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Silesian University of Technology
Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery
www.imiue.polsl.pl
Analysis of the operation of a CHP unit based on
the Stirling engine integrated with biomass
gasification and heat storage
Anna Skorek-Osikowska
Leszek Remiorz
Łukasz Bartela
Janusz Kotowicz
Klaudia Dubiel
Kiev, 20-21.09.2017
www.imiue.polsl.pl
2
Introduction
 Increasing share of renewable and unconventional energy sources
 Increasing popularity of distributed energy sources
 Biomass among most promising renewable energy sources
 Gasification process for further electricity generation
 Use of Stirling engine in CHP systems
www.imiue.polsl.pl
3
Analysed system
GG
Gasification
Unit
01
GC 1° GCI
12
44
SE
11 13 CC
biomass0
1 process gas
2 air
3 exhaust gas
4 water
5 solid waste
22
5121 52
31 32
GC 2°
33
45
46 47
HS
Gas Cleaning UnitGas Cooler 1° Combustion
Chamber
Stirling Engine Gas Cooler 2°
Q1
Q2
Q3
A schematic diagram of a CHP system integrated with biomass gasification, Stirling engine and heat storage;
Denotations: GG – gas generator, GC – gas cooler, GCI – gas cleaning unit, SE – Stirling engine, HS – heat storage
www.imiue.polsl.pl
4
Main assumptions – GazEla reactor and gasification process
Parameter Value
Cold gas efficiency 63%
Cleaning unit efficiency 95%
Gas temperature 950 °C
H2
CH4
CO
CO2
N2
H2O
5.9
1.7
19.8
7.5
44.3
20.8
Gas LHV 3.307 MJ/kg
3.743 MJ/mn
3
Biomass gasification CHP plant, ICHPW, Poland
www.imiue.polsl.pl
5
Main assumptions – gas cleaning and burning
GG
Gasification
Unit
01
GC 1° GCI
12
44
SE
11 13 CC
biomass0
1 process gas
2 air
3 exhaust gas
4 water
5 solid waste
22
5121 52
31 32
GC 2°
33
45
46 47
HS
Gas Cleaning UnitGas Cooler 1° Combustion
Chamber
Stirling Engine Gas Cooler 2°
Q1
Q2
Q3
950 °C 100 °C 40 °C t = const. 40 °C
η = 99%
100 °C
ηuh = 25%
www.imiue.polsl.pl
6
Main assumptions – Stirling engine
 Stirling engine
Detailed model of a Stirling engine was built using
the Ansys CFX software and author's own codes
implemented in the Fortran and CFX-Perl . This
model allows, among others, to obtain specific
characteristics of the engine, e.g. power, moment
diagram and indicator diagram, and in
consequence, to determine the thermodynamic
quantities, such as efficiency or heat fluxes.
www.imiue.polsl.pl
7
 Degree of cooling of the flue gas
Main assumptions – Stirling engine
3231SE TTT 
.
0.20
TSE, K
0.21
0.24
0.25
0.26
0.28
0.30
100 600300250
ηelSE, -
500400200
0.27
0.22
450 550350150
0.23
0.29
650
Characteristics of the Stirling engine efficiency as a function of the degree of exhaust gas
cooling
www.imiue.polsl.pl
8
Results
GG
Gasification
Unit
01
GC 1° GCI
12
44
SE
11 13 CC
biomass0
1 process gas
2 air
3 exhaust gas
4 water
5 solid waste
22
5121 52
31 32
GC 2°
33
45
46 47
HS
Gas Cleaning UnitGas Cooler 1° Combustion
Chamber
Stirling Engine Gas Cooler 2°
Q1
Q2
Q3
Two variants analysed:
 Case A: chemical energy of biomass is constant in the system (streams of heat and
electricity are changing),
 Case B: constant electric power is generated inStirling engine, equal to 10 kWel, while
the flow of chemical energy of biomass is varied.
www.imiue.polsl.pl
9
Results
Parameter CASE A CASE B
ΔTSE, K 600 300 100 600 300 100
ηSE 0.253 0.275 0.288 0.253 0.275 0.288
Nel
SE, kW 10.00 11.86 11.38 10
, kW 14.59 14.59 13.40 12.82
, kW 6.53 5.51 3.37 6.53 3.10 1.01
, kW 9.79 13.90 22.44 9.79 20.64 27.56
, kW 30.91 34.00 40.40 30.91 37.14 41.39
Ėchg, kW 41.73 41.73 38.32 36.63
Ėchb, kW 66.24 66.24 60.82 58.14
1Q
2Q
3Q
Q
GG
Gasification
Unit
01
GC 1° GCI
12
44
SE
11 13 CC
biomass0
1 process gas
2 air
3 exhaust gas
4 water
5 solid waste
22
5121 52
31 32
GC 2°
33
45
46 47
HS
Gas Cleaning UnitGas Cooler 1° Combustion
Chamber
Stirling Engine Gas Cooler 2°
Q1
Q2
Q3
www.imiue.polsl.pl
10
Conclusions
 This paper presents the results of the preliminary analysis.
 The electric power and useful heat generated in the system depend, among other,
on the selection of the degree of cooling in the Stirling engine.
 This temperature difference translates into the value of efficiency of the engine and
the amount of heat generated in the system.
 Especially important was the amount of heat obtained from cooling of the Stirling
engine. In this analysis it was assumed at 25%, regardless the variant analysed.
Determination of the actual values of heat stream requires further analysis.
 As part of further work the research aimed at the detailed analysis of
thermodynamic and economic structures of various systems and optimization of
these systems in terms of cooperation with the heating system integrated with heat
storage will be carried out. Particularly important here is a proper choice of heat
storage, what allows for longer operation of the system and thus, also for a better
economic result.
www.imiue.polsl.pl
11
Thank you!
Scientific work funded by the National Science Centre within the framework of the research project
No. 2014/13/B/ST8/01869.

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UABioConf 2016 - S3/31 - Skorek-Osikowska (Eng)

  • 1. Silesian University of Technology Institute of Power Engineering and Turbomachinery www.imiue.polsl.pl Analysis of the operation of a CHP unit based on the Stirling engine integrated with biomass gasification and heat storage Anna Skorek-Osikowska Leszek Remiorz Łukasz Bartela Janusz Kotowicz Klaudia Dubiel Kiev, 20-21.09.2017
  • 2. www.imiue.polsl.pl 2 Introduction  Increasing share of renewable and unconventional energy sources  Increasing popularity of distributed energy sources  Biomass among most promising renewable energy sources  Gasification process for further electricity generation  Use of Stirling engine in CHP systems
  • 3. www.imiue.polsl.pl 3 Analysed system GG Gasification Unit 01 GC 1° GCI 12 44 SE 11 13 CC biomass0 1 process gas 2 air 3 exhaust gas 4 water 5 solid waste 22 5121 52 31 32 GC 2° 33 45 46 47 HS Gas Cleaning UnitGas Cooler 1° Combustion Chamber Stirling Engine Gas Cooler 2° Q1 Q2 Q3 A schematic diagram of a CHP system integrated with biomass gasification, Stirling engine and heat storage; Denotations: GG – gas generator, GC – gas cooler, GCI – gas cleaning unit, SE – Stirling engine, HS – heat storage
  • 4. www.imiue.polsl.pl 4 Main assumptions – GazEla reactor and gasification process Parameter Value Cold gas efficiency 63% Cleaning unit efficiency 95% Gas temperature 950 °C H2 CH4 CO CO2 N2 H2O 5.9 1.7 19.8 7.5 44.3 20.8 Gas LHV 3.307 MJ/kg 3.743 MJ/mn 3 Biomass gasification CHP plant, ICHPW, Poland
  • 5. www.imiue.polsl.pl 5 Main assumptions – gas cleaning and burning GG Gasification Unit 01 GC 1° GCI 12 44 SE 11 13 CC biomass0 1 process gas 2 air 3 exhaust gas 4 water 5 solid waste 22 5121 52 31 32 GC 2° 33 45 46 47 HS Gas Cleaning UnitGas Cooler 1° Combustion Chamber Stirling Engine Gas Cooler 2° Q1 Q2 Q3 950 °C 100 °C 40 °C t = const. 40 °C η = 99% 100 °C ηuh = 25%
  • 6. www.imiue.polsl.pl 6 Main assumptions – Stirling engine  Stirling engine Detailed model of a Stirling engine was built using the Ansys CFX software and author's own codes implemented in the Fortran and CFX-Perl . This model allows, among others, to obtain specific characteristics of the engine, e.g. power, moment diagram and indicator diagram, and in consequence, to determine the thermodynamic quantities, such as efficiency or heat fluxes.
  • 7. www.imiue.polsl.pl 7  Degree of cooling of the flue gas Main assumptions – Stirling engine 3231SE TTT  . 0.20 TSE, K 0.21 0.24 0.25 0.26 0.28 0.30 100 600300250 ηelSE, - 500400200 0.27 0.22 450 550350150 0.23 0.29 650 Characteristics of the Stirling engine efficiency as a function of the degree of exhaust gas cooling
  • 8. www.imiue.polsl.pl 8 Results GG Gasification Unit 01 GC 1° GCI 12 44 SE 11 13 CC biomass0 1 process gas 2 air 3 exhaust gas 4 water 5 solid waste 22 5121 52 31 32 GC 2° 33 45 46 47 HS Gas Cleaning UnitGas Cooler 1° Combustion Chamber Stirling Engine Gas Cooler 2° Q1 Q2 Q3 Two variants analysed:  Case A: chemical energy of biomass is constant in the system (streams of heat and electricity are changing),  Case B: constant electric power is generated inStirling engine, equal to 10 kWel, while the flow of chemical energy of biomass is varied.
  • 9. www.imiue.polsl.pl 9 Results Parameter CASE A CASE B ΔTSE, K 600 300 100 600 300 100 ηSE 0.253 0.275 0.288 0.253 0.275 0.288 Nel SE, kW 10.00 11.86 11.38 10 , kW 14.59 14.59 13.40 12.82 , kW 6.53 5.51 3.37 6.53 3.10 1.01 , kW 9.79 13.90 22.44 9.79 20.64 27.56 , kW 30.91 34.00 40.40 30.91 37.14 41.39 Ėchg, kW 41.73 41.73 38.32 36.63 Ėchb, kW 66.24 66.24 60.82 58.14 1Q 2Q 3Q Q GG Gasification Unit 01 GC 1° GCI 12 44 SE 11 13 CC biomass0 1 process gas 2 air 3 exhaust gas 4 water 5 solid waste 22 5121 52 31 32 GC 2° 33 45 46 47 HS Gas Cleaning UnitGas Cooler 1° Combustion Chamber Stirling Engine Gas Cooler 2° Q1 Q2 Q3
  • 10. www.imiue.polsl.pl 10 Conclusions  This paper presents the results of the preliminary analysis.  The electric power and useful heat generated in the system depend, among other, on the selection of the degree of cooling in the Stirling engine.  This temperature difference translates into the value of efficiency of the engine and the amount of heat generated in the system.  Especially important was the amount of heat obtained from cooling of the Stirling engine. In this analysis it was assumed at 25%, regardless the variant analysed. Determination of the actual values of heat stream requires further analysis.  As part of further work the research aimed at the detailed analysis of thermodynamic and economic structures of various systems and optimization of these systems in terms of cooperation with the heating system integrated with heat storage will be carried out. Particularly important here is a proper choice of heat storage, what allows for longer operation of the system and thus, also for a better economic result.
  • 11. www.imiue.polsl.pl 11 Thank you! Scientific work funded by the National Science Centre within the framework of the research project No. 2014/13/B/ST8/01869.