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Setting your cites on open
The Initiative for Open Citations (I4OC)
what it is, why it matters and how you can get involved
Catriona J. MacCallum (Hindawi)
Mark Patterson (eLife) • Dario Taraborelli (Wikimedia Foundation)
UKSG• Glasgow, April 2018
Open Access since 2007
~18,000 peer-reviewed articles a year
Science, Technology & Medicine
A founding member of OASPA
 Free access – no charge to access
 No embargos – immediately available
 Reuse – Creative Commons Attribution License
(CC BY) - use with proper attribution
November 2016
September 2017
Welcome to…
… #OpenCitationsMonth
at
#UKSG18
https://ja.pngtree.com/freepng/champagne-champagne_4914.html - personal use only
The Initiative for Open Citations
What it is
Why it matters
Knowledge Discovery
Evaluation
Beyond the article…
How open citations are being re-used
How you can get involved
Paper
A
Paper
B
References
are
Data
The Initiative for Open Citations (I4OC.org)
Aim of I40C
To promote the availability of data on citations that are structured,
separable, and open.
Structured - the data representing each publication and each citation instance
are expressed in common, machine-readable formats.
Separable - citations can be accessed and analyzed without the need to access
the source bibliographic products (such as journal articles and books).
Open - the data are freely accessible and reusable.
Why?
Establish a global public web of linked scholarly citation data to enhance
the discoverability of published content, both subscription access and open
access.
This will particularly benefit individuals who are not members of academic institutions
with subscriptions to commercial citation databases.
Build new services for the benefit of publishers, researchers, funding
agencies, academic institutions and the general public
And enhance existing services.
Create a public citation graph to explore connections between knowledge
fields, and to follow the evolution of ideas and scholarly disciplines.
Image: Andy Lamb, CC BY https://www.flickr.com/photos/speedoflife/8273922515/in/photostream/
The impetus - COASP
How it came
together
The starting point
Most publishers already deposit
their citation data with Crossref
The default state for the data is not
open
The challenge
Could we persuade a group of
influential publishers to release
their data all at once?
Making the case
It’s easy and doesn’t cost anything
All you need to do is to send an email to support@crossref.org
Publishers also benefit
Better discovery tools mean that content will be found and
used more
The goal cannot be achieved alone
A comprehensive network of all scholarship can only be
achieved if data is pooled
Making it happen
Agree a deadline
Everyone has time to prepare their comms and to be part of a
big splash
Focus on publishers depositing the most data
Contacted the top-20 publishers asking for agreement in
principle and permission to share their decision
Leverage the early adopters
As soon as we had a few publishers on board, others quickly
followed
Why are publishers joining I4OC?
“If you’re not looking to
monetize references in some
way, why wouldn’t you?”
“We believe there is great benefit
in supporting sustainable and
standardized infrastructure.
Opening up our reference
metadata cost us no more than
the time required to write one
simple email.” Liz Ferguson,
Wiley
“At Taylor & Francis we are
working to make it as easy as
possible for the communities we
serve to achieve their open aims.
I4OC sits well with this, and was a
very quick and easy process to
implement.”
“Although we charge for metadata
feeds, those are service- rather
than content-based charges. We
didn’t identify any commercial
downside of supporting I4OC as
we are highly unlikely to develop
significant revenue streams from
just our own references.”
“References have long been a path to
serendipitous discovery. Making citation
data open and machine readable will
only accelerate that discovery
process for researchers.”
Why are publishers joining I4OC?
“One of the key purposes of a
publisher is to assist in the
development of networks of
scholarship to aid the cross
fertilization of research. Freeing
up the reference data is an
extremely powerful way of doing
that.”
“One of the most exciting
benefits is the potential to
expose networks of research
that might otherwise take
years to discover.”
“It will make our customers’ lives
easier by helping data scientists to
mine a large body of references in
one go. Currently we see little threat
to our business as this aligns perfectly
with our aims to go beyond open
access to research, by using open
approaches and utilizing our own data
to advance discovery.” Steven
Inchcoombe, Springer Nature
The Initiative for Open
Citations
We built a coalition of major funders,
technology platforms, open data
organizations and publishers supporting
the unrestricted availability of scholarly
citation data.
STAKEHOLDERS OF THE INITIATIVE FOR OPEN CITATIONS • http://i4oc.org
Where we started
~1% of the
Crossref citation
data is open
Where we are
now
>50% of the
citation data is
open
What we can do
now
We can start to
use the data
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: SUSAN KENWRICK FOR HELP WITH THE JIGSAW
Where we’d like
to get to
A public map of
scholarship
LONDON UNDERGROUND MAP FROM 1908 (Public Domain) • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tube_map_1908-2.jp
Can also explore
how the map of
scholarship has
evolved
One year on…
The fraction of open citation data has surpassed 50%
The number of participating publishers has risen to 490.
There are over 500 million references now openly available.
There are almost 50 stakeholder organisations who have joined
I4OC to help advocate and promote reuse of open citations.
The initiative has attracted commentary and media coverage
across the world.
Of the top-20 biggest
publishers with citation
data, all but five now
make these data open via
Crossref.
Three represent Scholarly
Societies…
Crossref was founded to enable a
shared reciprocal linking and
metadata exchange, removing the
need for bilateral agreements
between publishers and other
service providers.
Extracting data via the
Crossref API
~41% Crossref records
have citation data
~47% of those have
public citation data
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: DANIEL ECER, DATA SCIENTIST, ELIFE • https://elifesci.org/crossref-data-notebook
Exploring the data from Crossref
>1billion citations
49% are open
53% have DOIs (and
can be linked to
another record)
Some cleanup
required
Exploring the data from Crossref
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: DANIEL ECER, DATA SCIENTIST, ELIFE • https://elifesci.org/crossref-data-notebook
Why do we need open citations?
The ability to undertake large-scale and generalizable
bibliometric research … is limited to a few well-funded centers
that can afford to pay for full access to the raw data of Web of
Science or Scopus.
…scientometricians need a data source that is freely available
and comprehensive. This is a matter of scientific integrity,
scientific progress, and equity
Scientometrics is widely used to support science policy and
research evaluation, with consequences for the entire scientific
community. There is a need for specialized organizations, both
commercial and non-commercial, that offer scientometric
services.
...to guarantee full transparency and reproducibility of
scientometric analyses, these analyses need to be based on open
data sources.
advocating for open references is critical to ensure replicable and
equitable research practices.
We should use our relationships with journals—as authors,
reviewers, and editorial board members—to advocate for
openness and should expect scientometric journals to be leaders
in this respect.
“References are a product of scholarly work and represent the
backbone of science—demonstrating the origin and advancement
of knowledge—and provide essential information for studying
science and making decisions about the future of research.
References are generated by the academic community and should
be freely available to this community.”
Dec 2017
Who cares about
measuring research
impact?
Researchers
(authors and
readers)
Publishers Funders The public
Policy Makers
Institutions
Impact factors mask huge variation in citations - if you use
it you are dishonest and statistically illiterate
@Stephen_Curry #COASP 2015
COASP7 ‘Research and researcher evaluation’ (2015),
Stephen Curry (Imperial College London) – available soon
from OASPA website
The Acta Crystallographica
Section A effect. The plot shows
that this journal had a JIF of
2.051 in 2008 which jumped to
49.926 in 2009 due to a single
highly-cited paper. Did every
other paper in this journal
suddenly get amazingly awesome
and highly-cited for this period?
Of course not.
Steve Royle. “Wrong Number: A Closer Look at Impact Factors.” Quantixed, May 2015. https://quantixed.wordpress.com/2015/05/05/wrong-number-a-closer-look-at-impact-factors/
Imperfect Impact
Stuart Cantrill January 23, 2016 Imperfect impact Chemical connections
https://stuartcantrill.com/2016/01/23/imperfect-impact/
Citation Bias
CC BY NC Steven A Greenberg BMJ
2009;339:bmj.b2680 How citation distortions create
unfounded authority: analysis of a citation network
http://www.bmj.com/content/339/bmj.b2680
• Citations to papers
supporting rationale for
overproduction of β amyloid
precursor protein mRNA as a
valid model of inclusion body
myositis.
• The supportive papers
received 94% of the 214
citations to these primary
data, whereas the six papers
containing data that
weakened or refuted the
claim received only 6% of
these citations
Fig 1. Citation distributions of 11 different science journals.
Citations are to ‘citable documents’ as classified by Thomson
Reuters, which include standard research articles and reviews. The
distributions contain citations accumulated in 2015 to citable
documents published in 2013 and 2014 in order to be comparable
to the 2015 JIFs published by Thomson Reuters. To facilitate direct
comparison, distributions are plotted with the same range of
citations (0-100) in each plot; articles with more than 100 citations
are shown as a single bar at the right of each plot.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
90
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+
Numberofpapers
Number of citations
eLife
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+
Numberofpapers
Number of citations
EMBO J.
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+
Numberofpapers
Number of citations
J. Informetrics
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
80
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+
Numberofpapers
Number of citations
Nature
0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+
Numberofpapers
Number of citations
Nature Comm.
0
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+
Numberofpapers
Number of citations
PLOS Biol.
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+
Numberofpapers
Number of citations
PLOS Genet.
0
2,000
4,000
6,000
8,000
10,000
12,000
14,000
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+
Numberofpapers
Number of citations
PLOS ONE
0
20
40
60
80
100
120
140
160
180
200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+
Numberofpapers
Number of citations
Proc. R. Soc. B
0
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+
Numberofpapers
Number of citations
Science
0
200
400
600
800
1,000
1,200
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+
Numberofpapers
Number of citations
Sci. Rep.
A simple proposal for the publication of journal citation distributions
Vincent Larivière1, Véronique Kiermer2, Catriona J. MacCallum3, Marcia McNutt4, Mark Patterson5, Bernd
Pulverer6, Sowmya Swaminathan7, Stuart Taylor8, Stephen Curry9*
Published in bioRxiv, 2016 : http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/07/05/062109 CC BY
Can Scientists Assess Merit or Predict
Impact?
Analysed subjective rankings of papers from two different data
sets over five years
• Faculty of 1000
• Welcome Trust (data from Allen et al. of 2 assessor
rankings within 6 months of publication)
• In relation to citations and impact factor
Eyre-Walker A, Stoletzki N (2013) The Assessment of Science:
The Relative Merits of Post-Publication Review, the Impact
Factor, and the Number of Citations. PLoS Biol 11(10):
e1001675. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001675
http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pb
io.1001675
Subjective assessments of science are poor:
Very weak correlation between assessors
Strongly biased by the journal in which the paper was published
Number of citations or the impact factor exaggerates differences between papers
Scientists are also poor at predicting the future impact:
Because they are not good at assessing merit
Similar articles accumulate citations essentially by chance.
“What this paper shows is that whatever merit might be, scientists can't be
doing a good job of evaluating it when they rank the importance or quality of
papers. From the (lack of) correlation among assessor scores, most of the
variation in ranking has to be due to ‘error’ rather than actual quality
differences.”
Carl Bergstrom , 2013
Eisen JA, MacCallum CJ, Neylon C (2013) Expert Failure: Re-evaluating Research Assessment. PLoS Biol 11(10): e1001677.
doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001677
What is Quality?
Context dependent
Discipline
Stage of your career
Different levels
Individual
Project
Institutional (rankings…)
National and International
Cannot be distilled into a single number or proxy
Multi-variate
Metrics need to be qualitative as well as quantitative
Nicolas Raymond https://www.flickr.com/photos/82955120@N05/8691488200/in/photostream/ CC BY
‘qualities…’
not ‘quality’
DORA
References are data…
Data about the network of information
Between scholars, fields and science & society
A source with which to validate a scholarly work
Data sharing is on the agenda…
OECD
EU Open Science
AGU Enabling Fair Data Project
Belmont Forum
NIH, NSF
RDA, CoData, FORCE11 & many others
Data citation is a prerequisite as a first class research object
e.g. DataCite DOIs in the reference list…
References are data
One of the most expertly curated sources of scholarly recommendations…
We need to apply the scientific
method to the process of
scholarly communication itself
Open Science?
Open
Science
= Open Infrastructure+Open Outputs Culture
(change)
X
Access, reuse &
discoverability Evaluation &
Researcher behaviour
How
Jeff Rouder
@JeffRouder
What is Open Science? It is endeavoring to preserve the rights of others to
reach independent conclusions about your data and work.
8:47 PM - 5 Dec 2017
Why
most of the data needed to support Open Science is
controlled by commercial companies, both big and
small. This growing reliance on a handful of companies
to provide proprietary analytics and decision tools for
research funders and universities poses serious risks for
the future
Open Source
• prevents monopolistic control
• requires an active community of users and service
providers to develop and maintain infrastructure
Open Data
• metadata about the research process itself, such as
funding data, publication and citation data, and
“altmetrics” data
Open Integrations
• standard metadata formats and open APIs
Open Contracts
• completely open (public) and no lock-in (e.g. Non-
Disclosure Agreements, multi-year contract terms, and
privately negotiated prices)
PARTIAL CITATION GRAPH FOR ULRICH K. LAEMMLI (1970) • http://tinyurl.com/kbzdxwh
How data from the I4OC is being reused?
The Wikidata
Citation Graph
36 million citation links
using the cites (P2860)
property in Wikidata
How data from the I4OC is being reused?
Tools to create profiles
Scholia uses data from Wikidata
sourced from Crossref and other
Metadata providers
PROFILE INFORMATION FOR EGON WILLIGHAGEN • https://tools.wmflabs.org/scholia/author/Q20895241
How data from the I4OC is being reused?
Integration of cited
by data by
ScienceOpen
SEARCH RESULTS FROM SCIENCEOPEN SHOWING CITED-BY DATA • http://www.scienceopen.com/
How data from the I4OC is being
reused?
The Open Citations
Corpus
A broad and open collection of
citation information from many
sources
David Shotton and Silvio Peroni
PROGRESS OF THE INITIATIVE FOR OPEN CITATIONS • http://i4oc.org
Towards a fully open scholarly graph
“The visualization shows a
structure of science that is well
known from earlier large-scale
bibliometric visualizations,
which were based on Web of
Science or Scopus data.”
VISUALIZING FREELY AVAILABLE CITATION DATA USING VOSVIEWER • https://www.cwts.nl/blog?article=n-r2r294
https://www.cwts.nl/blog?article=n-r2r294
The Initiative for Open Citations • I4OC
Making tens of millions of machine-readable citation
metadata openly available to everyone, with no copyright
restriction.
PROGRESS OF THE INITIATIVE FOR OPEN CITATIONS • http://i4oc.org
The road to 100%
CROSSREF MEMBERS WITH OPEN REFERENCES • https://www.crossref.org/reports/members-with-
open-references/
A list of all Crossref members
with open references and
statistics on their open
reference coverage
Getting involved
If you are a publisher and deposit
references, email
support@crossref.org
A CALL TO ACTION TO THE I4OC STAKEHOLDERS • https://twitter.com/i4oc_org/status/894934190625402880
I am a scholarly publisher already depositing
references to Crossref. How do I publicly release
them?
If you are already submitting article metadata to Crossref as a
participant in their Cited-by service:
1. Contact Crossref support directly by e-mail, asking them to turn on
reference distribution for all of the relevant DOI prefixes
OR
2. Set the <reference_distribution_opt> metadata element to "any" for
each DOI deposit for which they want to make references openly
available.
How you can help (1)
• Publishers who aren't making their references public yet - send an email to
Crossref before the end of the month requesting them to make your references
open. It's that simple!
• Publishers who don't yet deposit references with Crossref - contact Crossref to
find out how to do this.
• Editors and editorial board members – if references in your journal are not yet
made public - contact your publisher and request this. Use this list to see whether
your publisher is already making references open.
• Funders, institutions, companies, researchers, and all other users of open
citation data - write a short piece about your work and the benefits of open
citation data for the I4OC website. Please contact info@i4oc.org.
How you can help (2)
• If you have a story about open citation data and why they matter to
your organization and community, share a link, tag it as
#OpenCitationsMonth. We’ll retweet it to our followers.
• Please keep an eye on the #OpenCitationsMonth tag, and help us to
amplify the message.
Thank you
C.J. MacCallum, M. Patterson, D. Taraborelli (2017) Setting your cites on open:
what it is, why it matters and how you can help. UKSG 2018 [CC BY 4.0]*
Acknowledgments
The I4OC founders: OpenCitations, Wikimedia Foundation, PLOS, eLife, DataCite, the
Center for Culture and Technology at Curtin University.
The I4OC instigators: Jonathan Dugan, Martin Fenner, Jan Gerlach, Catriona MacCallum,
Daniel Mietchen, Cameron Neylon, Mark Patterson, Michelle Paulson, Silvio Peroni, David
Shotton, Dario Taraborelli
The I4OC stakeholders (i4oc.org/#stakeholders) and participating publishers
(i4oc.org/#publishers)

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UKSG 2018 Breakout - Setting your cites to open I4OC - Maccallum

  • 1. Setting your cites on open The Initiative for Open Citations (I4OC) what it is, why it matters and how you can get involved Catriona J. MacCallum (Hindawi) Mark Patterson (eLife) • Dario Taraborelli (Wikimedia Foundation) UKSG• Glasgow, April 2018
  • 2. Open Access since 2007 ~18,000 peer-reviewed articles a year Science, Technology & Medicine A founding member of OASPA  Free access – no charge to access  No embargos – immediately available  Reuse – Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY) - use with proper attribution
  • 4.
  • 6. The Initiative for Open Citations What it is Why it matters Knowledge Discovery Evaluation Beyond the article… How open citations are being re-used How you can get involved
  • 9. The Initiative for Open Citations (I4OC.org)
  • 10. Aim of I40C To promote the availability of data on citations that are structured, separable, and open. Structured - the data representing each publication and each citation instance are expressed in common, machine-readable formats. Separable - citations can be accessed and analyzed without the need to access the source bibliographic products (such as journal articles and books). Open - the data are freely accessible and reusable.
  • 11. Why? Establish a global public web of linked scholarly citation data to enhance the discoverability of published content, both subscription access and open access. This will particularly benefit individuals who are not members of academic institutions with subscriptions to commercial citation databases. Build new services for the benefit of publishers, researchers, funding agencies, academic institutions and the general public And enhance existing services. Create a public citation graph to explore connections between knowledge fields, and to follow the evolution of ideas and scholarly disciplines.
  • 12. Image: Andy Lamb, CC BY https://www.flickr.com/photos/speedoflife/8273922515/in/photostream/
  • 13. The impetus - COASP
  • 14. How it came together The starting point Most publishers already deposit their citation data with Crossref The default state for the data is not open The challenge Could we persuade a group of influential publishers to release their data all at once?
  • 15. Making the case It’s easy and doesn’t cost anything All you need to do is to send an email to support@crossref.org Publishers also benefit Better discovery tools mean that content will be found and used more The goal cannot be achieved alone A comprehensive network of all scholarship can only be achieved if data is pooled
  • 16. Making it happen Agree a deadline Everyone has time to prepare their comms and to be part of a big splash Focus on publishers depositing the most data Contacted the top-20 publishers asking for agreement in principle and permission to share their decision Leverage the early adopters As soon as we had a few publishers on board, others quickly followed
  • 17.
  • 18. Why are publishers joining I4OC? “If you’re not looking to monetize references in some way, why wouldn’t you?” “We believe there is great benefit in supporting sustainable and standardized infrastructure. Opening up our reference metadata cost us no more than the time required to write one simple email.” Liz Ferguson, Wiley “At Taylor & Francis we are working to make it as easy as possible for the communities we serve to achieve their open aims. I4OC sits well with this, and was a very quick and easy process to implement.” “Although we charge for metadata feeds, those are service- rather than content-based charges. We didn’t identify any commercial downside of supporting I4OC as we are highly unlikely to develop significant revenue streams from just our own references.”
  • 19. “References have long been a path to serendipitous discovery. Making citation data open and machine readable will only accelerate that discovery process for researchers.” Why are publishers joining I4OC? “One of the key purposes of a publisher is to assist in the development of networks of scholarship to aid the cross fertilization of research. Freeing up the reference data is an extremely powerful way of doing that.” “One of the most exciting benefits is the potential to expose networks of research that might otherwise take years to discover.” “It will make our customers’ lives easier by helping data scientists to mine a large body of references in one go. Currently we see little threat to our business as this aligns perfectly with our aims to go beyond open access to research, by using open approaches and utilizing our own data to advance discovery.” Steven Inchcoombe, Springer Nature
  • 20. The Initiative for Open Citations We built a coalition of major funders, technology platforms, open data organizations and publishers supporting the unrestricted availability of scholarly citation data. STAKEHOLDERS OF THE INITIATIVE FOR OPEN CITATIONS • http://i4oc.org
  • 21. Where we started ~1% of the Crossref citation data is open
  • 22. Where we are now >50% of the citation data is open
  • 23. What we can do now We can start to use the data
  • 24. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: SUSAN KENWRICK FOR HELP WITH THE JIGSAW Where we’d like to get to A public map of scholarship
  • 25. LONDON UNDERGROUND MAP FROM 1908 (Public Domain) • https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tube_map_1908-2.jp Can also explore how the map of scholarship has evolved
  • 26. One year on… The fraction of open citation data has surpassed 50% The number of participating publishers has risen to 490. There are over 500 million references now openly available. There are almost 50 stakeholder organisations who have joined I4OC to help advocate and promote reuse of open citations. The initiative has attracted commentary and media coverage across the world.
  • 27. Of the top-20 biggest publishers with citation data, all but five now make these data open via Crossref. Three represent Scholarly Societies…
  • 28.
  • 29. Crossref was founded to enable a shared reciprocal linking and metadata exchange, removing the need for bilateral agreements between publishers and other service providers.
  • 30. Extracting data via the Crossref API ~41% Crossref records have citation data ~47% of those have public citation data ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: DANIEL ECER, DATA SCIENTIST, ELIFE • https://elifesci.org/crossref-data-notebook Exploring the data from Crossref
  • 31. >1billion citations 49% are open 53% have DOIs (and can be linked to another record) Some cleanup required Exploring the data from Crossref ACKNOWLEDGEMENT: DANIEL ECER, DATA SCIENTIST, ELIFE • https://elifesci.org/crossref-data-notebook
  • 32. Why do we need open citations? The ability to undertake large-scale and generalizable bibliometric research … is limited to a few well-funded centers that can afford to pay for full access to the raw data of Web of Science or Scopus. …scientometricians need a data source that is freely available and comprehensive. This is a matter of scientific integrity, scientific progress, and equity Scientometrics is widely used to support science policy and research evaluation, with consequences for the entire scientific community. There is a need for specialized organizations, both commercial and non-commercial, that offer scientometric services. ...to guarantee full transparency and reproducibility of scientometric analyses, these analyses need to be based on open data sources. advocating for open references is critical to ensure replicable and equitable research practices. We should use our relationships with journals—as authors, reviewers, and editorial board members—to advocate for openness and should expect scientometric journals to be leaders in this respect. “References are a product of scholarly work and represent the backbone of science—demonstrating the origin and advancement of knowledge—and provide essential information for studying science and making decisions about the future of research. References are generated by the academic community and should be freely available to this community.” Dec 2017
  • 33.
  • 34. Who cares about measuring research impact? Researchers (authors and readers) Publishers Funders The public Policy Makers Institutions
  • 35. Impact factors mask huge variation in citations - if you use it you are dishonest and statistically illiterate @Stephen_Curry #COASP 2015 COASP7 ‘Research and researcher evaluation’ (2015), Stephen Curry (Imperial College London) – available soon from OASPA website
  • 36. The Acta Crystallographica Section A effect. The plot shows that this journal had a JIF of 2.051 in 2008 which jumped to 49.926 in 2009 due to a single highly-cited paper. Did every other paper in this journal suddenly get amazingly awesome and highly-cited for this period? Of course not. Steve Royle. “Wrong Number: A Closer Look at Impact Factors.” Quantixed, May 2015. https://quantixed.wordpress.com/2015/05/05/wrong-number-a-closer-look-at-impact-factors/
  • 37. Imperfect Impact Stuart Cantrill January 23, 2016 Imperfect impact Chemical connections https://stuartcantrill.com/2016/01/23/imperfect-impact/
  • 38. Citation Bias CC BY NC Steven A Greenberg BMJ 2009;339:bmj.b2680 How citation distortions create unfounded authority: analysis of a citation network http://www.bmj.com/content/339/bmj.b2680 • Citations to papers supporting rationale for overproduction of β amyloid precursor protein mRNA as a valid model of inclusion body myositis. • The supportive papers received 94% of the 214 citations to these primary data, whereas the six papers containing data that weakened or refuted the claim received only 6% of these citations
  • 39. Fig 1. Citation distributions of 11 different science journals. Citations are to ‘citable documents’ as classified by Thomson Reuters, which include standard research articles and reviews. The distributions contain citations accumulated in 2015 to citable documents published in 2013 and 2014 in order to be comparable to the 2015 JIFs published by Thomson Reuters. To facilitate direct comparison, distributions are plotted with the same range of citations (0-100) in each plot; articles with more than 100 citations are shown as a single bar at the right of each plot. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+ Numberofpapers Number of citations eLife 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+ Numberofpapers Number of citations EMBO J. 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+ Numberofpapers Number of citations J. Informetrics 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+ Numberofpapers Number of citations Nature 0 50 100 150 200 250 300 350 400 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+ Numberofpapers Number of citations Nature Comm. 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+ Numberofpapers Number of citations PLOS Biol. 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+ Numberofpapers Number of citations PLOS Genet. 0 2,000 4,000 6,000 8,000 10,000 12,000 14,000 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+ Numberofpapers Number of citations PLOS ONE 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 140 160 180 200 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+ Numberofpapers Number of citations Proc. R. Soc. B 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+ Numberofpapers Number of citations Science 0 200 400 600 800 1,000 1,200 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100+ Numberofpapers Number of citations Sci. Rep. A simple proposal for the publication of journal citation distributions Vincent Larivière1, Véronique Kiermer2, Catriona J. MacCallum3, Marcia McNutt4, Mark Patterson5, Bernd Pulverer6, Sowmya Swaminathan7, Stuart Taylor8, Stephen Curry9* Published in bioRxiv, 2016 : http://biorxiv.org/content/early/2016/07/05/062109 CC BY
  • 40. Can Scientists Assess Merit or Predict Impact? Analysed subjective rankings of papers from two different data sets over five years • Faculty of 1000 • Welcome Trust (data from Allen et al. of 2 assessor rankings within 6 months of publication) • In relation to citations and impact factor Eyre-Walker A, Stoletzki N (2013) The Assessment of Science: The Relative Merits of Post-Publication Review, the Impact Factor, and the Number of Citations. PLoS Biol 11(10): e1001675. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001675 http://www.plosbiology.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pb io.1001675
  • 41. Subjective assessments of science are poor: Very weak correlation between assessors Strongly biased by the journal in which the paper was published Number of citations or the impact factor exaggerates differences between papers Scientists are also poor at predicting the future impact: Because they are not good at assessing merit Similar articles accumulate citations essentially by chance. “What this paper shows is that whatever merit might be, scientists can't be doing a good job of evaluating it when they rank the importance or quality of papers. From the (lack of) correlation among assessor scores, most of the variation in ranking has to be due to ‘error’ rather than actual quality differences.” Carl Bergstrom , 2013 Eisen JA, MacCallum CJ, Neylon C (2013) Expert Failure: Re-evaluating Research Assessment. PLoS Biol 11(10): e1001677. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.1001677
  • 42. What is Quality? Context dependent Discipline Stage of your career Different levels Individual Project Institutional (rankings…) National and International Cannot be distilled into a single number or proxy Multi-variate Metrics need to be qualitative as well as quantitative
  • 45. DORA
  • 46. References are data… Data about the network of information Between scholars, fields and science & society A source with which to validate a scholarly work Data sharing is on the agenda… OECD EU Open Science AGU Enabling Fair Data Project Belmont Forum NIH, NSF RDA, CoData, FORCE11 & many others Data citation is a prerequisite as a first class research object e.g. DataCite DOIs in the reference list… References are data One of the most expertly curated sources of scholarly recommendations…
  • 47. We need to apply the scientific method to the process of scholarly communication itself
  • 48. Open Science? Open Science = Open Infrastructure+Open Outputs Culture (change) X Access, reuse & discoverability Evaluation & Researcher behaviour How Jeff Rouder @JeffRouder What is Open Science? It is endeavoring to preserve the rights of others to reach independent conclusions about your data and work. 8:47 PM - 5 Dec 2017 Why
  • 49. most of the data needed to support Open Science is controlled by commercial companies, both big and small. This growing reliance on a handful of companies to provide proprietary analytics and decision tools for research funders and universities poses serious risks for the future Open Source • prevents monopolistic control • requires an active community of users and service providers to develop and maintain infrastructure Open Data • metadata about the research process itself, such as funding data, publication and citation data, and “altmetrics” data Open Integrations • standard metadata formats and open APIs Open Contracts • completely open (public) and no lock-in (e.g. Non- Disclosure Agreements, multi-year contract terms, and privately negotiated prices)
  • 50. PARTIAL CITATION GRAPH FOR ULRICH K. LAEMMLI (1970) • http://tinyurl.com/kbzdxwh How data from the I4OC is being reused? The Wikidata Citation Graph 36 million citation links using the cites (P2860) property in Wikidata
  • 51.
  • 52.
  • 53. How data from the I4OC is being reused? Tools to create profiles Scholia uses data from Wikidata sourced from Crossref and other Metadata providers PROFILE INFORMATION FOR EGON WILLIGHAGEN • https://tools.wmflabs.org/scholia/author/Q20895241
  • 54.
  • 55.
  • 56. How data from the I4OC is being reused? Integration of cited by data by ScienceOpen SEARCH RESULTS FROM SCIENCEOPEN SHOWING CITED-BY DATA • http://www.scienceopen.com/
  • 57. How data from the I4OC is being reused? The Open Citations Corpus A broad and open collection of citation information from many sources David Shotton and Silvio Peroni PROGRESS OF THE INITIATIVE FOR OPEN CITATIONS • http://i4oc.org
  • 58. Towards a fully open scholarly graph “The visualization shows a structure of science that is well known from earlier large-scale bibliometric visualizations, which were based on Web of Science or Scopus data.” VISUALIZING FREELY AVAILABLE CITATION DATA USING VOSVIEWER • https://www.cwts.nl/blog?article=n-r2r294
  • 60.
  • 61. The Initiative for Open Citations • I4OC Making tens of millions of machine-readable citation metadata openly available to everyone, with no copyright restriction. PROGRESS OF THE INITIATIVE FOR OPEN CITATIONS • http://i4oc.org
  • 62. The road to 100% CROSSREF MEMBERS WITH OPEN REFERENCES • https://www.crossref.org/reports/members-with- open-references/ A list of all Crossref members with open references and statistics on their open reference coverage
  • 63. Getting involved If you are a publisher and deposit references, email support@crossref.org A CALL TO ACTION TO THE I4OC STAKEHOLDERS • https://twitter.com/i4oc_org/status/894934190625402880
  • 64. I am a scholarly publisher already depositing references to Crossref. How do I publicly release them? If you are already submitting article metadata to Crossref as a participant in their Cited-by service: 1. Contact Crossref support directly by e-mail, asking them to turn on reference distribution for all of the relevant DOI prefixes OR 2. Set the <reference_distribution_opt> metadata element to "any" for each DOI deposit for which they want to make references openly available.
  • 65. How you can help (1) • Publishers who aren't making their references public yet - send an email to Crossref before the end of the month requesting them to make your references open. It's that simple! • Publishers who don't yet deposit references with Crossref - contact Crossref to find out how to do this. • Editors and editorial board members – if references in your journal are not yet made public - contact your publisher and request this. Use this list to see whether your publisher is already making references open. • Funders, institutions, companies, researchers, and all other users of open citation data - write a short piece about your work and the benefits of open citation data for the I4OC website. Please contact info@i4oc.org.
  • 66. How you can help (2) • If you have a story about open citation data and why they matter to your organization and community, share a link, tag it as #OpenCitationsMonth. We’ll retweet it to our followers. • Please keep an eye on the #OpenCitationsMonth tag, and help us to amplify the message.
  • 67.
  • 68.
  • 69.
  • 70. Thank you C.J. MacCallum, M. Patterson, D. Taraborelli (2017) Setting your cites on open: what it is, why it matters and how you can help. UKSG 2018 [CC BY 4.0]* Acknowledgments The I4OC founders: OpenCitations, Wikimedia Foundation, PLOS, eLife, DataCite, the Center for Culture and Technology at Curtin University. The I4OC instigators: Jonathan Dugan, Martin Fenner, Jan Gerlach, Catriona MacCallum, Daniel Mietchen, Cameron Neylon, Mark Patterson, Michelle Paulson, Silvio Peroni, David Shotton, Dario Taraborelli The I4OC stakeholders (i4oc.org/#stakeholders) and participating publishers (i4oc.org/#publishers)

Editor's Notes

  1. [mention the 3 principles]
  2. [introduce briefly what the initiative is about]
  3. [COASP 2016: realize this data existed but was not exposed by default]
  4. [COASP 2016: realize this data existed but was not exposed by default]
  5. [COASP 2016: realize this data existed but was not exposed by default]
  6. [Building a truly open (CC0) scholarly graph: moonshot]
  7. To track the progress of the initiative Crossref has released a directory with statistics about all publishers with open references
  8. There is still a long way to 100% coverage If you’re a journal editor, a researcher, an organization producing or consuming scholarly metadata, we’re hope you’ll join us in helping promote the free availability
  9. [Thank you and colophon]