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OPPORTUNITIES FOR HARVESTING
BY-PRODUCTS OF GRAIN CORN
FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION
IN UKRAINE
21 September 2016, Kyiv
Semen Drahniev, PhD
SEC «Biomass», Senior Consultant
Gross harvest of the basic crops
in the world
Increase of basic crops yield in the
world relative to 1960
189% 142% 182%
Growth harvesting area of the basic crops in the
world relative to 1960
10%75% 33%
Source: USDA
2
0
200
400
600
800
1000
1200
1960
1963
1966
1969
1972
1975
1978
1981
1984
1987
1990
1993
1996
1999
2002
2005
2008
2011
2014
Grossharvest,mln.ton
Wheat Corn Rice
└───────┘
405%
211%
220%
└───────┘
Increase
relative to
1960
Main corn producers in the world
Country /
region
Area, mln. hа Yield, t/hа Production, mln. t
2014/
2015
2015/
2016*
2016/
2017**
2014/
2015
2015/
2016*
2016/
2017**
2014/
2015
2015/
2016*
2016/
2017**
1 USA 33,64 32,68 35,03 10,73 10,57 10,95 361,09 345,49 383,38
2 China 37,12 38,12 36,00 5,81 5,89 6,00 215,65 224,58 216,00
3 Brazil 15,75 16,00 16,30 5,40 4,19 5,06 85,00 67,00 82,50
4 EU 9,57 9,47 8,89 7,93 6,24 6,88 75,84 59,08 61,15
5 Argentina 3,50 3,50 4,50 8,20 8,00 8,11 28,70 28,00 36,50
6 Ukraine 4,63 4,09 4,25 6,15 5,71 6,12 28,45 23,33 26,00
7 Mexico 7,33 7,21 7,10 3,48 3,58 3,45 25,48 25,80 24,50
8 India 9,19 8,49 9,50 2,63 2,47 2,58 24,17 21,00 24,50
World 179,90 177,40 180,05 5,63 5,41 5,70 1013,62 959,03 1026,61
* Preliminary data
** Forecast (September)
Source: USDA
3
Source: USDA, data treatment AGPM, Arvalis
http://agriculture.by/articles/rastenievodstvo/urozhajnost-kukuruzy-budet-
rasti.-pochemu
Increase of corn yield in the USA during the
last 150 years4
+0 %/year +0.76 %/year +1.8 %/year +2 %/year
Varieties
Double
hybrids
Simple
hybrids
Simplehybrids
+biotechnology
Production of grain corn in Ukraine`s regions
Source: State Statistic Service of Ukraine
Gross harvest, kt Harvested area, 1000 ha Yield, m.c./ha
2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015
Vinnytsya 2785,7 2702,7 1476,9 345,3 327,1 299,8 80,7 82,6 49,3
Volyn 174,8 184,9 119,8 24,6 23,9 19,1 71,1 77,5 62,8
Dnipropetrovsk 1315,5 929,1 1115,8 322,7 348,1 296,6 40,8 26,7 37,6
Donetsk 358,3 366,7 203,6 95,3 101,1 65,1 37,6 36,3 31,3
Zhytomyr 1567,1 1292,9 701,1 199,6 178,9 144,2 78,5 72,3 48,6
Zakarpattya 187,8 196,4 193,9 41,8 42,9 45,7 44,9 45,8 42,4
Zaporizhzhya 174,2 130,7 137,8 53,0 47,0 39,9 32,8 27,8 34,5
Ivano-Frankivsk 348,6 355,8 221,3 52,5 49,8 38,6 66,4 71,5 57,3
Kyiv 2172,4 2053,3 1466,8 291,7 259,1 237,1 74,5 79,2 61,9
Kirovohrad 2153,3 1834,4 1702,8 389,6 367,3 324,1 55,3 49,9 52,5
Luhansk 345,5 316,3 206,4 105,0 89,3 77,9 32,9 35,4 26,5
Lviv 393,1 434,1 244,1 61,3 62,2 39,7 64,2 69,7 61,5
Mykolayiv 733,5 499,2 428,4 141,8 133,9 134,1 51,7 37,3 32,0
Odesa 806,3 546,0 457,0 169,7 162,1 161,3 47,5 33,7 28,3
Poltava 4081,3 3380,1 3636,1 592,7 581,8 498,3 68,9 58,1 73,0
Rivne 514,7 506,3 365,9 63,1 61,3 48,9 81,5 82,6 74,8
Sumy 2412,4 2672,7 2336,7 317,7 325,5 305,0 75,9 82,1 76,6
Ternopil 1206,4 1188,1 752,9 159,8 153,4 118,5 75,5 77,5 63,5
Kharkiv 1604,8 1606,8 1427,9 319,1 301,0 264,1 50,3 53,4 54,1
Kherson 375,8 224,5 200,2 59,6 43,3 35,2 63,1 51,8 57,0
Khmelnytskiy 1825,2 1727,4 1120,6 251,2 209,6 186,1 72,6 82,4 60,2
Cherkasy 2662,7 2286,8 2106,2 339,4 325,8 296,4 78,4 70,2 71,1
Chernivtsi 407,1 399,7 244,4 66,9 63,0 51,2 60,8 63,4 47,7
Chernihiv 2255,5 2661,9 2461,0 353,7 369,5 356,6 63,8 72,0 69,0
Ukraine 30949,6 28496,8 23327,6 4826,9 4626,9 4083,5 64,1 61,6 57,1
5
Area of use of grain corn by-products
Mass ratio of corn
by-products to grain
1,3
6
Stalk, 35-40%
Leaves, 7-8%
Grain, 40-45%
Cornhusk, 4-6%
Cob core, 5-6%
Soil surface
Cutting line
8-10 сm
Stalk (SТ)
Cob (СB)
Paper, synthetic silk
Abrasives,
solid fiber boards,
furfural, bedding for
livestock
Leaves (LV)
Cornhusk (CH)
Fodder
Fertilizer
Solid biofuel
Raw materials for
bioethanol production
Substrate for growing
mushrooms
Raw materials for
biogas production
Economic energy potential of grain corn by-
products in Ukraine (2015 р.), mln. TCE
7
Chemical composition and some properties of different
types of biomass
Property Yellow straw
Gray
straw
Winter
wheat
straw
Corn stover* Sunflower stover*
Wood
chips
Moisture content,
%
10-20 10-20 11,2 45-60 (after harvesting)
15-18 dried in air)
60-70% (after
harvesting)
~20 (dried in air)
40
Net calorific value,
MJ/kg
14,4 15 14,96 16,7 (d.m.)
5-8 (W 45-60%)
15-17 (W 15-18%)
16
(W<16%)
10,4
Volatile matter, % >70 >70 80,2 67 73 >70
Ash content, % 4 3 6,59 6-9 10-12 0,6-1,5
Elemental
composition, %:
Carbon 42 43 45,64 45,5 44,1 50
Hydrogen 5 5,2 5,97 5,5 5,0 6
Oxygen 37 38 41,36 41,5 39,4 43
Chlorine 0,75 0,2 0,392 0,2 0,7-0,8 0,02
Potassium (alkali
metal)
1,18 0,22 – cobs:
6,1 mg/kg d.m.
5,0 0,13-0,35
Nitrogen 0,35 0,41 0,37 0,69 0,7 0,3
Sulphur 0,16 0,13 0,08 0,04 0,1 0,05
Ash melting
behavior, °С
800-1000 950-1100 1150 1050-1200 800-1270 1000-1400
Notation:
d.m. – dry matter; W – moisture content.
* Data on the content of volatile matter, ash content, elemental composition – in % of d.m. mass
8
Graph of net calorific value dependence from
moisture content of corn stover
Source:
C. Igathinathane,
2004.
9
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Netcalorificvalue,
MJ/kg
Moisture content (Wr), %
Moisture distribution in overground part
of a standing corn
Classification of corn residues harvesting technology
after combine harvester
ST + LV = 0,96 * Мgrain
Behind the header
CH + СB = 0,24 * Мgrain
Behind the combine
Stubble=0,1* Мgrain
№ Harvesting technology
Types of
harvesting
biomass
Collection /
transportation to
local storage *
Loading operation*
Transportation to
central storage*
1 Single pass system: combine
with baler
CH+СB Tractor with pickup
trailer (auto-stacker
or loader + tractor
with trailer (truck))
Telehandler (frontal
loader or tractor with
frontal loader)
Truck with trailer
(truck with semi-
trailer)
2 Combine with windrowing
header + tractor with baler
CH+CB +
ST+LV
3 Combine + tractor with flail
windrower + tractor with
baler
CH+CB +
ST+LV +
Stubble
4 Combine + tractor with
shredder + tractor with rake +
tractor with baler
CH+CB +
ST+LV +
Stubble
5 Combine with cob and
cornhusk collection
CH+СB Tractor with trailer Loader Truck with trailer
10
Estimation ratio of corn residues harvesting
mass (d.m.) to grain mass (d.m.) depending on
harvesting technology
1 – single pass system: combine with baler; 2 – combine with windrowing
header + tractor with baler; 3 – combine + tractor with flail windrower +
tractor with baler; 4 – combine + tractor with shredder + tractor with rake +
tractor with baler; 5 – combine with cob and cornhusk collection
11
0,19
0,49
0,58
0,63
0,21
-
0,10
0,20
0,30
0,40
0,50
0,60
0,70
1 2 3 4 5
Rateofharvestingcornresidues
mass(d.m.)tograinmass(d.m.)
Typical corn stover ash content by
collection method
Source: M.J. Darr, 2013
12
3,5%
7%
11%
14%
0,0%
2,0%
4,0%
6,0%
8,0%
10,0%
12,0%
14,0%
Single pass baling Windrowing header Stalk chopping
windrower
Rake
Ashcontent,%
Value calculation of d.m. of the by-products of
grain corn
Nutrient
Nutrient
content in
corn
residues
(d.m.) [1],
%
Nutrient cost
in mineral
fertilizers,
UAH/kg
Nutrient
cost in
corn
residues
(d.m.),
UAH/t
Nutrient
content in
ash4, 5, %
Nutrient
cost in
corn
residues
ash, UAH/t
Total cost (d.m.),
UAH/t
without
ash
returning
with
ash
returnin
g on
field
Variant 1. Usage of simple fertilizers
N 0,7 17,611 132,07 – – – –
P2O5 0,3 28,872 86,62 4,88 71,29 86,62 15,32
K2O 1,6 15,813 259,23 11,84 94,70 259,23 164,53
TOTAL 477,91 165,99 345,85 179,85
Variant 2. Usage of complex fertilizers
1 a.s. 2,69 21,256 571,63 16,72 179,78 448,36 232,47
Notation:
1 – carbamide (N-46%);
2 – double superphosphate (NP (S) 10:32 (20));
3 – potassium chloride (К-62%);
4 – chemical composition of straw ash, which was burned in boiler with moving grate (bottom
ash);
5 – ash content in d.m. 5,06%;
6 – nitroamophoska (NPK 16:16:16).
[1] - Fertilizers and their use: Handbook // K: Aristey, 2010. – 254 p.
13
Graph of dependence costs of corn residues
from its moisture content
Variant 1. Usage of simple fertilizers
Variant 2. Usage of complex fertilizers
14
100
120
140
160
180
200
220
240
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50
Cornresiduescost,UAH/t
W, %
corn residues (variant 1) corn residues (variant 2)
Cost structure of grain corn by-products
harvesting and logistic on storage facility by the
technological operation
1 variant mulching MTZ-83 з RZ-1,5, raking – MTZ-83 with PZK-5, baling –
MTZ-82 with Claas Rollant 66 (round bales 400 kg)
2 variant mulching – Krone BIG M with Perfect, raking – McCormick CX 90 XL
with PZK-5, baling – Atles 936 RZ with Claas Quadrant 2200 RC (rectangular
bales 500 kg)
Total: 472 UAH/t Total: 445 UAH/t
Variant 1 Variant 2
15
20%
2%
42%
15%
8%
13%
20%
5%
32%
17%
11%
15%
Chopping
Raking
Baling
Picking and
loading
Transporting
Unloading and
stacking
Dependence of corn residues removing rate from corn
yield in agricultural enterprise in Kyiv oblast
(under using only plant residues as organic fertilizers)
The actual humus balance without bringing non-tradebles part of the harvest is -1.22 t/ha.
In order to ensure non-deficit balance of humus it should be retained and used as organic
fertilizer 6.1 t/ha corn residues, which is formed by the main production yield 47 m.c./ha.
16
-
10
20
30
40
50
60
70
60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140
Removingrateofcornresidues,%
Corn yield, m.c./ha
Moldboard plowing Conservation/No-till
Procedure for determining of corn residues rate
for alienation
Condition
Limitation
Min Max
Agro-climatic zone Forest-steppe, Polissya Steppe
Crop rotation continuous corn After sunflower and sugar beet
Corn yield more than 80 m.c./hа less than 80 m.c./hа
Moisture level of moisture in the root layer
of soil more than 60%
less than 30 mm rainfall in a
month
Erosion slope of field surface less than 40,
availability of forest belts
slope of field surface more
than 40
Tillage technology No-till, conservation moldboard plow
Fertilizers organic and mineral only mineral
Humus balance positive negative
Weather condition during corn
harvesting
dry weather Strong rainfall
17
Thank you
for attention!
Drahniev S.V.
tel./fax: 044 332 9140
E-mail: dragnev@biomass.kiev.ua
www.biomass.kiev.ua
18
http://uabio.org/activity/uabio-
analytics/2996-uabio-position-paper-16

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UABioConf 2016 - S3/36 - Drahniev (Eng)

  • 1. OPPORTUNITIES FOR HARVESTING BY-PRODUCTS OF GRAIN CORN FOR ENERGY PRODUCTION IN UKRAINE 21 September 2016, Kyiv Semen Drahniev, PhD SEC «Biomass», Senior Consultant
  • 2. Gross harvest of the basic crops in the world Increase of basic crops yield in the world relative to 1960 189% 142% 182% Growth harvesting area of the basic crops in the world relative to 1960 10%75% 33% Source: USDA 2 0 200 400 600 800 1000 1200 1960 1963 1966 1969 1972 1975 1978 1981 1984 1987 1990 1993 1996 1999 2002 2005 2008 2011 2014 Grossharvest,mln.ton Wheat Corn Rice └───────┘ 405% 211% 220% └───────┘ Increase relative to 1960
  • 3. Main corn producers in the world Country / region Area, mln. hа Yield, t/hа Production, mln. t 2014/ 2015 2015/ 2016* 2016/ 2017** 2014/ 2015 2015/ 2016* 2016/ 2017** 2014/ 2015 2015/ 2016* 2016/ 2017** 1 USA 33,64 32,68 35,03 10,73 10,57 10,95 361,09 345,49 383,38 2 China 37,12 38,12 36,00 5,81 5,89 6,00 215,65 224,58 216,00 3 Brazil 15,75 16,00 16,30 5,40 4,19 5,06 85,00 67,00 82,50 4 EU 9,57 9,47 8,89 7,93 6,24 6,88 75,84 59,08 61,15 5 Argentina 3,50 3,50 4,50 8,20 8,00 8,11 28,70 28,00 36,50 6 Ukraine 4,63 4,09 4,25 6,15 5,71 6,12 28,45 23,33 26,00 7 Mexico 7,33 7,21 7,10 3,48 3,58 3,45 25,48 25,80 24,50 8 India 9,19 8,49 9,50 2,63 2,47 2,58 24,17 21,00 24,50 World 179,90 177,40 180,05 5,63 5,41 5,70 1013,62 959,03 1026,61 * Preliminary data ** Forecast (September) Source: USDA 3
  • 4. Source: USDA, data treatment AGPM, Arvalis http://agriculture.by/articles/rastenievodstvo/urozhajnost-kukuruzy-budet- rasti.-pochemu Increase of corn yield in the USA during the last 150 years4 +0 %/year +0.76 %/year +1.8 %/year +2 %/year Varieties Double hybrids Simple hybrids Simplehybrids +biotechnology
  • 5. Production of grain corn in Ukraine`s regions Source: State Statistic Service of Ukraine Gross harvest, kt Harvested area, 1000 ha Yield, m.c./ha 2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015 2013 2014 2015 Vinnytsya 2785,7 2702,7 1476,9 345,3 327,1 299,8 80,7 82,6 49,3 Volyn 174,8 184,9 119,8 24,6 23,9 19,1 71,1 77,5 62,8 Dnipropetrovsk 1315,5 929,1 1115,8 322,7 348,1 296,6 40,8 26,7 37,6 Donetsk 358,3 366,7 203,6 95,3 101,1 65,1 37,6 36,3 31,3 Zhytomyr 1567,1 1292,9 701,1 199,6 178,9 144,2 78,5 72,3 48,6 Zakarpattya 187,8 196,4 193,9 41,8 42,9 45,7 44,9 45,8 42,4 Zaporizhzhya 174,2 130,7 137,8 53,0 47,0 39,9 32,8 27,8 34,5 Ivano-Frankivsk 348,6 355,8 221,3 52,5 49,8 38,6 66,4 71,5 57,3 Kyiv 2172,4 2053,3 1466,8 291,7 259,1 237,1 74,5 79,2 61,9 Kirovohrad 2153,3 1834,4 1702,8 389,6 367,3 324,1 55,3 49,9 52,5 Luhansk 345,5 316,3 206,4 105,0 89,3 77,9 32,9 35,4 26,5 Lviv 393,1 434,1 244,1 61,3 62,2 39,7 64,2 69,7 61,5 Mykolayiv 733,5 499,2 428,4 141,8 133,9 134,1 51,7 37,3 32,0 Odesa 806,3 546,0 457,0 169,7 162,1 161,3 47,5 33,7 28,3 Poltava 4081,3 3380,1 3636,1 592,7 581,8 498,3 68,9 58,1 73,0 Rivne 514,7 506,3 365,9 63,1 61,3 48,9 81,5 82,6 74,8 Sumy 2412,4 2672,7 2336,7 317,7 325,5 305,0 75,9 82,1 76,6 Ternopil 1206,4 1188,1 752,9 159,8 153,4 118,5 75,5 77,5 63,5 Kharkiv 1604,8 1606,8 1427,9 319,1 301,0 264,1 50,3 53,4 54,1 Kherson 375,8 224,5 200,2 59,6 43,3 35,2 63,1 51,8 57,0 Khmelnytskiy 1825,2 1727,4 1120,6 251,2 209,6 186,1 72,6 82,4 60,2 Cherkasy 2662,7 2286,8 2106,2 339,4 325,8 296,4 78,4 70,2 71,1 Chernivtsi 407,1 399,7 244,4 66,9 63,0 51,2 60,8 63,4 47,7 Chernihiv 2255,5 2661,9 2461,0 353,7 369,5 356,6 63,8 72,0 69,0 Ukraine 30949,6 28496,8 23327,6 4826,9 4626,9 4083,5 64,1 61,6 57,1 5
  • 6. Area of use of grain corn by-products Mass ratio of corn by-products to grain 1,3 6 Stalk, 35-40% Leaves, 7-8% Grain, 40-45% Cornhusk, 4-6% Cob core, 5-6% Soil surface Cutting line 8-10 сm Stalk (SТ) Cob (СB) Paper, synthetic silk Abrasives, solid fiber boards, furfural, bedding for livestock Leaves (LV) Cornhusk (CH) Fodder Fertilizer Solid biofuel Raw materials for bioethanol production Substrate for growing mushrooms Raw materials for biogas production
  • 7. Economic energy potential of grain corn by- products in Ukraine (2015 р.), mln. TCE 7
  • 8. Chemical composition and some properties of different types of biomass Property Yellow straw Gray straw Winter wheat straw Corn stover* Sunflower stover* Wood chips Moisture content, % 10-20 10-20 11,2 45-60 (after harvesting) 15-18 dried in air) 60-70% (after harvesting) ~20 (dried in air) 40 Net calorific value, MJ/kg 14,4 15 14,96 16,7 (d.m.) 5-8 (W 45-60%) 15-17 (W 15-18%) 16 (W<16%) 10,4 Volatile matter, % >70 >70 80,2 67 73 >70 Ash content, % 4 3 6,59 6-9 10-12 0,6-1,5 Elemental composition, %: Carbon 42 43 45,64 45,5 44,1 50 Hydrogen 5 5,2 5,97 5,5 5,0 6 Oxygen 37 38 41,36 41,5 39,4 43 Chlorine 0,75 0,2 0,392 0,2 0,7-0,8 0,02 Potassium (alkali metal) 1,18 0,22 – cobs: 6,1 mg/kg d.m. 5,0 0,13-0,35 Nitrogen 0,35 0,41 0,37 0,69 0,7 0,3 Sulphur 0,16 0,13 0,08 0,04 0,1 0,05 Ash melting behavior, °С 800-1000 950-1100 1150 1050-1200 800-1270 1000-1400 Notation: d.m. – dry matter; W – moisture content. * Data on the content of volatile matter, ash content, elemental composition – in % of d.m. mass 8
  • 9. Graph of net calorific value dependence from moisture content of corn stover Source: C. Igathinathane, 2004. 9 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 Netcalorificvalue, MJ/kg Moisture content (Wr), % Moisture distribution in overground part of a standing corn
  • 10. Classification of corn residues harvesting technology after combine harvester ST + LV = 0,96 * Мgrain Behind the header CH + СB = 0,24 * Мgrain Behind the combine Stubble=0,1* Мgrain № Harvesting technology Types of harvesting biomass Collection / transportation to local storage * Loading operation* Transportation to central storage* 1 Single pass system: combine with baler CH+СB Tractor with pickup trailer (auto-stacker or loader + tractor with trailer (truck)) Telehandler (frontal loader or tractor with frontal loader) Truck with trailer (truck with semi- trailer) 2 Combine with windrowing header + tractor with baler CH+CB + ST+LV 3 Combine + tractor with flail windrower + tractor with baler CH+CB + ST+LV + Stubble 4 Combine + tractor with shredder + tractor with rake + tractor with baler CH+CB + ST+LV + Stubble 5 Combine with cob and cornhusk collection CH+СB Tractor with trailer Loader Truck with trailer 10
  • 11. Estimation ratio of corn residues harvesting mass (d.m.) to grain mass (d.m.) depending on harvesting technology 1 – single pass system: combine with baler; 2 – combine with windrowing header + tractor with baler; 3 – combine + tractor with flail windrower + tractor with baler; 4 – combine + tractor with shredder + tractor with rake + tractor with baler; 5 – combine with cob and cornhusk collection 11 0,19 0,49 0,58 0,63 0,21 - 0,10 0,20 0,30 0,40 0,50 0,60 0,70 1 2 3 4 5 Rateofharvestingcornresidues mass(d.m.)tograinmass(d.m.)
  • 12. Typical corn stover ash content by collection method Source: M.J. Darr, 2013 12 3,5% 7% 11% 14% 0,0% 2,0% 4,0% 6,0% 8,0% 10,0% 12,0% 14,0% Single pass baling Windrowing header Stalk chopping windrower Rake Ashcontent,%
  • 13. Value calculation of d.m. of the by-products of grain corn Nutrient Nutrient content in corn residues (d.m.) [1], % Nutrient cost in mineral fertilizers, UAH/kg Nutrient cost in corn residues (d.m.), UAH/t Nutrient content in ash4, 5, % Nutrient cost in corn residues ash, UAH/t Total cost (d.m.), UAH/t without ash returning with ash returnin g on field Variant 1. Usage of simple fertilizers N 0,7 17,611 132,07 – – – – P2O5 0,3 28,872 86,62 4,88 71,29 86,62 15,32 K2O 1,6 15,813 259,23 11,84 94,70 259,23 164,53 TOTAL 477,91 165,99 345,85 179,85 Variant 2. Usage of complex fertilizers 1 a.s. 2,69 21,256 571,63 16,72 179,78 448,36 232,47 Notation: 1 – carbamide (N-46%); 2 – double superphosphate (NP (S) 10:32 (20)); 3 – potassium chloride (К-62%); 4 – chemical composition of straw ash, which was burned in boiler with moving grate (bottom ash); 5 – ash content in d.m. 5,06%; 6 – nitroamophoska (NPK 16:16:16). [1] - Fertilizers and their use: Handbook // K: Aristey, 2010. – 254 p. 13
  • 14. Graph of dependence costs of corn residues from its moisture content Variant 1. Usage of simple fertilizers Variant 2. Usage of complex fertilizers 14 100 120 140 160 180 200 220 240 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 Cornresiduescost,UAH/t W, % corn residues (variant 1) corn residues (variant 2)
  • 15. Cost structure of grain corn by-products harvesting and logistic on storage facility by the technological operation 1 variant mulching MTZ-83 з RZ-1,5, raking – MTZ-83 with PZK-5, baling – MTZ-82 with Claas Rollant 66 (round bales 400 kg) 2 variant mulching – Krone BIG M with Perfect, raking – McCormick CX 90 XL with PZK-5, baling – Atles 936 RZ with Claas Quadrant 2200 RC (rectangular bales 500 kg) Total: 472 UAH/t Total: 445 UAH/t Variant 1 Variant 2 15 20% 2% 42% 15% 8% 13% 20% 5% 32% 17% 11% 15% Chopping Raking Baling Picking and loading Transporting Unloading and stacking
  • 16. Dependence of corn residues removing rate from corn yield in agricultural enterprise in Kyiv oblast (under using only plant residues as organic fertilizers) The actual humus balance without bringing non-tradebles part of the harvest is -1.22 t/ha. In order to ensure non-deficit balance of humus it should be retained and used as organic fertilizer 6.1 t/ha corn residues, which is formed by the main production yield 47 m.c./ha. 16 - 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 60 70 80 90 100 110 120 130 140 Removingrateofcornresidues,% Corn yield, m.c./ha Moldboard plowing Conservation/No-till
  • 17. Procedure for determining of corn residues rate for alienation Condition Limitation Min Max Agro-climatic zone Forest-steppe, Polissya Steppe Crop rotation continuous corn After sunflower and sugar beet Corn yield more than 80 m.c./hа less than 80 m.c./hа Moisture level of moisture in the root layer of soil more than 60% less than 30 mm rainfall in a month Erosion slope of field surface less than 40, availability of forest belts slope of field surface more than 40 Tillage technology No-till, conservation moldboard plow Fertilizers organic and mineral only mineral Humus balance positive negative Weather condition during corn harvesting dry weather Strong rainfall 17
  • 18. Thank you for attention! Drahniev S.V. tel./fax: 044 332 9140 E-mail: dragnev@biomass.kiev.ua www.biomass.kiev.ua 18 http://uabio.org/activity/uabio- analytics/2996-uabio-position-paper-16