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Biochemistry
2
UNIT I
Biomolecules
3
4
Introduction
The living matter is composed of
mainly six elements…
6
The living matter is composed of
mainly six elements………….
1. Carbon,
2. Hydrogen,
3. Oxygen,
4. Nitrogen,
5. Phosphorus and
6. Sulfur. 7
The living matter is composed of
………….
These include Ca, K, Na, Cl, Mg,
Fe, I, Zn, F,
8
•A biomolecule is a chemical
compound found in living organisms.
•These include chemicals that are
composed of mainly carbon, hydrogen,
oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus.
9
• Biomolecules are the building blocks
of life and perform important functions
in living organisms.
•Bio = Life
•Molecule = a group of atoms held
together by bonds
10
11
12
13
14
WHAT WE
LEARN
1.Biomolecule, also called biological molecule, any
of numerous substances that are produced by
cells and living organisms.
2.Biomolecules have a wide range of sizes and
structures and perform a vast range of functions.
3.The four major types of biomolecules are
carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins.
16
17
ACTIVITY
19
20
•Carbohydrates are the most abundant organic molecules in
nature.
•They are primarily composed of the elements carbon,
hydrogen and oxygen.
•The name carbohydrate literally means ‘hydrates of carbon.
•Some of the carbohydrates possess the empirical formula
(C.H2O)n
•Carbohydrates may be defined as polyhydroxyaldehydes or
ketones or compounds which produce them on hydrolysis.
21
•They are broadly classified into three major groups—
monosaccharides,oligosaccharides & polysaccharides..
22
Monosaccharides
• (Greek : mono-one) are the simplest group of carbohydrates and
are often referred to as simple sugars.
• They have the general formula Cn(H2O)n, and they cannot be
further hydrolysed.
• The monosaccharides are divided into different categories, based
on the functional group and the number of carbon atoms
• Based on the number of carbon atoms, the monosaccharides are
regarded as trioses (3C), tetroses (4C), pentoses (5C), hexoses
(6C) and heptoses (7C).
23
Oligosaccharides
• Oligosaccharides (Greek: oligo-few) contain
2-10 monosaccharide molecules which are
liberated on hydrolysis.
• Based on the number of monosaccharide units
present, the oligosaccharides are further
subdivided to disaccharides, trisaccharides etc.
24
Polysaccharides
• Polysaccharides (Greek: poly-many) are polymers of
monosaccharide units with high molecular weight (up
to a million).
• They are usually tasteless (non-sugars) and form
colloids with water. The polysaccharides are of two
types – homopolysaccharides and
heteropolysaccharides.
25
WHAT WE LEARN
26
BIOLOGICAL
FUNCTIONS
28
29
1. Dietary source of energy (4 Cal/g) for all organisms.
2. Precursors for many organic compounds (fats, amino acids).
3. Participate in the structure of cell membrane and cellular
functions such as cell growth, adhesion and fertilization.
4. They are structural components of many organisms. These
include the fiber (cellulose) of plants.
5. The storage form of energy (glycogen) to meet the immediate
energy demands of the body.
30
31
32
33
34
END

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UNIT 1 BIOMOLECULE_CARBOHYDRATES PRESENTATION

  • 2. 2
  • 4. 4
  • 6. The living matter is composed of mainly six elements… 6
  • 7. The living matter is composed of mainly six elements…………. 1. Carbon, 2. Hydrogen, 3. Oxygen, 4. Nitrogen, 5. Phosphorus and 6. Sulfur. 7
  • 8. The living matter is composed of …………. These include Ca, K, Na, Cl, Mg, Fe, I, Zn, F, 8
  • 9. •A biomolecule is a chemical compound found in living organisms. •These include chemicals that are composed of mainly carbon, hydrogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and phosphorus. 9
  • 10. • Biomolecules are the building blocks of life and perform important functions in living organisms. •Bio = Life •Molecule = a group of atoms held together by bonds 10
  • 11. 11
  • 12. 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. 14
  • 16. 1.Biomolecule, also called biological molecule, any of numerous substances that are produced by cells and living organisms. 2.Biomolecules have a wide range of sizes and structures and perform a vast range of functions. 3.The four major types of biomolecules are carbohydrates, lipids, nucleic acids, and proteins. 16
  • 17. 17
  • 19. 19
  • 20. 20
  • 21. •Carbohydrates are the most abundant organic molecules in nature. •They are primarily composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. •The name carbohydrate literally means ‘hydrates of carbon. •Some of the carbohydrates possess the empirical formula (C.H2O)n •Carbohydrates may be defined as polyhydroxyaldehydes or ketones or compounds which produce them on hydrolysis. 21
  • 22. •They are broadly classified into three major groups— monosaccharides,oligosaccharides & polysaccharides.. 22
  • 23. Monosaccharides • (Greek : mono-one) are the simplest group of carbohydrates and are often referred to as simple sugars. • They have the general formula Cn(H2O)n, and they cannot be further hydrolysed. • The monosaccharides are divided into different categories, based on the functional group and the number of carbon atoms • Based on the number of carbon atoms, the monosaccharides are regarded as trioses (3C), tetroses (4C), pentoses (5C), hexoses (6C) and heptoses (7C). 23
  • 24. Oligosaccharides • Oligosaccharides (Greek: oligo-few) contain 2-10 monosaccharide molecules which are liberated on hydrolysis. • Based on the number of monosaccharide units present, the oligosaccharides are further subdivided to disaccharides, trisaccharides etc. 24
  • 25. Polysaccharides • Polysaccharides (Greek: poly-many) are polymers of monosaccharide units with high molecular weight (up to a million). • They are usually tasteless (non-sugars) and form colloids with water. The polysaccharides are of two types – homopolysaccharides and heteropolysaccharides. 25
  • 28. 28
  • 29. 29
  • 30. 1. Dietary source of energy (4 Cal/g) for all organisms. 2. Precursors for many organic compounds (fats, amino acids). 3. Participate in the structure of cell membrane and cellular functions such as cell growth, adhesion and fertilization. 4. They are structural components of many organisms. These include the fiber (cellulose) of plants. 5. The storage form of energy (glycogen) to meet the immediate energy demands of the body. 30
  • 31. 31
  • 32. 32
  • 33. 33
  • 34. 34
  • 35. END