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POTENTIAL OF BIOMASS FROM
MISCANTHUS X GIGANTEUS
PRODUCING AT THE MILITARY
CONTAMINATED LAND
Valentina Pidlisnyuk (UJEP, Czech
Republic), Tetyana Stefanovska, Ludmila
Kava (NULES Ukraine), Josef Trögl
(UJEP, Czech Republic), Larry Erickson
(KSU, USA )
12th International
Conference on “Biomass
for Energy”
Military sites in Ukraine
• In 1991, military sites included territory of 4500 garrisons, testing
areas and military individual sites occupying about 600,000
hectares.
• In the period between 1991 and 2003, approximately 140,000
hectares of territory, 147 military bases and 507 separate defense
objects were withdrawn from Ministry of Defense jurisdiction
• Currently numerous new military contaminated sites appeared at
the Eastern part of the country as result of anti-terroristic operation
mainly polluted by metals, oils and products of their decompositions.
Advantages of the phytotechnology
• The union of phytoremediation
and production of biofuel crops is
perspective approach (delivering
additional benefits –
phytoproducts)
• That method permits to restore
marginal contaminated land to
agricultural use or urban land
bank and simultaneously meet
the demand for biomass
production as alternative energy
sources.
• The additional request is to
stabilize the soil and to
decrease maximally extraction
of contaminants to the above
surface part of the plants to be
used for energy production
Biofuel crops for biotechnology
• Second generation biofuel crops represent not-food crops and are less directly
in conflict with food crops
• Crops for second generation biofuels can be divided into two main categories:
short rotation
canopy species
Willow
( Salix
spp.)
Poplar
( Populus
spp.)
Locust
( Robinia
spp.)
perennial/
annual grasses
Reed canary
grass
Phalaris
arundinacea L.
Miscanthus
(Miscanthus sinensis
A.., Miscanthus
sacchariflorus M.,
Misccanthus x
giganteus)
Switchgrass
(Panicum
virgatum L.)
Advantages and disadvantages of Miscanthus for phytotechnology
with biomass production *
Advantages Disadvantages
In production
Perennial, established stands last ~20 years Takes 2-3 years to fully establish
Effectively suppresses weeds once established Tall, dense growing perennial grass
monoculture with limited wildlife friendly uses
High productivity of biomass compared to other
energy crops (20 up to 35 tons.ha-1.yr-1)
Bioenergy processing immature technology;
expensive pre-processing needed
Uses water efficiently by C-4 photosynthesis;
total usage ~ 1 m.yr-1
Yields are influenced by water availability;
under low-rainfall conditions may be poor
Grows at lower temperatures than other warm
season (C-4) grasses; hence longer season
Limited tolerance of low winter temperatures
so not suited to severe continental climates
Does not require as much N as sorghum,
maize, oil palm, or sugar beets
Off-take of K ~3 x more than coppice willow
Mineral content of biomass relatively low
compared to common biomass crops
Mineral nutrient content per unit energy high
compared to coal
The winter harvested crop is relatively dry, so
drying costs are low
Field drying and mineral leaching results in
significant biomass loss as leaf fall
* Pidlisnyuk et al, Critical Review in Plant Science, 2014 ,N1, p.1-19
In phytoremediation
Economic return can be obtained from
contaminated land with employment and
market value of biomass fuels
(possibility of developing a more
economical approach to remediation of
soils with heavy metals such as mine
land)
Dedicated energy crops can result in
displacement of other crops with
significant changes in land use, food
crop prices
Easier to clear than trees for the site to
be transformed for future use
Sterile hybrid so propagation for initial
establishment is labor intensive
In both processes
Potential for income generation through
carbon credits through CO2
sequestration
Less C storage than forest wood
crops over next 50 years
Reduction of soil erosion due to rainfall,
or wind. Reduces dust
Can serve as reservoir for insect
pests of other species
Advantages and disadvantages of Miscanthus for phytotechnology
with biomass production*
* Pidlisnyuk et al, Critical Review in Plant Science, 2014, 1, p.1-19
NATO SPS MYR
UJEP, Czech Republic
NULES and NULP, Ukraine
KSU, USA
KAES, USA
IPBB, Kazakhstan
Liasoing institutions:
UZ, Croatia
IPP, Poland
WMU, Poland
The primary goals
- to improve environmental security by
developing methods to produce biomass in
large quantities on contaminated military
lands
- to improve soil effectively and efficiently
NATO SPS MYR G4687
Ukraine
Research sites for developing biotechnology
Sliac, 2013-2015
Kamenetz-Podilsky, since
2014
ATO zone: Mariinka and
Kurakhovo, since 2016
Slovakia
Czech Republic
Mimon, since 2016
USA- Fort Riley, since 2015
USA
• The contaminated research site was located in city Kamenetz-Podilsky,
Western Ukraine and had the following coordinates: Latitude-48.680910;
Longitude-26.58025. The land was used as a military storage of former
Soviet UnionArmy.
• The control soil was taken from nearby agricultural field and had the
following coordinate: Latitude-48.715954; Longitude-26.577356
Agronomic characteristic of the soil from the research site ,
Kamenetz-Podilsky, Ukraine
There were 7 kg of mixture soil in each pot,
and two experiments were done in parallel.
In each pot the contaminated soil was
mixed with control soil using the next
combinations: 4:0; 3:1;1:1;1:3; 0:4.
In each pot two rhizomes of M. x giganteus
were planted.
Analysis of heavy metals in the soil, roots,
stems and leaves were carried out by
Roentgen-fluorescence analysis using
analyzer Expert-3L (INAM, Ukraine,
http://inam.kiev.us/contact-ua
Statistical evaluation of data was carried out
using Microsoft Excel and Statistica software
pack at the significance level a=0.05.
Extreme values were excluded using the
inner-fence test (Altman, 1990).
Research conditions
Concentration of the selected metals in the soil samples in pots
Soil due to former intensive military activities was contaminated by metals, in particular by
Fe, Mn,Sr,Ti and Zr.
Concentrations of As, Cu, Pb,Zn were elevated compare to inherent soil in the area
Correlation between metal concentration in different plant parts
and two sampling period .*
*Significant correlation (P<0.05) are in bold red
Correlation between metal concentration in different plant parts
and two sampling period .*
*Significant correlation (P<0.05) are in bold red
The variability of metal concentration in the soils was not high, max relative deviation
was ±33% around average
The correlation between metal concentrations in soil and aboveground parts were
insignificant ( As,Fe,Mn,SR,Ti, Zr) or occasional (Cu,Pb,Zn)
That permitted to consider all variants 1-5 equal and to compare them together in
order to increase significance of statistical comparisons
Accumulation of metals took place predominantly in the roots, translocation to above
surface parts was order of magnitude lower.
Fe,Mn,Ti were accumulated more intensive in the first year and less tangible in the
second
Cu,Pb,Zn were insignificant accumulative in both seasons
 As and Pb were accumulated a little
Shoot/roots coefficients were significantly lower than 1 ( with exception of Zn in 1 year)
That indicates absence of hyper accumulation of metals by M.giganteus growing at the
soil from the military contaminated site in Kamenetz-Podislky
Summary
Despite high metals’ concentrations in the research soil no evident growth inhibition was
observed and concentrations of metals in the over surface parts were minor. The
translocation ratio was calculated for roots, stems and leaves; coefficient was significantly
lower than 1 and indicated absence of hyper accumulation
The metal accumulation data confirmed the desired pattern requested for the
phytotechnology with biomass production.
 The research shows that utilization of the biomass obtained is attractive and can turn the
process into a profit making operation.
The further research has also to be concentrated on interconnection between M. x
giganteus biomass quality and quantity grown at the military sites including those newly
appeared at the East of Ukraine (Mariinka and Kurakhovo)
Acknowledgements
Research was supported by Kansas State
University, USA and NATO SPS MYR
G4687 “Cleaning Military Site”

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UABioConf 2016 - S1/22 - Kava (Eng)

  • 1. POTENTIAL OF BIOMASS FROM MISCANTHUS X GIGANTEUS PRODUCING AT THE MILITARY CONTAMINATED LAND Valentina Pidlisnyuk (UJEP, Czech Republic), Tetyana Stefanovska, Ludmila Kava (NULES Ukraine), Josef Trögl (UJEP, Czech Republic), Larry Erickson (KSU, USA ) 12th International Conference on “Biomass for Energy”
  • 2. Military sites in Ukraine • In 1991, military sites included territory of 4500 garrisons, testing areas and military individual sites occupying about 600,000 hectares. • In the period between 1991 and 2003, approximately 140,000 hectares of territory, 147 military bases and 507 separate defense objects were withdrawn from Ministry of Defense jurisdiction • Currently numerous new military contaminated sites appeared at the Eastern part of the country as result of anti-terroristic operation mainly polluted by metals, oils and products of their decompositions.
  • 3. Advantages of the phytotechnology • The union of phytoremediation and production of biofuel crops is perspective approach (delivering additional benefits – phytoproducts) • That method permits to restore marginal contaminated land to agricultural use or urban land bank and simultaneously meet the demand for biomass production as alternative energy sources. • The additional request is to stabilize the soil and to decrease maximally extraction of contaminants to the above surface part of the plants to be used for energy production
  • 4. Biofuel crops for biotechnology • Second generation biofuel crops represent not-food crops and are less directly in conflict with food crops • Crops for second generation biofuels can be divided into two main categories: short rotation canopy species Willow ( Salix spp.) Poplar ( Populus spp.) Locust ( Robinia spp.) perennial/ annual grasses Reed canary grass Phalaris arundinacea L. Miscanthus (Miscanthus sinensis A.., Miscanthus sacchariflorus M., Misccanthus x giganteus) Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.)
  • 5. Advantages and disadvantages of Miscanthus for phytotechnology with biomass production * Advantages Disadvantages In production Perennial, established stands last ~20 years Takes 2-3 years to fully establish Effectively suppresses weeds once established Tall, dense growing perennial grass monoculture with limited wildlife friendly uses High productivity of biomass compared to other energy crops (20 up to 35 tons.ha-1.yr-1) Bioenergy processing immature technology; expensive pre-processing needed Uses water efficiently by C-4 photosynthesis; total usage ~ 1 m.yr-1 Yields are influenced by water availability; under low-rainfall conditions may be poor Grows at lower temperatures than other warm season (C-4) grasses; hence longer season Limited tolerance of low winter temperatures so not suited to severe continental climates Does not require as much N as sorghum, maize, oil palm, or sugar beets Off-take of K ~3 x more than coppice willow Mineral content of biomass relatively low compared to common biomass crops Mineral nutrient content per unit energy high compared to coal The winter harvested crop is relatively dry, so drying costs are low Field drying and mineral leaching results in significant biomass loss as leaf fall * Pidlisnyuk et al, Critical Review in Plant Science, 2014 ,N1, p.1-19
  • 6. In phytoremediation Economic return can be obtained from contaminated land with employment and market value of biomass fuels (possibility of developing a more economical approach to remediation of soils with heavy metals such as mine land) Dedicated energy crops can result in displacement of other crops with significant changes in land use, food crop prices Easier to clear than trees for the site to be transformed for future use Sterile hybrid so propagation for initial establishment is labor intensive In both processes Potential for income generation through carbon credits through CO2 sequestration Less C storage than forest wood crops over next 50 years Reduction of soil erosion due to rainfall, or wind. Reduces dust Can serve as reservoir for insect pests of other species Advantages and disadvantages of Miscanthus for phytotechnology with biomass production* * Pidlisnyuk et al, Critical Review in Plant Science, 2014, 1, p.1-19
  • 7. NATO SPS MYR UJEP, Czech Republic NULES and NULP, Ukraine KSU, USA KAES, USA IPBB, Kazakhstan Liasoing institutions: UZ, Croatia IPP, Poland WMU, Poland The primary goals - to improve environmental security by developing methods to produce biomass in large quantities on contaminated military lands - to improve soil effectively and efficiently NATO SPS MYR G4687
  • 8. Ukraine Research sites for developing biotechnology Sliac, 2013-2015 Kamenetz-Podilsky, since 2014 ATO zone: Mariinka and Kurakhovo, since 2016 Slovakia Czech Republic Mimon, since 2016 USA- Fort Riley, since 2015 USA
  • 9. • The contaminated research site was located in city Kamenetz-Podilsky, Western Ukraine and had the following coordinates: Latitude-48.680910; Longitude-26.58025. The land was used as a military storage of former Soviet UnionArmy. • The control soil was taken from nearby agricultural field and had the following coordinate: Latitude-48.715954; Longitude-26.577356
  • 10. Agronomic characteristic of the soil from the research site , Kamenetz-Podilsky, Ukraine
  • 11. There were 7 kg of mixture soil in each pot, and two experiments were done in parallel. In each pot the contaminated soil was mixed with control soil using the next combinations: 4:0; 3:1;1:1;1:3; 0:4. In each pot two rhizomes of M. x giganteus were planted. Analysis of heavy metals in the soil, roots, stems and leaves were carried out by Roentgen-fluorescence analysis using analyzer Expert-3L (INAM, Ukraine, http://inam.kiev.us/contact-ua Statistical evaluation of data was carried out using Microsoft Excel and Statistica software pack at the significance level a=0.05. Extreme values were excluded using the inner-fence test (Altman, 1990). Research conditions
  • 12. Concentration of the selected metals in the soil samples in pots Soil due to former intensive military activities was contaminated by metals, in particular by Fe, Mn,Sr,Ti and Zr. Concentrations of As, Cu, Pb,Zn were elevated compare to inherent soil in the area
  • 13. Correlation between metal concentration in different plant parts and two sampling period .* *Significant correlation (P<0.05) are in bold red
  • 14. Correlation between metal concentration in different plant parts and two sampling period .* *Significant correlation (P<0.05) are in bold red The variability of metal concentration in the soils was not high, max relative deviation was ±33% around average The correlation between metal concentrations in soil and aboveground parts were insignificant ( As,Fe,Mn,SR,Ti, Zr) or occasional (Cu,Pb,Zn) That permitted to consider all variants 1-5 equal and to compare them together in order to increase significance of statistical comparisons
  • 15. Accumulation of metals took place predominantly in the roots, translocation to above surface parts was order of magnitude lower. Fe,Mn,Ti were accumulated more intensive in the first year and less tangible in the second Cu,Pb,Zn were insignificant accumulative in both seasons  As and Pb were accumulated a little
  • 16. Shoot/roots coefficients were significantly lower than 1 ( with exception of Zn in 1 year) That indicates absence of hyper accumulation of metals by M.giganteus growing at the soil from the military contaminated site in Kamenetz-Podislky
  • 17. Summary Despite high metals’ concentrations in the research soil no evident growth inhibition was observed and concentrations of metals in the over surface parts were minor. The translocation ratio was calculated for roots, stems and leaves; coefficient was significantly lower than 1 and indicated absence of hyper accumulation The metal accumulation data confirmed the desired pattern requested for the phytotechnology with biomass production.  The research shows that utilization of the biomass obtained is attractive and can turn the process into a profit making operation. The further research has also to be concentrated on interconnection between M. x giganteus biomass quality and quantity grown at the military sites including those newly appeared at the East of Ukraine (Mariinka and Kurakhovo)
  • 18. Acknowledgements Research was supported by Kansas State University, USA and NATO SPS MYR G4687 “Cleaning Military Site”