gadhadhar (Vishnu Avtar)
Date of Birth: February 18, 1836
Place of Birth: Kamarpukur village, Hooghly District, West Bengal
Parents: Khudiram Chattopadhyay (Father) and Chandramani Devi (Mother)
Wife: Sarada Moni Devi
Philosophy: Advaita Vedanta
Death: 16, August, 1886
Place of Death: Cossipore, Calcutta
Shri Ramakrishna
Before birth
Khudiram Chattopadhyay – Honest and spiritual
The divine vision of Vishnu in his dream
 Early life
inclination towards spirituality, mythological stories and nature
Trance or ecstasy
Father death – 1843
1859- married to Sharda Maa (5 years)
Ramkumar’s death
Shri Ramakrishna
Teachers –
Bhairavi Brahmi – Tantra Sadhana
Guru Jatadhari – Vishnu Bhakti
Totapuri – Advaita Vedanta
 Exploring different religions
Christianity
Islam
Vaishnav Bhakti
Shakto
Shri Ramakrishna
Disciple –
1. Swami Vivekananda (1897- Ram Krishna Ashram )
1885 – Throat cancer – 16 August 1886 death at Cossipore Garden house
 Teachings –
1. Philosophies through stories
2. Advaita Vedanta
3. Different religions as different paths to the one and only god.
4. Equality (Eating at Shudras)
5. Seeing the divine in all
Shri Aurobindo
Date of Birth: 15 August 1872
Place of Birth: West Bengal
Parents: Krishan Dhan Ghose (Father) and Swarnalata Devi (Mother)
Wife: Mrinalini Devi (1901)
Philosophy: Integral Yoga
Death: 5 December 1950
Place of Death:
 Early Life –
Father – Surgeon (believed in Western culture)
Early education in an Irish-run school in Darjeeling
Education in England
Shri Aurobindo
 Occupations
• 1893 – Revenue department and secretariate work for Sayajirao
Maharaja
• Professor of English for 13 years
• The vice principal at Baroda College
• Vande Mataram – newspaper (Bande Mataram' was an English newspaper
edited by Sri Aurobindo. Sri Aurobindo’s first preoccupation was to declare openly for
complete and absolute independence as the aim of political action in India.)
Shri Aurobindo
 1904 – started yoga practice
 1908 – Vishnu Bhaskar Lele – teacher – taught meditation for 30 days
 1905-1908 – Openly worked as a political leader
 1908-1909 – Alipore Jail – Practiced yoga and read Indian scriptures in Jail
 1910 – took retirement – went to Pondicherry
 1914- “The Arya” the monthly journal, wrote on Upanishads, divine life,
Bhagavad Gita, Synthesis of Yoga
 1926 – Sri Aurobindo Ashram
Shri Aurobindo
 Integral Yoga
• The synthesis of yoga, as conceptualized by Sri Aurobindo, refers to the integration and harmonization
of various paths, practices, and approaches to yoga to achieve a comprehensive and integral
transformation of the individual's consciousness.
• Sri Aurobindo's vision of yoga transcends traditional approaches that focus solely on specific aspects
of spiritual or personal development and seeks to embrace the entirety of human experience in its
journey toward higher states of consciousness and realization of the divine.
• Integral yoga, often synonymous with the synthesis of yoga, encompasses a holistic approach to
spiritual evolution that integrates the physical, vital, mental, and spiritual dimensions of the individual.
• In integral yoga, practitioners are encouraged to embrace all aspects of their being—physical, vital,
mental, and spiritual—and integrate them harmoniously in their quest for self-realization and union with
the divine. Sri Aurobindo emphasized the importance of inner growth, transformation, and the evolution
of consciousness as the ultimate goal of integral yoga, leading to a life lived in harmony, unity, and
divine fulfillment.
Maharishi Raman
 Venkatraman Iyer
Date of Birth: 30 December 1879
Place of Birth: Tiruchuli, Madurai, Tamil Nadu
Parents: Sundaram Iyer (Father) and Azhagammal (Mother)
Philosophy: Self-inquiry- Who am I?
Death: 14 April 1950
Place of Death: Sri Ramana Ashram, Tiruvannamalai, India
Maharishi Raman
 Father’s paternal uncle and father’s brother took
sannyasa
 12 age – meditative experience due to incomplete
practice from the last birth
 deep sleep
 Early schooling at village – Dindigul with uncle –
Madurai
 At the age of 16 – a sudden intense fear of death made him
realize the true nature of self
Maharishi Raman
1896 left for Arunachala mountains
 Attained salvation and started teaching and gained
many disciples
1922 – Mother died and settled near her samadhi – Sri
Ramana Ashrama
 1949 – Cancerous lump in the arm (2 surgeries)
 14 April 1950 – died and a shooting star was seen
Swami Vivekananda
 Narendra Natha Datta
Date of Birth: 12 January 1863
Place of Birth: Calcutta, West Bengal
Parents: Vishwanath Dutta (Father) and Bhuvaneswari Devi (Mother)
Philosophy: Advaita Vedanta, Sanatana Dharma
Death: 4 July 1902
Place of Death: Belur Math, Bengal
Swami Vivekananda
sharp intellect
 Variety of interests - sports, gymnastics, wrestling, and bodybuilding
Brahmo Samaj- against the multiple existence of god, idol worshiping
 “Have you seen God?” – Ramakrishna Paramahamsa
 In 1884, Naredranath underwent considerable financial distress due to
the death of his father – help from Ramakrishna Paramahamsa – Kali
maa darshan – Vivek and Vairagya
1886 and went on a tour of India on foot
Swami Vivekananda
 1892 – 3 Days long meditation at Kanyakumari rock memorial
World Parliament of Religions being held in Chicago, America in 11
September 1893 (Maharaja Ajit Singh)
 Vedanta Society of New York in 1894
 Ramakrishna Mission on May 1, 1897, at Belur Math near Calcutta.
Second visit to the West (1899–1902) - Vedanta Societies in San Francisco
and New York and Shanti Ashrama in California.
 Introduction of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world
 Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose once said: "Swamiji harmonized the
East and the West, religion and science, past and present.
Swami Dayananda Saraswati
 Mul Shankar
Date of Birth: February 12, 1824
Place of Birth: Tankara, Gujarat
Parents: Karshanji Lalji Tiwari (Father) and Yashodabai (Mother)
Movement: Arya Samaj, Shuddhi Movement, Back to the Vedas
Religious Views: Hinduism, Advaita Vedanta
Death: October 30, 1883
Place of death: Ajmer, Rajasthan
Swami Dayananda Saraswati
• Rituals
• 2 incidents – rat eating Prashad and death of sister and uncle
• At the age of 16 left the home – Himalayas – Yogic practice
• Guru- Shri Virajananda Dandeesha
• Promise to restore the rightful place of Vedas
• Arya Samaj and Satyartha Prakash
• Brought unity in different sects of Hinduism
• Against everything which was against Vedas and Dharma
• 1883 – Maharaja of Jodhpur and Nanhi Jaan – poison
• 30 October 1883- death
Swami Shivananda
 Kuppuswamy
Date of Birth: 8 September 1887
Place of Birth: Pattamadai, Tamil Nadu
Parents: Sri P S Vengu Iyer (Father) and Srimati Parvati Ammal
(Mother)
Death: 14 July 1963
Place of Death: Sivananda Ashram, Muni ki Reti
Swami Shivananda
Intelligent and compassionate
 Medical School in Tanjore
 Practiced at Tiruchi
 The Ambrosia – Medical Journal
 Malaysia
1923 – returned India
 Renunciation after coming to India – went to Rishikesh
Swami Shivananda
Swami Visvananada Saraswati – Guru --- Sannyasa
 Divine Life Society – 1936
 Sivananda Ayurvedic Pharmacy – 1945
 Sivananda Yoga – Yoga of Synthesis – development of hand,
head, and heart through the practice of Karma, Jnana, Raja,
and Bhakti Yoga.
 Wrote more than 200 books on metaphysics, Vedanta, Yoga
and Psychology
Paramhansa Madhava Das ji
Date of Birth: 1798 (not much proof)
Place of Birth: Bengal
Death: 1921 (123)
Place of Death: Malsar, Gujrat
Clerk in Judicial department
 left home at the age of 23
He was influenced by Chaitanya Maha Prabhu and the Order of
Vaishnavism before becoming a follower of Bhakti.
 Travelled all over India in pursuit of learning Hatha Yoga
 Practiced Yoga in the Himalayas for years
Paramhansa Madhava Das ji
 At the age of 80 settled near the Narmada River, Malsar, Gujrat
 Started teaching Yoga
 Sri Yogendra ji – The Yoga Institute – 1918
 Sri Kuvalyananda ji – Kaivalyadhama Health and Yoga Research
Center – 1924
 Revival of yogic practices
Shri T. Krishnamacharya
Date of Birth: 18 November 1888
Place of Birth: Chitra Durga, Karnataka
Parents: Sri Tirumalai Srinivasa Tatacharya (Father) and Shrimati Ranganayakiamma (Mother)
Wife: Namagiriamma
Death: 28 February 1989
Place of Death: Chennai
 Father was the teacher of Vedas
 well versed in Shad-darshan, Yog Sutra, Sanskrit Grammar, and Ayurveda
 Rammohan Brahmachari – Yog Guru
Shri T. Krishnamacharya
 The path of Yoga is different for different people (absolutely unique)
 K Pattabhi Jois – Ashtanga Vinyasa
 B K S Iyengar – Iyengar Yoga
 T K V Desikachar – Viniyoga – Krishnamacharya Yog Mnadiram - 1976
 Books- Yog Makaranada, Yog Rahasya, Yog Valli, Yogaasanagalu
 At the age of 96 – hip fracture
 Father of Modern Yoga
 28 February 1989
Guiding principles to be followed by the practioner
• General principles are established in yogic practices to provide a framework for practitioners to
follow, ensuring that they derive maximum benefit from their practice while minimizing the risk of
injury or harm. These principles serve as guiding principles that promote safety, effectiveness,
and spiritual growth in yoga.
• Division of guiding principles:-
1. Before of practice
2. During practice
3. After practice
Guiding principles to be followed by the practitioner
• The place of practice should be cleaned. Yoga
should be performed in a quiet and calm
atmosphere.
• Yogic practices should be performed on an
empty/light stomach. It's mostly because, on a
heavy stomach, one would not be able to
twist/bend comfortably. If you have just eaten, the
internal organs especially the stomach will be
engaged in digesting the food while feeling the
pressure of the twisting /turning of asanas. The
practitioner would not be able to utilize the
practice time effectively.
• The bladder and bowels should be emptied.
• A mat or a folded blanket should be used. Don't
practice on uneven surfaces.
• Light and comfortable (preferably cotton) clothes
should be worn. Wear a shirt / T-shirt that won't
come off while you perform an inverted posture or
backbends.
• अभ्यास स्र्ल को साफ करना िाजहए। योग शांत वातावरि में
करना िाजहए।
• यौजगक अभ्यास खाली/हल्क
े पेट करना िाजहए। यह
ज्यादातर इसजलए होता है, क्ोंजक भारी पेट पर, कोई
आराम से मुड़/झुकने में सक्षम नहीं होगा। यजद आपने
अभी-अभी खाया है, तो आंतररक अंग जवशेष रूप से पेट
आसनों क
े घुमाव/मोड़ क
े दबाव को महसूस करते हुए
भोजन को पिाने में लगे रहेंगे। अभ्यासी अभ्यास क
े
समय का प्रभावी ढंग से उपयोग नहीं कर पाएगा।
• मूत्राशय और आंत्र को खाली जकया जाना िाजहए।
• एक िटाई या एक मुड़ा हुआ क
ं बल का उपयोग जकया जाना
िाजहए। असमान सतहों पर अभ्यास न करें।
• हल्क
े और आरामदायक (अजधमानतः सूती) कपड़े पहने जाने
िाजहए। ऐसी शटथ/टी-शटथ पहनें जो उल्टे आसन या बैकबेंड
करते समय न उतरे।
Guiding principles to be followed by the practitioner
• During Practice sessions should start with a prayer. It
is encouraged to chant a mantra but even Om
chanting is sufficient.
• Breath awareness should always be maintained. Chest
expansion and contraction should be specially
emphasized.
• While releasing the posture, always release the way
you went into the posture (Last In First Out). This way
there would never be any chance of injury. The
Khumbhaka (Breath retention) should always be done
with attention. Sometimes people tend to hold their
breath while doing advanced asana or while trying to
hold the posture for a longer duration. This needs to
be avoided. It is very important to continue breathing
unless otherwise instructed.
• अभ्यास सत्र क
े दौरान एक प्रार्थना क
े सार् शुरू करना िाजहए.
मंत्र जप करने क
े जलए प्रोत्साजहत जकया जाता है लेजकन ओम जाप
भी पयाथप्त है।
• सांस की जागरूकता हमेशा बनाए रखनी िाजहए। छाती क
े
जवस्तार और संक
ु िन पर जवशेष रूप से जोर जदया जाना िाजहए।
• आसन जारी करते समय, हमेशा जजस तरह से आप मुद्रा में गए
र्े उसे छोड़ दें (लास्ट इन फस्टथ आउट)। इस तरह िोट लगने
की कभी कोई संभावना नहीं होगी। क
ुं भक (सांस प्रजतधारि)
हमेशा ध्यान से जकया जाना िाजहए। कभी-कभी लोगों में उन्नत
आसन करते समय या लंबी अवजध क
े जलए मुद्रा को पकड़ने की
कोजशश करते समय अपनी सांस रोकने की प्रवृजत्त होती है।
इससे जबल्क
ु ल बिने की जरूरत है। सांस लेना जारी रखना बहुत
महत्वपूिथ है जब तक जक अन्यर्ा जनदेश न जदया जाए।
Guiding principles to be followed by the practitioner
• It's also important to understand that
mastering a particular posture or mudra or
Bandha, takes time. Staying patient with the
practice is a secret that one should learn as
early as possible.
• Contraindications of any
asana/mudra/bandha/pranayama should
always be followed.
• यह समझना भी महत्वपूिथ है जक जकसी जवशेष आसन या मुद्रा या
बंध में महारत हाजसल करने में समय लगता है। अभ्यास क
े सार्
धैयथ रखना एक रहस्य है जजसे जजतनी जल्दी हो सक
े सीखना
िाजहए।
• जकसी भी आसन/मुद्रा/बंध/प्रािायाम क
े अंतजवथरोध का हमेशा पालन
करना िाजहए।
Guiding principles to be followed by the practitioner
• Don't shower immediately after
practice. Give time for the body to cool
down on its own. Wait for a minimum
of 30-45 minutes before taking a
shower.
• Immediately eating after the practice is
not advised, maintain at least 30-45
minutes before eating.
• Always end the asana practice with a
relaxation asana such as Shavasana,
Makarasana, Balasana, etc. Shavasana is
the most preferable one.
• Always end the class with Shant-
path/mediation. Be grateful for the
opportunity to be able to practice that
day.
• अभ्यास क
े तुरंत बाद स्नान न करें। शरीर को अपने
आप ठं डा होने का समय दें। स्नान करने से पहले
कम से कम 30-45 जमनट तक प्रतीक्षा करें।
• अभ्यास क
े तुरंत बाद खाने की सलाह नहीं दी जाती
है, खाने से पहले कम से कम 30-45 जमनट का
समय बनाए रखें।
• आसन अभ्यास को हमेशा जवश्राम आसन जैसे
शवासन, मकरासन, बालासन आजद से समाप्त करें।
शवासन सबसे बेहतर है।
• कक्षा को हमेशा शांत-पर्/मध्यस्र्ता से समाप्त करें।
उस जदन अभ्यास करने में सक्षम होने क
े अवसर क
े
जलए आभारी रहें।
Jnana Yoga
• समग्र िान जजससे जीव परमपद् मोक्ष को प्राप्त कर सक
े । (आत्मा, प्रक
ृ जत एवं ईश्वर को जानना)
JNANA YOGA
Bahirang Sadhana
Vivek
Vairagya
Shat Sampatti
Mumukshutvam
Antrang Sadhan
Shravan
Mnan
Nidhidyasana
Jnana Yoga
•BAHIRANAGA SADHANA
1. Vivek- जनत्यवस्त्वेक
ं ब्रह्म तद्व्यजतररिं सवथमजनत्यम्। अयमेव
जनत्याजनत्यवस्तुजववेकः।
2. Vairagya –इहस्वगथभोगेषु इच्छाराजहत्यम्।
3. Shat Sampatti- Sama, Dama, uparati, titiksha,
shraddha and samadhana.
4. Mumukshutvam - 'मोक्षो मे भूयाद् ' इजत इच्छा।
Jnana Yoga
• Shat Sampatti :-
1. Sama- मनोजनग्रहः ।
2. Dama-िक्षुराजदवाह्मेन्द्रियजनग्रहः ।
3. Uparati - स्वधमाथनुष्ठानमेव ।
4. titiksha - शीतोष्णसुखदुःखाजदसजहष्णुत्वम् ।
5. Shraddha - गुरुवेदान्तवाक्ाजदषु जवश्वासः श्रद्धा ।
6. Samadhana - जित्तैकाग्रता ।
Jnana Yoga
• ANTRANGA SADHANA –
1. Shraavana- listening or reading Ved vakya
2. Mnan- pondering over what is heard
3. Nidhidyasana- Contemplation and imbibing
Bhakti Yoga
• “Bhaj sevayaam ” Dhatu which means seva, puja, samarpan, upasana
• Narad Bhakti Sutra- " सा तन्द्रस्मन् परमप्रेम रूपा" (भगवान क
े प्रजत उत्कट प्रेम)
• For emotional Sadhak
• 4 types of bhakta-
ितुजवथधा भजन्ते मां जना: सुक
ृ जतनोऽजुथन |
आतो जजिासुरर्ाथर्ी िानी ि भरतषथभ || 7.16||
(Troubled One, Opportunist, Discriminate Devotee, Seeker Of Knowledge)
Bhakti Yoga
• Navdha Bhakti- श्रविं कीतथनं जवष्णोः स्मरिं पादसेवनम्। अिथनं वन्दनं दास्यं सख्यमात्मजनवेदनम् ॥
1.Shravana (hearing the Lila of the Supreme)
2. Kirtan (singing His praise)
3. Smarana (remembering His name)
4. Padasevana (worshipping His Lotus Feet)
5. Archana (offerings)
6. Vandana (prostration)
7. Dasya (service)
8. Sakhya (friendship)
9. Atma- nivedana (complete self-surrender).
Karma Yoga
• “Kr” dhatu which means to do or action
• To attain Mukti through karma
• नजह कजश्चत्क्षिमजप जातु जतष्ठत्यकमथक
ृ त ।
कायथते ह्यवशः कमथ सवथः प्रक
ृ जतजैगुथिैः ।। (गीता 3/5)
• Nishkama Karma
1. Phala ki icha ka tyaga
2. Kartvya bhaav
3. Surrendering karma Phala to god (whatever I have done is just because of god)
Karma Yoga
Mukhya
Karma
जनजषद्ध
कमथ
जवजहत कमथ
जनत्यकमथ
नैजमजत्तक
कमथ
प्रायजश्चत
कमथ
Karma Yoga
• According to Bhagavad Gita
1. कमथ - शास्त्र क
े अनुक
ू ल, वेदों क
े अनुक
ू ल जकये गये कमथ।
2. अकमथ - अकमथ का अर्थ है कमथ का अभाव याजन तुष्णी अभाव ।
3. जवकमथ - अर्ाथत जो जनजषद्ध (पाप) कमथ है वह जवकमथ है।
• According to Vedanta-
1. संजित कमथ
2. प्रारब्ध कमथ
3. आगामी कमथ
Raja Yoga
• One of six Aastik darshan (Patanjali’s Yoga, Ashtanga Yoga)
• Swami Vivekananda- raja yoga
• Path of will power
• Bahirang and Antrang Yoga (indirect and direct over mind)
• Yogas Chitta vritti nirodha (1.2)
Raja Yoga
RAJA YOGA
BAHIRANAGA
YAMA
NIYAMA
ASANA
PRANYAMA
PRATYAHARA
ANTRANGA
DHARNA DHYANA
SAMDHI
Raja Yoga
YAMAS (Social discipline)
• अश्चहंसासत्यास्तेयब्रह्मचयावपररग्रहा यमाः । 2.30
• जाश्चतदेिकालसमयािवस्मिन्ाः साववभौमा महाव्रतम् । 2.31
1. अश्चहंसाप्रश्चतष्ठायां तत्सश्चन्धौ वैरत्यागः । 2.35
2. सत्यप्रश्चतष्ठायां श्चियाफलाश्रयत्वम् । 36
3. अस्तेयप्रश्चतष्ठायां सववरत्नोपस्थािम् । 37
4. ब्रह्मचयवप्रश्चतष्ठायां वीयवलाभः । 38
5. अपररग्रहस्थैये जन्मकथंतासंबोधः । 39
Raja Yoga
NIYAMA (Self discipline)
िौचसंतोषतपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रश्चिधािाश्चि श्चियमाः। 2.32
1. िौचात् स्वाङ्गजुगुप्सा परैरसंसगवः। 2.40
2. संतोषादिुत्तमसुखलाभः । 42
3. कायेस्मियश्चसस्मिरिुस्मिक्षयात् तपसः। 43
4. स्वाध्यायाद् इष्टदेवतासंप्रयोगः। 44
5. समाश्चधश्चसस्मिरीश्वरप्रश्चिधािात्। 45
Raja Yoga
न्द्रस्र्रसुखम् आसनम् । 2.46
तस्मिन्सश्चत श्वासप्रश्वासयोगवश्चतश्चविेदः प्रािायामः। 2.49
स्वश्चवषयासंप्रयोगे श्चचत्तस्वरूपािुकार इवेस्मियािां प्रत्याहारः। 2.54
देिबन्धश्चित्तस्य धारिा । 3.1
 तत्र प्रत्ययैकतािता ध्यािम् ।3.2
तदेवाथवमात्रश्चिभावसं स्वरूपिून्यश्चमव समाश्चधः।3.3
Hatha Yoga
'हठ' शब्द दो अक्षर 'ह' और 'ठ' से जमलकर बना है, जजसमें ह और 'ठ' का अर्थ है –
ह = सूयथ स्वर, उष्णता का प्रतीक, जपंगला नाड़ी, दायीं नाजसका
ठ = िि स्वर, शीतलता का प्रतीक, इड़ा नाड़ी, बायी नाजसका
सूयथ स्वर (जपंगला नाड़ी) और िि स्वर (इड़ा नाड़ी ) में समन्वय स्र्ाजपत कर प्राि का सुषुम्ना में संिाररत होना।
According to Swami Muktibodhananda - 'Ha' means 'prana' force and 'tha' means mind (mental
energy). Thus, Hath yoga means union of pranic and mental energy".
 हकार कीजतथतः सूयथः ठकारश्चि. उच्यते ।
सूयथ िि मसोयोगात हठयोगो जनगद्यते ।।
• “ह” कार सूयथ स्वर और ठ कार िि स्वर है इन सूयथ और िि स्वर को प्रािायाम आजद का जवशेष अभ्यास कर
प्राि की गाती सुषुम्ना वाजहनी कर लेना ही हठ योग है !”
Hatha Yoga
• Major Texts- Hatha Yog Pradipika, Gheranda Samhita, Shiva Samhita, Siddha Siddhant Padati,
Goraksha Shatak, Hatha Ratnavali
• Hatha Yog Pradipika- Swami Swatmarama (Chaturanga Yoga)
1. Asana
2. Khumbhaka
3. Mudra
4. Nadanusandhana
Sukshma Vyayama
 Maharishi Kartikeya Maharaj propagated the practices of Sukshma Vyayama.
 Dheerendra Brahmachari spread it further.
 48 Sukshma Vyayama
 Special emphasis on breathing and awareness on certain points
 Develop sukshama sharir and sthula as well
Sthula Vyayama
 More strenuous and involves more than one joint or part of the body
 Emphasis on developing sthula sarir
 5 in number
1. Hrid Gati
2. Sarvang Pushti
3. Rekha Gati
4. Utkurdan
5. Urdhav Gati
Surya Namaskar
• Sequence
of 12
Asanas
with bhava
or attitude
of
gratitude
towards
lord Sun
Shatkarma

 Performing the shat karmas: Dhauti, basti,
neti, laulki, trataka and Kapalbhati is
essential.
Shatkarma
Antar
Dhauti
Vatsara Varisara Vahnisara Bahishkrita
1. Shaping the lips like a crow’s beak, slowly, slowly suck in as much
air as possible, circulate it inside the abdomen, and then
gradually expel it completely.
2. Drink water slowly through the mouth up to the throat. The
abdomen is then moved and the water evacuated through the
anus. The technique of varisara dhauti is the most secret.
(Tadasana, Triyaka tadasana, kati chakrasana, triyak Bhujangasana,
udarakarshanasana)
3. Retaining prana vayu, pull the navel against the spinal column
one hundred times. This enables agnisara dhauti to be
performed. Diseases of the abdomen are removed and the
digestive fire is stimulated.
4. Purse the lips like the beak of a crow, take in air through the
mouth, filling the abdomen. Retain the air for one and a half
hours in the abdomen, then circulate it and expel it through the
rectum. Standing in water up to the navel, push out the rectum
(shakti nadi) and wash it, removing the waste products. When the
nadi is clean, draw it in again., It is not possible to practice
Bahishkrita mahadhauti until the ability to retain air in the
abdomen for up to one and a half hours has been developed.
Shatkarma
Danta Dhauti
Dantamoola Jihva Karanrandhra Kapalrandhra
1. Rub or massage the roots of the teeth with
the juice of the khadira plant or with clean
Earth until the impurities are removed.
2. The root of the tongue should be cleaned by
inserting the index finger, middle finger, and
ring finger in the throat. Kapha disorders
(phlegm) are removed by slowly and gently
rubbing the tongue. Once this cleaning and
rubbing is over, apply a little butter on the
tongue. Again perform the action like that of
milking a cow. Thereafter, stretch the tongue
out with the help of small tongs. The length of
the tongue increases by doing this practice
daily at the time of sunrise and sunset.
3. Clean the orifices of both ears with the index
and ring fingers. By practicing this daily, nada
or inner sound may be heard.
4. Massage the forehead with the right-hand
thumb, With this type of practice one is
relieved of kapha dosha. The nadis are
purified and divine vision is attained. Practice
daily at the end of sleep, after food, and
before sleep.
Shatkarma 1. The stem of a soft portion of the banana
tree, a thin turmeric stem, or a sugarcane
stem should be repeatedly inserted (through
the mouth) and then slowly withdrawn from
the middle chest.
2. After a meal the practitioner should drink
water up to the throat and, after looking
upwards for a moment, expel the water by
vomiting. Kapha and pitta disorders are
removed.
3. A roll of fine cotton cloth four fingers wide
should be gradually swallowed and then
taken out slowly. It keeps the body free of
disease, increases stamina and cheerfulness,
and promotes healthy growth.
Hrid
Dhauti
Danda Vaman Vastra
Shatkarma
MOOLASHODHAN
Cleaning of the anus is essential with a turmeric root or the middle finger combined with repeated
washing with water. The body becomes graceful and healthy and the digestive fire is stimulated.
Disorders of apana vayu cannot be removed without performing moola shodhana or anal
cleansing.
Shatkarma
Basti
Jala Sthala
1. Sitting, in water up to the navel, adopt utkatasana,
then contract and expand the anal region. This is
jala basti. This practice removes wind disorders,
urinary and digestive problems, and makes the
body beautiful like that of Kamadeva, the god of
love.
2. Sitting in paschimottanasana, practice basti in the
lower portion, contracting and expanding the anus
by means of Ashwini mudra. It removes diseases of
the stomach and bowels and enhances the
digestive fire.
Shatkarma
1. The breath is to be inhaled through ida nadi
(the left nostril) and exhaled through pingala
nadi (the right nostril). Then the breath is
inhaled through surya nadi (the right nostril)
and exhaled through chandra nadi (the left
nostril). Inhalation and exhalation should be
fast; do not hold it. This technique removes
kapha dosha.
2. Suck water through both nostrils and expel it
through the mouth. Practice this repeatedly.
This vyutkrama kapalbhati removes kapha
disorders.
3. Suck in water through the mouth with a
hissing sound and expel it through the nose.
Through this practice the body of the
practitioner becomes as beautiful as that of
Cupid and signs of old age do not manifest.
Cleanliness and purity manifest in the body
and kapha dosha is removed.
Kapalbhati
Vatakrama Vyutkrama Sheetkrama
Shatkarma
SUTRA NETI
Take a thread half as long as the arm, insert it in the nose, and take it out through the
mouth. This is called neti karma. Its practice enables one to attain perfection in khechari,
elimination of kapha, and attainment of divine vision.
 LAULIKI (NAULI)
The abdomen should be rotated very swiftly from side to side. This lauliki (nauli) destroys all types
of diseases and activates the digestive fire.
1. Vama
2. Dakshin
3. Madhya
4. Bhramar Nauli
Shatkarma
TRATAKA
Gazing at a subtle object without blinking the eyes, until tears begin to fall, is known as trataka.
With constant practice of trataka, Shambhavi mudra is achieved, defects of the eyes are removed
and divine vision is attained.
Yogasana
• Definition of Yoga
न्द्रस्र्रसुखमासनम्॥2.46॥
प्रयत्नशैजर्ल्यानन्त्यसमापजत्तभ्याम्॥ 2.47||
ततो द्वन्द्द्वानजभघातः॥2.48॥
हठस्य प्रर्मांगत्वादासनं पूवथमुच्यते ।
क
ु याथत्तदासनं स्र्ैयथमारोग्यं िांगलाघवम् ॥ 1.17 ॥ Hatha Yoga Pradipika
• In the yogic scriptures it is said that there were originally 8,400,000 asanas, which represent the
8,400,000 incarnations every individual must pass through before attaining liberation from the
cycle of birth and death. Of these few hundred, only the eighty-four most useful are discussed in
detail.
• Awareness, right and left side practice, counter pose, relaxation
Yogasana
• Categories of asana:-
1. Standing 1. Meditative
2. Sitting 2. Relaxative
3. Prone 3. Cultural
4. Supine
Pranayama
प्रािायाम शब्द 2 शब्दों क
े मेल से बना है, जजसमें से एक प्राि और दू सरा आयाम है| प्राि एक उज्जवल शन्द्रि
ऊजाथ है, जो हमारे शरीर को जजंदा रखती है और जो हमारे तन और मन को शन्द्रि प्रदान करती है| प्रािायाम शब्द
का मतलब होता है खुद क
े जीवन शन्द्रि को जनयजमत करना और उसका सही रूप से उपयोग करना|
 3 elements of pranayama-
1. Puraka – Inhalation
2. Rechaka – Exhalation
3. Khumbhaka – Retention (Antar, Bahayah, Kevala Khumbhaka )
 Stages- 1. Uttam (20) 2. Madhyama (16) 3. Adham (12)
(1:4:2)
Sectional Breathing – Abdominal, thoracic, clavicular, full yogic
breathing
 Suryabhedan- inhale through right, exhale through left
Pranayama
 Bhastrika – forceful inhalation and exhalation
 Bhramari – chant m kara with exhalation
 Ujjayi – inhalation and exhalation while contraction of the throat
 Sheetali – stretching tongue out and joining the side ends of the
tongue inhale through the tongue and exhale through the nose
 Sheetkari – inhaling through the mouth with teeth clenched and
exhaling through nose
 Murcha – means faint or to expand, inhale and hold with Jalandhar
bandha and then slowly exhale
Plavani – inhaling through tongue and filling abdomen with air
Bandha & Mudra
• More important than asana and pranayama
• Influences Pranamaya and Manomaya kosha
• Mudra means gestures that may be physical or mental, mudras involve the positioning
of the hands, body, face, or mind in specific ways to create a flow of energy within the
body
• Khechari, Shambhavi, Shanmukhi, vipreetkarni, mahamudra, brahma mudra, chin
mudra, Chinmaya and Adi mudra
• Bandhas are the physical and psychic locks that awaken special kinds of sensations
and help in increasing the pranic energy in the body.
• Jalandhar, uddiyana, Moola bandha and Maha bandha
Yogic Relaxation Technique
• 25-30 minutes of relaxation technique
• Steps:-
1. Preparation (physical and mental) in Shavasana
2. Resolve (Sankalp)
3. Rotation of consciousness
4. Awareness of breath
5. Feelings and sensations
6. Visualisation
7. Ending the practice with resolve
8. Slowly externalizing the awareness
Dhyana
• तत्र प्रत्ययैकतानता ध्यानम् ।3.2 | Patanjala Yog Sutra
• Effortless one-pointed state of mind
• One can meditate on the breath, ishta devata, candle flame, thought, or the real self
• Benefits –
1. It makes you aware of yourself, increases intuition, keeps you calm, and enhances compassion,
empathy, and kindness. Works as a natural stress stabilizer.
2. It develops the willpower needed to avoid bad habits. Meditation practice improves the brain's
problem-solving and decision-making strategies.
3. Research shows that meditators have lower cortisol levels in the brain which explains their insightful
nature and resilience.
4. A study on the effect of an 8-week mindful meditation course found that people who are regular
meditation practitioners had heightened attention and concentration spans.
THANK YOU
-JYOTI
Yoga Therapist

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Foundation of Yoga, YCB Level-3, Unit-1

  • 2. CONTENT • Etymology and Definitions of Yoga (Patanjala Yoga Sutra, Bhagwad Gita, Kathopanishad). • Brief Introduction to origin, history and development of Yoga (Pre- Vedic period contemporary times). to • Yoga in Principle Upanishads • Yoga tradition in Jainism: Syadvada (theory of seven fold predictions); Concept of Kayotsarga or Preksha meditation) • Yoga Tradition in Buddhism: concept of Aryasatyas (four noble truths). • Salient features and branches of Bharatiya Darshana (Astika and Nastika Darshana). • General introduction to Shad Darshana with special emphasis on Samkhya, Yoga and Vedanta Darshana. • Brief survey of Yoga in Modem and Contemporary Times (Shri Ramakrishna, Shri Aurobindo, Maharishi Raman, Swami Vivekananda, Swami Dayananda Saraswati, Swami Shivananda, Paramhansa Madhava Das ji, Yogacharya Shri T. Krishnamacharya). • Guiding principles to be followed by the practioner • Brief introduction to Schools of Yoga; Jnana, Bhakti, Karma, Raja & Hatha. • Principles and Practices of Jnana Yoga UNIT-1
  • 3. CONTENT • Principles and Practices of Bhakti Yoga. • Principles and Practices of Karma Yoga. • Concept and Principles of Sukshma Vyayama, Sthula Vyayama, Surya Namaskars and their significance in Yoga Sadhana • Concept and Principles of Shatkarma: Meaning, Types, Principles and their significance in Yoga Sadhana. • Concept and Principles of Yogasana: Meaning, definition, types and their significance in Yoga Sadhana. • Concept and Principles of Pranayama: Meaning, definition, types and their significance in Yoga Sadhana. • Introduction to Bandha & Mudra and their health benefits. • Introduction to Yogic relaxation techniques with special reference to Yoga Nidra. • Introduction to Dhyana and its role in health and well being. UNIT-1
  • 4. Etymology of Yoga  योग शब्द मूल शब्द "युज्" से बना है जजसका अर्थ है जोड़ना।  पाजिनीय संस्क ृ त व्याकरि क े अनुसार तीन 'युज' धातु हैं। (Ganapatha) 1. 'युज् समाधौ’ (समाजध) 2. 'युजजर योगे’ [दो वस्तुओं या दो तत्त्ों को जमलाना या उनका जमलन योग है। जीवात्मा को परमात्मा से जमलाना योग है।] 3. 'युज्-संयमने’ (संयमन या संयजमत) मन तर्ा इन्द्रियों का संयजमत कर लेना ही इसका तात्पयथ है।
  • 5. Definitions of Yoga योगश्चित्तवृश्चत्त श्चिरोधः।“- Patanjala Yoga Sutra – 1.2 जित्त की वृजत्तयों का जनरोध योग कहलाता है। योगस्र्ः क ु रु कमाथजि सङ्ग त्यक्त्वा धनञ्जय। जसद्धयजसद्धयोः समो भूत्वा समत्वं योग उच्यते ।। - Bhagavad Gita – 2.48 2/48 अर्ाथत् हे धनञ्जय। तू आसन्द्रि को त्यागकर तर्ा जसन्द्रद्ध और अजसन्द्रद्ध में समान बुन्द्रद्ध वाला होकर योग में न्द्रस्र्त हुआ कतथव्य कमों को कर, क्ोंजक समत्व ही योग कहलाता है। बुन्द्रद्धयुिोजहातीह उभे सुक ृ तवुष्क ृ ते। तस्माद्योगाय युज्यस्व योगः कमथसु कौशलम् । - Bhagavad Gita – 2.50 2/50 अर्ाथत् समबुन्द्रद्धयुि पुरुष पुण्य और पाप दोनों को इसी लोक में त्याग देता है अर्ाथत् उनसे मुि हो जाता है। इससे तू समत्वरूप योग में लग जा. यह समत्व रूपयोग ही कमों में क ु शलता है अर्ाथत् कमथबन्धन से छ ू टने का उपाय है।
  • 6. Definitions of Yoga तां योगजमजत मन्यन्ते न्द्रस्र्राजमियः धारिम् । - Katha Upanishad – 2.3.11 इन्द्रियों की न्द्रस्र्र धारिा योग की अवस्र्ा है।  तं जवद्याद् दुःखसंयोगजवयोगं योगसंजितम्। स जनश्चयेन योिव्यो योगोऽजनजवथण्णिेतसा।।- Bhagavad Gita – 6.23 जो दुःख रूप संसार क े संयोग से रजहत है तर्ा जजसका नाम योग है, उसको जानना िाजहए। वह योग न उकताए हुए अर्ाथत् धैयथ और उत्साहयुि जित्त से जनश्चयपूवथक करना कत्तथव्य है। युिाहारजवहारस्य युििेष्टस्य कमथसु । युिस्वप्नावबोधस्य योगो भवजत दुःखहा ॥ - Bhagavad Gita – 6.17 लेजकन जो आहार और आमोद-प्रमोद को संयजमत रखते हैं, कमथ को संतुजलत रखते हैं और जनद्रा पर जनयंत्रि रखते हैं, वे योग का अभ्यास कर अपने दुखों को कम कर सकते हैं।
  • 7. Origin of Yoga नार् परम्परा -आजदनार् जशव श्रुजत और स्मृजत ग्रन्ों में :- जहरण्यगभथ 1. यािवल्क्य स्मृजत - जहरण्यगभो योगस्य विा नान्यः पुरातनः| 12/5 2. महाभारत - सांख्यस्य विा कजपलः परमजषथः स उच्यते | जहरण्यगभो योगस्य विा नान्यः पुरातनः|| 12/349/65|| {ऋग्वेद, ‘अद् भुत रामायि' -'जहरण्यगभो जगदन्तरात्मा |’(ब्रह्मा )} 3. 'जहरण्यगभो समवतथताग्रे भूतस्य जातः पजतरेक आसीत्। सदाधारपृथ्ीः द्यामुतेमां कस्मै देवाय हजवशा जवधेम ॥ - ऋग्वेद – 10.121.1 सवथप्रर्म जहरण्यगभथ ही उत्पन्न हुए, जो सम्पूिथ जवश्व क े एक मात्र स्वामी हैं, जजन्होोंने अन्तररक्ष, स्वगथ व पृथ्ी सबको धारि जकया अर्ाथत् उपयुि स्र्ान पर न्द्रस्र्र जकया, उन प्रजापजत देव का हवन द्वारा पूजन करते हैं। इसी प्रकार का विथन 'अद् भुत रामायि' में जकया है।
  • 8. History of Yoga जवश्व क े प्रािीनतम् साजहत्य वेद में सवथप्रर्म योग का संक े त जमलता है। क ु छ जवद्वानों की मान्यता है जक योग सैन्धव (जसन्धु घाटी सभ्यता) की देन है| योग का उद्गम वेदों की रिना से पूवथ ही हुआ। अतः यही कहना उजित होगा जक सृजष्ट क े आरम्भ से ही योग जवद्या जवद्यमान र्ी।
  • 9. Development of Yoga योग क े ऐजतहाजसक जवकास को हम पााँि खण्ों में जवभाजजत कर सकते हैं- (1) Pre-Vedic period – 2700 - 1500 BC (2) Vedic period – 1500- 500 BC (3) Classical Period – 500 BC – 800 AD (4) Post-classical Period – 800-1700AD (5) Modern Period – 1800 AD Onwards 2700-1500 BC Pre-Vedic Period 1500-500 BC Vedic Period 500 BC-800 AD Classical Period 800-1700 AD Post-classical Period 1800 Onwards Modern Period
  • 10. Development of Yoga PRE-VEDIC PERIOD • Indus valley civilization (जसन्धु घाटी सभ्यता) • योग जसन्धु घाटी सभ्यता से प्रारम्भ हुआ है। जसन्धु घाटी सभ्यता क े अनेक जीवाश्म अवशेष एवं मुहरें भारत में योग की मौजूदगी क े संक े त देती हैं। मोहनजोदड़ो में भी क ु छ नर देवी-देवताओं की योगमुद्रा में बैठी हुई मूजतथयााँ प्राप्त हुई हैं, जजससे यह जसद्ध होता है जक जसन्धु घाटी क े लोग यौजगक जविारधारा से भजलभााँजत पररजित र्े।
  • 11. Development of Yoga VEDIC PERIOD • वेदों क े प्रकट्य- Rig, Yajur, Sama, and Atharva Ved • Jnana Kanda, Upasana and Karma Kanda practices • Jnana Yoga and Karma Yoga
  • 12. Development of Yoga  CLASSICAL PERIOD • Various beliefs originated • Patanjala Yog Sutra • Ashtanga Yoga
  • 13. Development of Yoga  POST CLASSICAL PERIOD • Adi Shankaracharya, Madhavacharya, Ramanujacharya • Bhashya • Tantra Yoga • Hatha Yoga • Bhakti Yoga • Sudras, Tulsidas and Meera bai
  • 14. Development of Yoga MODERN PERIOD • Swami Vivekananda • Babaji Maharaj, Shyamacharan Lahiri, Yukteshwar Giri, Swami Yogananda – Kriya Yoga • Swami Kuvalyanand ji - Kaivalyadhama • T Krishnamacharya- Father of modern Yoga • Swami Sivananda- Divine Life Society • BKS Iyengar – Iyengar Yoga • Shri K Pattabhis Jois – Ashtanga Vinyasa • Swami Ramdevji – Patanjali Yog Pitha • Swami Satyanada Saraswati- Bihar School of Yoga • Sri Ravi Shankar – Art of Living • Dr. H R Nagendra – S-VYASA
  • 15. Yoga in Principle Upanishads • 'वेदोऽन्द्रखलो धमथमूलम्’- मनुस्मृजत • सावथभौजमक, सावथकाजलक, शब्द प्रमाि, अपौरुषेय • Vid dhatu which means to know • Ved -1. ऋग्वेद 2. यजुवेद 3. सामवेद 4. अथवववेद। (Krishna Dwaipayana) • Divides into four parts- 1. Samhita (Mantras) 2. Brahman (mantras for yajnas, rituals) 3. Aranyaka (mantras for sadhana) 4. Upanishad (jnana 108) • Mukhya Upanishad- Isha, Kena, Katha, Prashna, Mundaka, Mandukya, Taittiriya, Aitareya, Chandogya Brihadaranyaka
  • 16. Yoga in Principle Upanishads • उपजनषद् शब्द 'उप' और 'जन' उपसगथ पूवथक, षद् लृ प्रत्यय लगाकर जनष्पन्न है। उप, जन और षद् लृ का अर्थ क्रमशः समीप, जनश्चयपूवथक तर्ा बैठना है। अतः उपजनषद् का अर्थ है गुरु क े समीप जवनम्रतापूवथक बैठकर िान की प्रान्द्रप्त करना। • दू सरे शब्दों में 'उप' 'जन' इन दो उपसगों क े सार् 'सद् ' धातु से न्द्रिप् प्रत्यय क े प्रयोग से 'उपजनषद् शब्द बना है। 'सद् ' धातु क े तीन अर्थ मान्य हैं- (१) जवशरि (२) गजत (िान और प्रान्द्रप्त) (३) अवसादन (जशजर्ल करना), इस आधार पर उपजनषद् का अर्थ हुआ- “जो पाप-ताप का नाश करे, सच्चा िान प्रदान करे, आत्मा की प्रान्द्रप्त कराए और अिान अजवद्या को जशजर्ल करे, वह उपजनषद् है।” • वैजदक साजहत्य क े अन्त में रिे जाने क े कारि इन्होें वेदान्त भी कहा गया है। • उपजनषदों का महत्त्पूिथ जसद्धान्त एवं प्रजतपाद्य जवषय जनम्नजलन्द्रखत हैं- 1. ब्रह्म का स्वरूप। 2. कमथ जसद्धान्त और पुनजथन्म 3. कमों की उपयोजगता 4. मोक्षप्रान्द्रप्त क े साधन 5. नैजतकता।
  • 17. Yoga in Principle Upanishads • Also known as jnana kanda of Vedas • Smallest Upanishad – Mandukya Upanishad (12 mantra) • Largest Upanishad – Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (450 mantras) • Mahavakya- the great sayings (summarises the Upanishads) 1. ॐ प्रज्ञािं ब्रह्म:। ऋग्वेद की ऐतरेय उपजनषद में कहा गया है । “प्रिान ब्रह्म है”। 2. ॐ अहं ब्रह्मास्मि:।यजुवेद की बृहदारण्यक उपजनषद में यह वाक् है ।“मैं ब्रह्म हाँ”। 3. ॐ तत्त्वमश्चस:। सामवेद की छान्दोग्य उपजनषद में यह वाक् है । “तू वह ब्रह्म है”। 4. ॐ अयमात्मा ब्रह्म:। अर्वथवेद की माण् ू क् उपजनषद में यह वाक् है। “यह आत्मा ब्रह्म है”।
  • 18. Yoga in Principle Upanishads
  • 19. UPANISHAD VEDA OUTLINE ISHA SHUKLA YAJURVEDA 18 SHLOKA KENA/ TALVAKAR SAMA VEDA 4 khanda (8,5 shlokas; 12,9 prose) KATHA KRISHNA YAJURVEDA 2 chapters, each divided into 3 valli PRASHNA ATHARVA VEDA 6 questions each is a chapter MUNDAKA ATHARVA VEDA 3 chapters each divides in 2 sections MANDUKYA ATHARVA VEDA 12 shlokas AITREYA RIG VEDA 3 CHAPTERS CHANDOGYA SAMA VEDA 8 CHAPTERS TATTIRYA YAJURVEDA Shiksha, Brahmananda, Bhrigu valli BRIHADARANYAK SHUKLA YAJURVEDA 6 chapters
  • 20. Yoga in Principle Upanishads • ISHA UPANISHAD – Concept of vidya and avidya (jnana and karma) • KENA UPANISHAD – Story of Yaksha (concept of atman, brahman, mind) • KATHA UPANISHAD – Vajashrava, Nachiketa and Yama 3 boons to Nachiketa (father shouldn’t be angry, how to perform yajna, what happens after death) • PRASHNA UPANISHAD- Rishi Pipplada and 6 disciples (Kabandhin, Bhargava, Kausalya, Gargya, Satyakama, Bharadwaj)
  • 21. Yoga in Principle Upanishads • MUNDAKA UPANISHAD – Para and Apara knowledge, “What is one thing by knowing which everything becomes known?”; Concept of brahma and to ways to attain Brahma • MANDUKYA UPANISHAD – OM; Jagrat, Swapna, Susupti, Turiya • AITREYA UPANISHAD – process of creation (Atman, Lokas, Guardian’s, humans, food) • TAITTRRIYA UPANISHAD – Story of Bhrigu and Varuna, Pancha Kosha theory, Ananada Mimamsa • CHANDOGYA UPANISHAD- different techniques of meditation and Udgitha • BRIHADARANYAKA UPANISHAD- Process of bondage and liberation, Brahman
  • 22. Yoga in Principle Upanishads Isha Vasya Upanishad (18 shlokas)  Shukla Yajur Ved  Name derived from 1st mantra of Upanishad  Concept of karma (100 years- vairagya –जवजहत कमथ – Karma Bandhan Mukti) Concept of jnana ( Atma Swarup jnana and prakriti jnana)  Vidya (jnana) and Avidya (Karma) Upasana  Importance of following both karma and jnana simultaneously - Amartava  Asambhuti (Vyakt brahma) and Asambhuti (Avyakt brahma) {Bhakti}  Importance of following Asambhuti (mrityu Vijay) and Asambhuti (Amartava)
  • 23. Yoga in Principle Upanishads  KENA UPANISHAD  Sama Veda (तलवकार ब्राह्मि)  Name derived from 1st mantra of the Upanishad  Also named as Talavakara Upanishad (Talavakara Brahman)  Structure- 1st Khenda – 8 verses (gadhya) 2nd Khenda – 5 verses 3rd Khenda – 12 proses 4th Khenda – 9 proses (padya)
  • 24. Yoga in Principle Upanishads पहले दो खण्ो मे सवाथजधष्ठान परब्रह्म क े पारमाजर्थक स्वरूप का लक्षिा से जनदेश करते हुए परमार्थ िान की अजनवथिनीयता तर्ा िेय क े सार् उसका अभेद प्रदजशथत जकया है। इसक े पश्चात् तीसरे और िौर्े खण् मे यक्षोपाख्यान द्वारा भगवान्का सवथप्रेरकत्व (omnipotence) और सवथकतृथत्व जदखलाया गया है|  Brahma Vidya  Story of Yaksha and devas  Ego sense and doer concept  Uma
  • 25. Yoga tradition in Jainism • जजन् = जवजेता, - conquerors over inner enemies • 24 Tirthankaras • 1st- Rishabhdev • 24th- Mahavira 'मुक्खेन जोयिाओ जोगो’ (योजगजबंशका) अर्ाथत् जजन-जजन साधनों से आत्मा की शुन्द्रद्ध और मोक्ष होता है| 'यतः सजमजतगुन्द्रप्तनां प्रपंिो योग उत्तमः।’ - द्वाजत्रंशका अर्ाथत् मन, विन, शरीर आजद को की संयत करने वाला धमथ व्यापार ही योग है।
  • 26. Yoga tradition in Jainism पञ्च महाव्रत योग साधना क े जलए जैन मत मे पञ्चमहाव्रतों का विथन जकया गया है- 1. अजहंसा,2. सत्य,3. अस्तेय,4. ब्रह्मियथ, 5. अपररग्रह’ इनक े अजतररि जैन दशथन में दस धमों कापालन भी बताया गया है। उत्तम क्षमा, उत्तम मादथव, उत्तम आजथव, उत्तम शौि, उत्तम सत्य, उत्तम संयम, उत्तम तप, उत्तम त्याग, उत्तम आजक ं िन्य, उत्तम ब्रह्मियथ  Nirjara Jivan and Videh Mukti
  • 27. Syadvada • Syadvada or the Theory that Every Judgment is Relative. • Every judgment expresses one aspect of reality and is therefore relative and subject to some condition . • Every judgment should be qualified by some word like 'some-how' (syat), expressing conditionality. • सप्तभंगीनय :- सप्त seven, भंग= types नय= judgment : 1. स्याद् अन्द्रस्त -in some ways , it is, 2. स्याद नान्द्रस्त -in some ways, it is not, 3. स्याद अन्द्रस्त नान्द्रस्त-in some ways, it is, and it is not,
  • 28. Syadvada 4. स्याद अविव्यम् -in some it is indescribable. 5. स्याद अन्द्रस्त अविव्यम् -in some ways, it is, and it is indescribable, 6. स्याद नान्द्रस्त अविव्यम् -in some ways, it is not, and it is indescribable, 7. स्याद अन्द्रस्त नान्द्रस्त अविव्यम् -in some ways, it is, it is not, and it is indescribable,
  • 29. Preksha Meditation • Ancient Jain meditation practice • श्वेताश्तर तेरापंर्ी जैनािायथ श्रीतुलसी जी • 'प्रेक्षा' शब्द ईक्ष् धातु से बना है, जजसका अर्थ है- देखना। प्र+ईक्षा = प्रेक्षा । याजन गहराई से देखना। • STEPS- 1. ध्यान का पहला िरि कायोत्सगथ या शवासन i. शरीर का जशजर्लीकरि। ii. शरीर क े प्रत्येक अवयव क े प्रजत जागरुकता। iii. शरीर क े प्रजत ममत्व अर्वा आसन्द्रि का जवसजथन करें। iv. जित्त को पैर से जसर तक क्रमशः घुमाना। v. पूरे भागों में जित्त की यात्रा करें। 2. ध्यान का दू सरा िरि अन्तयाथत्रा - अन्तयाथत्रा की इस जवजध में जित्त को शन्द्रि-क े ि से क्रमशः प्रत्येक िैतन्य- क े ि की यात्रा करते हुए पुनः शन्द्रि क े ि पर लाने का अभ्यास जकया जाता है। 3. ध्यान का तीसरा िरि - श्वास प्रेक्षा - अपनी आती-जाती सांसों को 'देखने' की साधना।
  • 30. Preksha Meditation 4 िौर्ा िरि - शरीर प्रेक्षा - आाँखें बन्द कर मानस िक्षु से शरीर क े जवजभन्न अंगों को देखने की साधना। 5 ध्यान का पााँिवााँ िरि - िैतन्य क े ि प्रेक्षा - अपनी िेतना क े स्रोत और उसक े क े ि को देखने की साधना। इसमें जित्त को ललाट क े मध्य भाग में ज्योजत क े ि पर क े न्द्रित कर, वहााँ पर िमकते हुए श्वेत रंग का ध्यान जकया जाता है। 6 ध्यान का छटवााँ िरि - लेश्या ध्यान - शरीर और मानस क े आभा मंडल क े रंगों को देखने की साधना। 7 ध्यान का सातवााँ िरि – अनुप्रेक्षा - स्वभाव पररवतथन क े जलए संकल्प लेना और उन संकल्पों को 'देखने’ की साधना। 8. भावना या समापन -आखरी स्टेप है भावनाओं का अवलोकन करना। जो भी संकल्प क े बीज आपने डाले, उसक े पूरा होने की कल्पना से आपक े मन में क ै सी भावना उत्पन्न होती है उसका अवलोकन करें। उस भावनाओं को इतनी गहराइयों में देखें जक ध्यान क े बाद भी वह आपको सत्य ही लगे।
  • 31. Yoga Tradition in Buddhism • Lord Buddha (Siddhartha Gautama) • Nastik darshan • Nirvana (moksha) • Araya Satya- 1. सवथदुःखम् - संसार दुःखमय है। (मृत्यु जरा व्याजध) 2. दुःख समुदय - दुःखों का कारि है। { द्वादश जनदान - अजवद्या (ignorance)संस्कार (impression) जविान (consciousness) नामरूप (mind body organism) षडायतन (six sense organs) स्पशथ (sense Contact ) वेदना (sense experience) तृष्णा (craving) उपादान (mental clinging) भव (the will to be born) जाजत (rebirth) जरा-मरि (suffering)} 3. दुःख जनरोधः - दुःखों से मुन्द्रि पाई जा सकती है। (Renunciation of Tanah or Trishna) 4. दुःख जनरोधगामी प्रजतपर् - “दुःख से मुन्द्रि का मागथ”। (Arya Ashtangik marg)
  • 32. Yoga Tradition in Buddhism • Yama and Niyama- अजहंसा, अपररग्रह, ब्रह्मियथ, सत्य, धमथ में श्रद्धा, दोपहर क े बाद का भोजन जनषेध, सुखप्रद शय्या तर्ा आसन का पररत्याग, जवलास से जवरन्द्रि, सुगंजधत द्रव्यों का जनषेध तर्ा स्विथ या िााँदी आजद मूल्यवान वस्तुओं को अस्वीकार करना। • बौद्ध साधना क े आठ मागव जनम्न हैं- 1. सम्यक ् दृजष्ट 2. सम्यक ् संकल्प 3. सम्यक ् वाक ् 4. सम्यक ् कमथ 5. सम्यक ् आजीव 6. सम्यक ् व्यायाम 7. सम्यक ् स्मृजत 8. सम्यक ् समाजध • 'श्चिक्षात्रय’- शील - अर्ाथत् शारीररक मानजसक शुन्द्रद्ध। समाजध - अर्ाथत् जित्त की एकाग्रता । प्रिा अर्ाथत् परम िान।
  • 33. Yoga Tradition in Buddhism
  • 34. Salient features of Bharatiya Darshana • दृि् means to see • दृश्यते अिेि इश्चत दिविम्| • Salient features- 1. All systems accept the views of the great world rhythm: - Creation/ Maintenance/ Dissolution - they follow each other. 2. Transcendental consciousness of Self (Intuition, Revelation, Cosmic Realization of Eternal Truths Spiritual orientation. 3. Naturalness of life 4. Practices of Yoga/Meditation/Salvation/Moksha. 5. Intellectualism/Wisdom/Discussion/ Debates 6. Faith in the past action (Karma), God (Surrender to God), Rebirth 7. Ignorance as the root cause of suffering 8. Philosophy as a Practical Necessity 9. Belief in an Eternal moral order 10. Liberation as the ultimate goal of life
  • 35. Branches of Bharatiya Darshana Ethics – Achar Mimamsa Aesthetics - Saundrayshashtra
  • 38. General introduction to Shad Darshana
  • 40. General introduction to Shad Darshana
  • 41. General introduction to Shad Darshana
  • 42. General introduction to Shad Darshana
  • 43. General introduction to Shad Darshana Purva Mimamsa
  • 44. General introduction to Shad Darshana Uttar Mimamsa
  • 46. A brief survey of Yoga in Modem and Contemporary Times • Shri Ramakrishna • Shri Aurobindo • Maharishi Raman • Swami Vivekananda • Swami Dayananda Saraswati • Swami Shivananda • Paramhansa Madhava Das ji • Yogacharya Shri T. Krishnamacharya
  • 47. Shri Ramakrishna  Gadhadhar (Vishnu Avtar) Date of Birth: February 18, 1836 Place of Birth: Kamarpukur village, Hooghly District, West Bengal Parents: Khudiram Chattopadhyay (Father) and Chandramani Devi (Mother) Wife: Sarada Moni Devi Philosophy: Advaita Vedanta Death: 16, August, 1886 Place of Death: Cossipore, Calcutta
  • 48. Shri Ramakrishna Before birth Khudiram Chattopadhyay – Honest and spiritual The divine vision of Vishnu in his dream  Early life inclination towards spirituality, mythological stories and nature Trance or ecstasy Father death – 1843 1859- married to Sharda Maa (5 years) Ramkumar’s death
  • 49. Shri Ramakrishna Teachers – Bhairavi Brahmi – Tantra Sadhana Guru Jatadhari – Vishnu Bhakti Totapuri – Advaita Vedanta  Exploring different religions Christianity Islam Vaishnav Bhakti Shakto
  • 50. Shri Ramakrishna Disciple – 1. Swami Vivekananda (1897- Ram Krishna Ashram ) 1885 – Throat cancer – 16 August 1886 death at Cossipore Garden house  Teachings – 1. Philosophies through stories 2. Advaita Vedanta 3. Different religions as different paths to the one and only god. 4. Equality (Eating at Shudras) 5. Seeing the divine in all
  • 51. Shri Aurobindo Date of Birth: 15 August 1872 Place of Birth: West Bengal Parents: Krishan Dhan Ghose (Father) and Swarnalata Devi (Mother) Wife: Mrinalini Devi (1901) Philosophy: Integral Yoga Death: 5 December 1950 Place of Death:  Early Life – Father – Surgeon (believed in Western culture) Early education in an Irish-run school in Darjeeling Education in England
  • 52. Shri Aurobindo  Occupations • 1893 – Revenue department and secretariate work for Sayajirao Maharaja • Professor of English for 13 years • The vice principal at Baroda College • Vande Mataram – newspaper (Bande Mataram' was an English newspaper edited by Sri Aurobindo. Sri Aurobindo’s first preoccupation was to declare openly for complete and absolute independence as the aim of political action in India.)
  • 53. Shri Aurobindo  1904 – started yoga practice  1908 – Vishnu Bhaskar Lele – teacher – taught meditation for 30 days  1905-1908 – Openly worked as a political leader  1908-1909 – Alipore Jail – Practiced yoga and read Indian scriptures in Jail  1910 – took retirement – went to Pondicherry  1914- “The Arya” the monthly journal, wrote on Upanishads, divine life, Bhagavad Gita, Synthesis of Yoga  1926 – Sri Aurobindo Ashram
  • 54. Shri Aurobindo  Integral Yoga • The synthesis of yoga, as conceptualized by Sri Aurobindo, refers to the integration and harmonization of various paths, practices, and approaches to yoga to achieve a comprehensive and integral transformation of the individual's consciousness. • Sri Aurobindo's vision of yoga transcends traditional approaches that focus solely on specific aspects of spiritual or personal development and seeks to embrace the entirety of human experience in its journey toward higher states of consciousness and realization of the divine. • Integral yoga, often synonymous with the synthesis of yoga, encompasses a holistic approach to spiritual evolution that integrates the physical, vital, mental, and spiritual dimensions of the individual. • In integral yoga, practitioners are encouraged to embrace all aspects of their being—physical, vital, mental, and spiritual—and integrate them harmoniously in their quest for self-realization and union with the divine. Sri Aurobindo emphasized the importance of inner growth, transformation, and the evolution of consciousness as the ultimate goal of integral yoga, leading to a life lived in harmony, unity, and divine fulfillment.
  • 55. Maharishi Raman  Venkatraman Iyer Date of Birth: 30 December 1879 Place of Birth: Tiruchuli, Madurai, Tamil Nadu Parents: Sundaram Iyer (Father) and Azhagammal (Mother) Philosophy: Self-inquiry- Who am I? Death: 14 April 1950 Place of Death: Sri Ramana Ashram, Tiruvannamalai, India
  • 56. Maharishi Raman  Father’s paternal uncle and father’s brother took sannyasa  12 age – meditative experience due to incomplete practice from the last birth  deep sleep  Early schooling at village – Dindigul with uncle – Madurai  At the age of 16 – a sudden intense fear of death made him realize the true nature of self
  • 57. Maharishi Raman 1896 left for Arunachala mountains  Attained salvation and started teaching and gained many disciples 1922 – Mother died and settled near her samadhi – Sri Ramana Ashrama  1949 – Cancerous lump in the arm (2 surgeries)  14 April 1950 – died and a shooting star was seen
  • 58. Swami Vivekananda  Narendra Natha Datta Date of Birth: 12 January 1863 Place of Birth: Calcutta, West Bengal Parents: Vishwanath Dutta (Father) and Bhuvaneswari Devi (Mother) Philosophy: Advaita Vedanta, Sanatana Dharma Death: 4 July 1902 Place of Death: Belur Math, Bengal
  • 59. Swami Vivekananda sharp intellect  Variety of interests - sports, gymnastics, wrestling, and bodybuilding Brahmo Samaj- against the multiple existence of god, idol worshiping  “Have you seen God?” – Ramakrishna Paramahamsa  In 1884, Naredranath underwent considerable financial distress due to the death of his father – help from Ramakrishna Paramahamsa – Kali maa darshan – Vivek and Vairagya 1886 and went on a tour of India on foot
  • 60. Swami Vivekananda  1892 – 3 Days long meditation at Kanyakumari rock memorial World Parliament of Religions being held in Chicago, America in 11 September 1893 (Maharaja Ajit Singh)  Vedanta Society of New York in 1894  Ramakrishna Mission on May 1, 1897, at Belur Math near Calcutta. Second visit to the West (1899–1902) - Vedanta Societies in San Francisco and New York and Shanti Ashrama in California.  Introduction of Vedanta and Yoga to the Western world  Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose once said: "Swamiji harmonized the East and the West, religion and science, past and present.
  • 61. Swami Dayananda Saraswati  Mul Shankar Date of Birth: February 12, 1824 Place of Birth: Tankara, Gujarat Parents: Karshanji Lalji Tiwari (Father) and Yashodabai (Mother) Movement: Arya Samaj, Shuddhi Movement, Back to the Vedas Religious Views: Hinduism, Advaita Vedanta Death: October 30, 1883 Place of death: Ajmer, Rajasthan
  • 62. Swami Dayananda Saraswati • Rituals • 2 incidents – rat eating Prashad and death of sister and uncle • At the age of 16 left the home – Himalayas – Yogic practice • Guru- Shri Virajananda Dandeesha • Promise to restore the rightful place of Vedas • Arya Samaj and Satyartha Prakash • Brought unity in different sects of Hinduism • Against everything which was against Vedas and Dharma • 1883 – Maharaja of Jodhpur and Nanhi Jaan – poison • 30 October 1883- death
  • 63. Swami Shivananda  Kuppuswamy Date of Birth: 8 September 1887 Place of Birth: Pattamadai, Tamil Nadu Parents: Sri P S Vengu Iyer (Father) and Srimati Parvati Ammal (Mother) Death: 14 July 1963 Place of Death: Sivananda Ashram, Muni ki Reti
  • 64. Swami Shivananda Intelligent and compassionate  Medical School in Tanjore  Practiced at Tiruchi  The Ambrosia – Medical Journal  Malaysia 1923 – returned India  Renunciation after coming to India – went to Rishikesh
  • 65. Swami Shivananda Swami Visvananada Saraswati – Guru --- Sannyasa  Divine Life Society – 1936  Sivananda Ayurvedic Pharmacy – 1945  Sivananda Yoga – Yoga of Synthesis – development of hand, head, and heart through the practice of Karma, Jnana, Raja, and Bhakti Yoga.  Wrote more than 200 books on metaphysics, Vedanta, Yoga and Psychology
  • 66. Paramhansa Madhava Das ji Date of Birth: 1798 (not much proof) Place of Birth: Bengal Death: 1921 (123) Place of Death: Malsar, Gujrat Clerk in Judicial department  left home at the age of 23 He was influenced by Chaitanya Maha Prabhu and the Order of Vaishnavism before becoming a follower of Bhakti.  Travelled all over India in pursuit of learning Hatha Yoga  Practiced Yoga in the Himalayas for years
  • 67. Paramhansa Madhava Das ji  At the age of 80 settled near the Narmada River, Malsar, Gujrat  Started teaching Yoga  Sri Yogendra ji – The Yoga Institute – 1918  Sri Kuvalyananda ji – Kaivalyadhama Health and Yoga Research Center – 1924  Revival of yogic practices
  • 68. Shri T. Krishnamacharya Date of Birth: 18 November 1888 Place of Birth: Chitra Durga, Karnataka Parents: Sri Tirumalai Srinivasa Tatacharya (Father) and Shrimati Ranganayakiamma (Mother) Wife: Namagiriamma Death: 28 February 1989 Place of Death: Chennai  Father was the teacher of Vedas  well versed in Shad-darshan, Yog Sutra, Sanskrit Grammar, and Ayurveda  Rammohan Brahmachari – Yog Guru
  • 69. Shri T. Krishnamacharya  The path of Yoga is different for different people (absolutely unique)  K Pattabhi Jois – Ashtanga Vinyasa  B K S Iyengar – Iyengar Yoga  T K V Desikachar – Viniyoga – Krishnamacharya Yog Mnadiram - 1976  Books- Yog Makaranada, Yog Rahasya, Yog Valli, Yogaasanagalu  At the age of 96 – hip fracture  Father of Modern Yoga  28 February 1989
  • 70. Guiding principles to be followed by the practioner • General principles are established in yogic practices to provide a framework for practitioners to follow, ensuring that they derive maximum benefit from their practice while minimizing the risk of injury or harm. These principles serve as guiding principles that promote safety, effectiveness, and spiritual growth in yoga. • Division of guiding principles:- 1. Before of practice 2. During practice 3. After practice
  • 71. Guiding principles to be followed by the practitioner • The place of practice should be cleaned. Yoga should be performed in a quiet and calm atmosphere. • Yogic practices should be performed on an empty/light stomach. It's mostly because, on a heavy stomach, one would not be able to twist/bend comfortably. If you have just eaten, the internal organs especially the stomach will be engaged in digesting the food while feeling the pressure of the twisting /turning of asanas. The practitioner would not be able to utilize the practice time effectively. • The bladder and bowels should be emptied. • A mat or a folded blanket should be used. Don't practice on uneven surfaces. • Light and comfortable (preferably cotton) clothes should be worn. Wear a shirt / T-shirt that won't come off while you perform an inverted posture or backbends. • अभ्यास स्र्ल को साफ करना िाजहए। योग शांत वातावरि में करना िाजहए। • यौजगक अभ्यास खाली/हल्क े पेट करना िाजहए। यह ज्यादातर इसजलए होता है, क्ोंजक भारी पेट पर, कोई आराम से मुड़/झुकने में सक्षम नहीं होगा। यजद आपने अभी-अभी खाया है, तो आंतररक अंग जवशेष रूप से पेट आसनों क े घुमाव/मोड़ क े दबाव को महसूस करते हुए भोजन को पिाने में लगे रहेंगे। अभ्यासी अभ्यास क े समय का प्रभावी ढंग से उपयोग नहीं कर पाएगा। • मूत्राशय और आंत्र को खाली जकया जाना िाजहए। • एक िटाई या एक मुड़ा हुआ क ं बल का उपयोग जकया जाना िाजहए। असमान सतहों पर अभ्यास न करें। • हल्क े और आरामदायक (अजधमानतः सूती) कपड़े पहने जाने िाजहए। ऐसी शटथ/टी-शटथ पहनें जो उल्टे आसन या बैकबेंड करते समय न उतरे।
  • 72. Guiding principles to be followed by the practitioner • During Practice sessions should start with a prayer. It is encouraged to chant a mantra but even Om chanting is sufficient. • Breath awareness should always be maintained. Chest expansion and contraction should be specially emphasized. • While releasing the posture, always release the way you went into the posture (Last In First Out). This way there would never be any chance of injury. The Khumbhaka (Breath retention) should always be done with attention. Sometimes people tend to hold their breath while doing advanced asana or while trying to hold the posture for a longer duration. This needs to be avoided. It is very important to continue breathing unless otherwise instructed. • अभ्यास सत्र क े दौरान एक प्रार्थना क े सार् शुरू करना िाजहए. मंत्र जप करने क े जलए प्रोत्साजहत जकया जाता है लेजकन ओम जाप भी पयाथप्त है। • सांस की जागरूकता हमेशा बनाए रखनी िाजहए। छाती क े जवस्तार और संक ु िन पर जवशेष रूप से जोर जदया जाना िाजहए। • आसन जारी करते समय, हमेशा जजस तरह से आप मुद्रा में गए र्े उसे छोड़ दें (लास्ट इन फस्टथ आउट)। इस तरह िोट लगने की कभी कोई संभावना नहीं होगी। क ुं भक (सांस प्रजतधारि) हमेशा ध्यान से जकया जाना िाजहए। कभी-कभी लोगों में उन्नत आसन करते समय या लंबी अवजध क े जलए मुद्रा को पकड़ने की कोजशश करते समय अपनी सांस रोकने की प्रवृजत्त होती है। इससे जबल्क ु ल बिने की जरूरत है। सांस लेना जारी रखना बहुत महत्वपूिथ है जब तक जक अन्यर्ा जनदेश न जदया जाए।
  • 73. Guiding principles to be followed by the practitioner • It's also important to understand that mastering a particular posture or mudra or Bandha, takes time. Staying patient with the practice is a secret that one should learn as early as possible. • Contraindications of any asana/mudra/bandha/pranayama should always be followed. • यह समझना भी महत्वपूिथ है जक जकसी जवशेष आसन या मुद्रा या बंध में महारत हाजसल करने में समय लगता है। अभ्यास क े सार् धैयथ रखना एक रहस्य है जजसे जजतनी जल्दी हो सक े सीखना िाजहए। • जकसी भी आसन/मुद्रा/बंध/प्रािायाम क े अंतजवथरोध का हमेशा पालन करना िाजहए।
  • 74. Guiding principles to be followed by the practitioner • Don't shower immediately after practice. Give time for the body to cool down on its own. Wait for a minimum of 30-45 minutes before taking a shower. • Immediately eating after the practice is not advised, maintain at least 30-45 minutes before eating. • Always end the asana practice with a relaxation asana such as Shavasana, Makarasana, Balasana, etc. Shavasana is the most preferable one. • Always end the class with Shant- path/mediation. Be grateful for the opportunity to be able to practice that day. • अभ्यास क े तुरंत बाद स्नान न करें। शरीर को अपने आप ठं डा होने का समय दें। स्नान करने से पहले कम से कम 30-45 जमनट तक प्रतीक्षा करें। • अभ्यास क े तुरंत बाद खाने की सलाह नहीं दी जाती है, खाने से पहले कम से कम 30-45 जमनट का समय बनाए रखें। • आसन अभ्यास को हमेशा जवश्राम आसन जैसे शवासन, मकरासन, बालासन आजद से समाप्त करें। शवासन सबसे बेहतर है। • कक्षा को हमेशा शांत-पर्/मध्यस्र्ता से समाप्त करें। उस जदन अभ्यास करने में सक्षम होने क े अवसर क े जलए आभारी रहें।
  • 75. Jnana Yoga • समग्र िान जजससे जीव परमपद् मोक्ष को प्राप्त कर सक े । (आत्मा, प्रक ृ जत एवं ईश्वर को जानना) JNANA YOGA Bahirang Sadhana Vivek Vairagya Shat Sampatti Mumukshutvam Antrang Sadhan Shravan Mnan Nidhidyasana
  • 76. Jnana Yoga •BAHIRANAGA SADHANA 1. Vivek- जनत्यवस्त्वेक ं ब्रह्म तद्व्यजतररिं सवथमजनत्यम्। अयमेव जनत्याजनत्यवस्तुजववेकः। 2. Vairagya –इहस्वगथभोगेषु इच्छाराजहत्यम्। 3. Shat Sampatti- Sama, Dama, uparati, titiksha, shraddha and samadhana. 4. Mumukshutvam - 'मोक्षो मे भूयाद् ' इजत इच्छा।
  • 77. Jnana Yoga • Shat Sampatti :- 1. Sama- मनोजनग्रहः । 2. Dama-िक्षुराजदवाह्मेन्द्रियजनग्रहः । 3. Uparati - स्वधमाथनुष्ठानमेव । 4. titiksha - शीतोष्णसुखदुःखाजदसजहष्णुत्वम् । 5. Shraddha - गुरुवेदान्तवाक्ाजदषु जवश्वासः श्रद्धा । 6. Samadhana - जित्तैकाग्रता ।
  • 78. Jnana Yoga • ANTRANGA SADHANA – 1. Shraavana- listening or reading Ved vakya 2. Mnan- pondering over what is heard 3. Nidhidyasana- Contemplation and imbibing
  • 79. Bhakti Yoga • “Bhaj sevayaam ” Dhatu which means seva, puja, samarpan, upasana • Narad Bhakti Sutra- " सा तन्द्रस्मन् परमप्रेम रूपा" (भगवान क े प्रजत उत्कट प्रेम) • For emotional Sadhak • 4 types of bhakta- ितुजवथधा भजन्ते मां जना: सुक ृ जतनोऽजुथन | आतो जजिासुरर्ाथर्ी िानी ि भरतषथभ || 7.16|| (Troubled One, Opportunist, Discriminate Devotee, Seeker Of Knowledge)
  • 80. Bhakti Yoga • Navdha Bhakti- श्रविं कीतथनं जवष्णोः स्मरिं पादसेवनम्। अिथनं वन्दनं दास्यं सख्यमात्मजनवेदनम् ॥ 1.Shravana (hearing the Lila of the Supreme) 2. Kirtan (singing His praise) 3. Smarana (remembering His name) 4. Padasevana (worshipping His Lotus Feet) 5. Archana (offerings) 6. Vandana (prostration) 7. Dasya (service) 8. Sakhya (friendship) 9. Atma- nivedana (complete self-surrender).
  • 81. Karma Yoga • “Kr” dhatu which means to do or action • To attain Mukti through karma • नजह कजश्चत्क्षिमजप जातु जतष्ठत्यकमथक ृ त । कायथते ह्यवशः कमथ सवथः प्रक ृ जतजैगुथिैः ।। (गीता 3/5) • Nishkama Karma 1. Phala ki icha ka tyaga 2. Kartvya bhaav 3. Surrendering karma Phala to god (whatever I have done is just because of god)
  • 83. Karma Yoga • According to Bhagavad Gita 1. कमथ - शास्त्र क े अनुक ू ल, वेदों क े अनुक ू ल जकये गये कमथ। 2. अकमथ - अकमथ का अर्थ है कमथ का अभाव याजन तुष्णी अभाव । 3. जवकमथ - अर्ाथत जो जनजषद्ध (पाप) कमथ है वह जवकमथ है। • According to Vedanta- 1. संजित कमथ 2. प्रारब्ध कमथ 3. आगामी कमथ
  • 84. Raja Yoga • One of six Aastik darshan (Patanjali’s Yoga, Ashtanga Yoga) • Swami Vivekananda- raja yoga • Path of will power • Bahirang and Antrang Yoga (indirect and direct over mind) • Yogas Chitta vritti nirodha (1.2)
  • 86. Raja Yoga YAMAS (Social discipline) • अश्चहंसासत्यास्तेयब्रह्मचयावपररग्रहा यमाः । 2.30 • जाश्चतदेिकालसमयािवस्मिन्ाः साववभौमा महाव्रतम् । 2.31 1. अश्चहंसाप्रश्चतष्ठायां तत्सश्चन्धौ वैरत्यागः । 2.35 2. सत्यप्रश्चतष्ठायां श्चियाफलाश्रयत्वम् । 36 3. अस्तेयप्रश्चतष्ठायां सववरत्नोपस्थािम् । 37 4. ब्रह्मचयवप्रश्चतष्ठायां वीयवलाभः । 38 5. अपररग्रहस्थैये जन्मकथंतासंबोधः । 39
  • 87. Raja Yoga NIYAMA (Self discipline) िौचसंतोषतपःस्वाध्यायेश्वरप्रश्चिधािाश्चि श्चियमाः। 2.32 1. िौचात् स्वाङ्गजुगुप्सा परैरसंसगवः। 2.40 2. संतोषादिुत्तमसुखलाभः । 42 3. कायेस्मियश्चसस्मिरिुस्मिक्षयात् तपसः। 43 4. स्वाध्यायाद् इष्टदेवतासंप्रयोगः। 44 5. समाश्चधश्चसस्मिरीश्वरप्रश्चिधािात्। 45
  • 88. Raja Yoga न्द्रस्र्रसुखम् आसनम् । 2.46 तस्मिन्सश्चत श्वासप्रश्वासयोगवश्चतश्चविेदः प्रािायामः। 2.49 स्वश्चवषयासंप्रयोगे श्चचत्तस्वरूपािुकार इवेस्मियािां प्रत्याहारः। 2.54 देिबन्धश्चित्तस्य धारिा । 3.1  तत्र प्रत्ययैकतािता ध्यािम् ।3.2 तदेवाथवमात्रश्चिभावसं स्वरूपिून्यश्चमव समाश्चधः।3.3
  • 89. Hatha Yoga 'हठ' शब्द दो अक्षर 'ह' और 'ठ' से जमलकर बना है, जजसमें ह और 'ठ' का अर्थ है – ह = सूयथ स्वर, उष्णता का प्रतीक, जपंगला नाड़ी, दायीं नाजसका ठ = िि स्वर, शीतलता का प्रतीक, इड़ा नाड़ी, बायी नाजसका सूयथ स्वर (जपंगला नाड़ी) और िि स्वर (इड़ा नाड़ी ) में समन्वय स्र्ाजपत कर प्राि का सुषुम्ना में संिाररत होना। According to Swami Muktibodhananda - 'Ha' means 'prana' force and 'tha' means mind (mental energy). Thus, Hath yoga means union of pranic and mental energy".  हकार कीजतथतः सूयथः ठकारश्चि. उच्यते । सूयथ िि मसोयोगात हठयोगो जनगद्यते ।। • “ह” कार सूयथ स्वर और ठ कार िि स्वर है इन सूयथ और िि स्वर को प्रािायाम आजद का जवशेष अभ्यास कर प्राि की गाती सुषुम्ना वाजहनी कर लेना ही हठ योग है !”
  • 90. Hatha Yoga • Major Texts- Hatha Yog Pradipika, Gheranda Samhita, Shiva Samhita, Siddha Siddhant Padati, Goraksha Shatak, Hatha Ratnavali • Hatha Yog Pradipika- Swami Swatmarama (Chaturanga Yoga) 1. Asana 2. Khumbhaka 3. Mudra 4. Nadanusandhana
  • 91. Sukshma Vyayama  Maharishi Kartikeya Maharaj propagated the practices of Sukshma Vyayama.  Dheerendra Brahmachari spread it further.  48 Sukshma Vyayama  Special emphasis on breathing and awareness on certain points  Develop sukshama sharir and sthula as well
  • 92. Sthula Vyayama  More strenuous and involves more than one joint or part of the body  Emphasis on developing sthula sarir  5 in number 1. Hrid Gati 2. Sarvang Pushti 3. Rekha Gati 4. Utkurdan 5. Urdhav Gati
  • 93. Surya Namaskar • Sequence of 12 Asanas with bhava or attitude of gratitude towards lord Sun
  • 94. Shatkarma   Performing the shat karmas: Dhauti, basti, neti, laulki, trataka and Kapalbhati is essential.
  • 95. Shatkarma Antar Dhauti Vatsara Varisara Vahnisara Bahishkrita 1. Shaping the lips like a crow’s beak, slowly, slowly suck in as much air as possible, circulate it inside the abdomen, and then gradually expel it completely. 2. Drink water slowly through the mouth up to the throat. The abdomen is then moved and the water evacuated through the anus. The technique of varisara dhauti is the most secret. (Tadasana, Triyaka tadasana, kati chakrasana, triyak Bhujangasana, udarakarshanasana) 3. Retaining prana vayu, pull the navel against the spinal column one hundred times. This enables agnisara dhauti to be performed. Diseases of the abdomen are removed and the digestive fire is stimulated. 4. Purse the lips like the beak of a crow, take in air through the mouth, filling the abdomen. Retain the air for one and a half hours in the abdomen, then circulate it and expel it through the rectum. Standing in water up to the navel, push out the rectum (shakti nadi) and wash it, removing the waste products. When the nadi is clean, draw it in again., It is not possible to practice Bahishkrita mahadhauti until the ability to retain air in the abdomen for up to one and a half hours has been developed.
  • 96. Shatkarma Danta Dhauti Dantamoola Jihva Karanrandhra Kapalrandhra 1. Rub or massage the roots of the teeth with the juice of the khadira plant or with clean Earth until the impurities are removed. 2. The root of the tongue should be cleaned by inserting the index finger, middle finger, and ring finger in the throat. Kapha disorders (phlegm) are removed by slowly and gently rubbing the tongue. Once this cleaning and rubbing is over, apply a little butter on the tongue. Again perform the action like that of milking a cow. Thereafter, stretch the tongue out with the help of small tongs. The length of the tongue increases by doing this practice daily at the time of sunrise and sunset. 3. Clean the orifices of both ears with the index and ring fingers. By practicing this daily, nada or inner sound may be heard. 4. Massage the forehead with the right-hand thumb, With this type of practice one is relieved of kapha dosha. The nadis are purified and divine vision is attained. Practice daily at the end of sleep, after food, and before sleep.
  • 97. Shatkarma 1. The stem of a soft portion of the banana tree, a thin turmeric stem, or a sugarcane stem should be repeatedly inserted (through the mouth) and then slowly withdrawn from the middle chest. 2. After a meal the practitioner should drink water up to the throat and, after looking upwards for a moment, expel the water by vomiting. Kapha and pitta disorders are removed. 3. A roll of fine cotton cloth four fingers wide should be gradually swallowed and then taken out slowly. It keeps the body free of disease, increases stamina and cheerfulness, and promotes healthy growth. Hrid Dhauti Danda Vaman Vastra
  • 98. Shatkarma MOOLASHODHAN Cleaning of the anus is essential with a turmeric root or the middle finger combined with repeated washing with water. The body becomes graceful and healthy and the digestive fire is stimulated. Disorders of apana vayu cannot be removed without performing moola shodhana or anal cleansing.
  • 99. Shatkarma Basti Jala Sthala 1. Sitting, in water up to the navel, adopt utkatasana, then contract and expand the anal region. This is jala basti. This practice removes wind disorders, urinary and digestive problems, and makes the body beautiful like that of Kamadeva, the god of love. 2. Sitting in paschimottanasana, practice basti in the lower portion, contracting and expanding the anus by means of Ashwini mudra. It removes diseases of the stomach and bowels and enhances the digestive fire.
  • 100. Shatkarma 1. The breath is to be inhaled through ida nadi (the left nostril) and exhaled through pingala nadi (the right nostril). Then the breath is inhaled through surya nadi (the right nostril) and exhaled through chandra nadi (the left nostril). Inhalation and exhalation should be fast; do not hold it. This technique removes kapha dosha. 2. Suck water through both nostrils and expel it through the mouth. Practice this repeatedly. This vyutkrama kapalbhati removes kapha disorders. 3. Suck in water through the mouth with a hissing sound and expel it through the nose. Through this practice the body of the practitioner becomes as beautiful as that of Cupid and signs of old age do not manifest. Cleanliness and purity manifest in the body and kapha dosha is removed. Kapalbhati Vatakrama Vyutkrama Sheetkrama
  • 101. Shatkarma SUTRA NETI Take a thread half as long as the arm, insert it in the nose, and take it out through the mouth. This is called neti karma. Its practice enables one to attain perfection in khechari, elimination of kapha, and attainment of divine vision.  LAULIKI (NAULI) The abdomen should be rotated very swiftly from side to side. This lauliki (nauli) destroys all types of diseases and activates the digestive fire. 1. Vama 2. Dakshin 3. Madhya 4. Bhramar Nauli
  • 102. Shatkarma TRATAKA Gazing at a subtle object without blinking the eyes, until tears begin to fall, is known as trataka. With constant practice of trataka, Shambhavi mudra is achieved, defects of the eyes are removed and divine vision is attained.
  • 103. Yogasana • Definition of Yoga न्द्रस्र्रसुखमासनम्॥2.46॥ प्रयत्नशैजर्ल्यानन्त्यसमापजत्तभ्याम्॥ 2.47|| ततो द्वन्द्द्वानजभघातः॥2.48॥ हठस्य प्रर्मांगत्वादासनं पूवथमुच्यते । क ु याथत्तदासनं स्र्ैयथमारोग्यं िांगलाघवम् ॥ 1.17 ॥ Hatha Yoga Pradipika • In the yogic scriptures it is said that there were originally 8,400,000 asanas, which represent the 8,400,000 incarnations every individual must pass through before attaining liberation from the cycle of birth and death. Of these few hundred, only the eighty-four most useful are discussed in detail. • Awareness, right and left side practice, counter pose, relaxation
  • 104. Yogasana • Categories of asana:- 1. Standing 1. Meditative 2. Sitting 2. Relaxative 3. Prone 3. Cultural 4. Supine
  • 105. Pranayama प्रािायाम शब्द 2 शब्दों क े मेल से बना है, जजसमें से एक प्राि और दू सरा आयाम है| प्राि एक उज्जवल शन्द्रि ऊजाथ है, जो हमारे शरीर को जजंदा रखती है और जो हमारे तन और मन को शन्द्रि प्रदान करती है| प्रािायाम शब्द का मतलब होता है खुद क े जीवन शन्द्रि को जनयजमत करना और उसका सही रूप से उपयोग करना|  3 elements of pranayama- 1. Puraka – Inhalation 2. Rechaka – Exhalation 3. Khumbhaka – Retention (Antar, Bahayah, Kevala Khumbhaka )  Stages- 1. Uttam (20) 2. Madhyama (16) 3. Adham (12) (1:4:2) Sectional Breathing – Abdominal, thoracic, clavicular, full yogic breathing  Suryabhedan- inhale through right, exhale through left
  • 106. Pranayama  Bhastrika – forceful inhalation and exhalation  Bhramari – chant m kara with exhalation  Ujjayi – inhalation and exhalation while contraction of the throat  Sheetali – stretching tongue out and joining the side ends of the tongue inhale through the tongue and exhale through the nose  Sheetkari – inhaling through the mouth with teeth clenched and exhaling through nose  Murcha – means faint or to expand, inhale and hold with Jalandhar bandha and then slowly exhale Plavani – inhaling through tongue and filling abdomen with air
  • 107. Bandha & Mudra • More important than asana and pranayama • Influences Pranamaya and Manomaya kosha • Mudra means gestures that may be physical or mental, mudras involve the positioning of the hands, body, face, or mind in specific ways to create a flow of energy within the body • Khechari, Shambhavi, Shanmukhi, vipreetkarni, mahamudra, brahma mudra, chin mudra, Chinmaya and Adi mudra • Bandhas are the physical and psychic locks that awaken special kinds of sensations and help in increasing the pranic energy in the body. • Jalandhar, uddiyana, Moola bandha and Maha bandha
  • 108. Yogic Relaxation Technique • 25-30 minutes of relaxation technique • Steps:- 1. Preparation (physical and mental) in Shavasana 2. Resolve (Sankalp) 3. Rotation of consciousness 4. Awareness of breath 5. Feelings and sensations 6. Visualisation 7. Ending the practice with resolve 8. Slowly externalizing the awareness
  • 109. Dhyana • तत्र प्रत्ययैकतानता ध्यानम् ।3.2 | Patanjala Yog Sutra • Effortless one-pointed state of mind • One can meditate on the breath, ishta devata, candle flame, thought, or the real self • Benefits – 1. It makes you aware of yourself, increases intuition, keeps you calm, and enhances compassion, empathy, and kindness. Works as a natural stress stabilizer. 2. It develops the willpower needed to avoid bad habits. Meditation practice improves the brain's problem-solving and decision-making strategies. 3. Research shows that meditators have lower cortisol levels in the brain which explains their insightful nature and resilience. 4. A study on the effect of an 8-week mindful meditation course found that people who are regular meditation practitioners had heightened attention and concentration spans.