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Presented By Group 1st
Roll No. Names
1 Zohaib Hassan
3 Musab Hussain
12 Zain Ali Shah
13 Muhammad Shahzad
A Tunnel diode is a heavily doped p-n junction diode in which
the electric current decreases as the voltage increases.
In tunnel diode, electric current is caused by “Tunneling”. The
tunnel diode is used as a very fast switching device in
computers. It is also used in high-frequency oscillators and
amplifiers.
The circuit symbol of tunnel diode is shown in the below figure.
In tunnel diode, the p-type semiconductor act as an anode and
the n-type semiconductor act as a cathode
We know that a anode is a positively charged electrode which
attracts electrons whereas cathode is a negatively charged electrode
which emits electrons.
In tunnel diode, n-type semiconductor emits or produces electrons so
it is referred to as the cathode.
On the other hand, p-type semiconductor attracts electrons emitted
from the n-type semiconductor so p-type semiconductor is referred to
as the anode.
The operation of tunnel diode depends on the quantum mechanics
principle known as “Tunneling”. In electronics, tunneling means a
direct flow of electrons across the small depletion region from n-side
conduction band into the p-side valence band.
The germanium material is
commonly used to make the
tunnel diodes.
Advantages
• Long life
• High-speed operation
• Low noise
• Low power consumption
Disadvantages Applications
• Tunnel diodes cannot be
fabricated in large numbers
• Being a two-terminal device,
the input and output are not
isolated from one another.
• Tunnel diodes are used as logic
memory storage devices.
• Tunnel diodes are used in
relaxation oscillator circuits.
• Tunnel diode is used as an ultra-
high-speed switch.
• Tunnel diodes are used in FM
receivers.
Schottky diode is a metal-semiconductor junction diode that
has less forward voltage drop than the P-N junction diode and
can be used in high-speed switching applications.
• In a normal p-n junction diode, a p-type semiconductor and an n-
type semiconductor are used to form the p-n junction. When a p-
type semiconductor is joined with an n-type semiconductor, a
junction is formed between the P-type and N-type semiconductor.
This junction is known as P-N junction.
• In Schottky diode, metals such as aluminum or platinum replace
the P-type semiconductor. The Schottky diode is named after
German physicist Walter H. Schottky.
• Schottky diode is also known as Schottky barrier diode, surface
barrier diode, majority carrier device, hot-electron diode, or hot
carrier diode. Schottky diodes are widely used in radio frequency
(RF) applications.
Advantages
• Low junction capacitance
• Fast reverse recovery time
• High current density
• Low forward voltage drop or low
turn on voltage
• High efficiency
• Schottky diodes operate at high
frequencies.
• Schottky diode produces less
unwanted noise than P-N junction
diode.
Disadvantages Applications
• Large reverse saturation
current
• Schottky diodes are used as general-
purpose rectifiers.
• Schottky diodes are used in radio frequency
(RF) applications.
• Schottky diodes are widely used in power
supplies.
• Schottky diodes are used to detect signals.
• Schottky diodes are used in logic circuits.
Varactor diode is a p-n junction diode whose capacitance is
varied by varying the reverse voltage.
Two parallel lines at the cathode side
represents two conductive plates and the
space between these two parallel lines
represents dielectric.
The Varactor diode should always be operated in reverse bias. Because in
reverse bias, the electric current does not flow. When a forward bias voltage is
applied, the electric current flows through the diode. As a result, the depletion
region becomes negligible. We know that depletion region consists of stored
charges. So stored charges becomes negligible which is undesirable.
A Varactor diode is designed to store electric charge not to conduct electric
current. So Varactor diode should always be operated in reverse bias.
When a reverse bias voltage is applied, the electrons from n-region and holes
from p-region moves away from the junction. As a result, the width of depletion
region increases and the capacitance decreases.
However, if the applied reverse bias voltage is very low the capacitance will be
very large.
The capacitance is inversely proportional to the width of the depletion region
and directly proportional to the surface area of the p-region and n-region. So the
capacitance decreases as the as the width of depletion region increases.
LEDs are a type of semiconductor called "Light Emitting Diode".
White LEDs, which have achieved practical realization through
the use of high-brightness blue LEDs developed in 1993 based
on Gallium Nitride, are attracting increased attention as a 4th
type of light source.
LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) are semiconductor light
sources that combine a P-type semiconductor (larger
hole concentration) with an N-type semiconductor (larger
electron concentration). Applying a sufficient forward
voltage will cause the electrons and holes to recombine
at the P-N junction, releasing energy in the form of light
Compared with conventional light sources that first
convert electrical energy into heat, and then into light,
LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) convert electrical energy
directly into light, delivering efficient light generation with
little-wasted electricity.
The symbol of LED is similar to the normal p-n
junction diode except that it contains arrows
pointing away from the diode indicating that light is
being emitted by the diode.
Two types of LEDs are available, a lamp type
(leaded) and a chip type (surface mount). Users
can select the ideal type based on set
requirements.
Blue LED+Yellow
Phosphor
Combining a blue LED with yellow phosphor,
which is a complementary color, will yield white
light. This method is easier than other solutions
and provides high efficiency, making it the most
popular choice on the market.
Red LED+Green LED+Blue
LED
Combining the 3 primary colors will result
in white light. Generally this method isn't
used for lighting, but for full-color LED
devices
Advantages
• The cost of LED’s is less and they are tiny.
• By using the LED’s the electricity is
controlled.
• The intensity of the LED differs with the help
of the microcontroller.
Applications
• LED is used as a bulb in the homes
and industries
• The light emitting diodes are used in
the motorcycles and cars
• These are used in the mobile phones to
display the message
• At the traffic light signals led’s are used
Types of Diodes Advantages and disadvantages, LE

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Types of Diodes Advantages and disadvantages, LE

  • 1. Presented By Group 1st Roll No. Names 1 Zohaib Hassan 3 Musab Hussain 12 Zain Ali Shah 13 Muhammad Shahzad
  • 2. A Tunnel diode is a heavily doped p-n junction diode in which the electric current decreases as the voltage increases. In tunnel diode, electric current is caused by “Tunneling”. The tunnel diode is used as a very fast switching device in computers. It is also used in high-frequency oscillators and amplifiers. The circuit symbol of tunnel diode is shown in the below figure. In tunnel diode, the p-type semiconductor act as an anode and the n-type semiconductor act as a cathode
  • 3. We know that a anode is a positively charged electrode which attracts electrons whereas cathode is a negatively charged electrode which emits electrons. In tunnel diode, n-type semiconductor emits or produces electrons so it is referred to as the cathode. On the other hand, p-type semiconductor attracts electrons emitted from the n-type semiconductor so p-type semiconductor is referred to as the anode. The operation of tunnel diode depends on the quantum mechanics principle known as “Tunneling”. In electronics, tunneling means a direct flow of electrons across the small depletion region from n-side conduction band into the p-side valence band. The germanium material is commonly used to make the tunnel diodes.
  • 4. Advantages • Long life • High-speed operation • Low noise • Low power consumption Disadvantages Applications • Tunnel diodes cannot be fabricated in large numbers • Being a two-terminal device, the input and output are not isolated from one another. • Tunnel diodes are used as logic memory storage devices. • Tunnel diodes are used in relaxation oscillator circuits. • Tunnel diode is used as an ultra- high-speed switch. • Tunnel diodes are used in FM receivers.
  • 5. Schottky diode is a metal-semiconductor junction diode that has less forward voltage drop than the P-N junction diode and can be used in high-speed switching applications.
  • 6. • In a normal p-n junction diode, a p-type semiconductor and an n- type semiconductor are used to form the p-n junction. When a p- type semiconductor is joined with an n-type semiconductor, a junction is formed between the P-type and N-type semiconductor. This junction is known as P-N junction. • In Schottky diode, metals such as aluminum or platinum replace the P-type semiconductor. The Schottky diode is named after German physicist Walter H. Schottky. • Schottky diode is also known as Schottky barrier diode, surface barrier diode, majority carrier device, hot-electron diode, or hot carrier diode. Schottky diodes are widely used in radio frequency (RF) applications.
  • 7. Advantages • Low junction capacitance • Fast reverse recovery time • High current density • Low forward voltage drop or low turn on voltage • High efficiency • Schottky diodes operate at high frequencies. • Schottky diode produces less unwanted noise than P-N junction diode. Disadvantages Applications • Large reverse saturation current • Schottky diodes are used as general- purpose rectifiers. • Schottky diodes are used in radio frequency (RF) applications. • Schottky diodes are widely used in power supplies. • Schottky diodes are used to detect signals. • Schottky diodes are used in logic circuits.
  • 8. Varactor diode is a p-n junction diode whose capacitance is varied by varying the reverse voltage. Two parallel lines at the cathode side represents two conductive plates and the space between these two parallel lines represents dielectric.
  • 9. The Varactor diode should always be operated in reverse bias. Because in reverse bias, the electric current does not flow. When a forward bias voltage is applied, the electric current flows through the diode. As a result, the depletion region becomes negligible. We know that depletion region consists of stored charges. So stored charges becomes negligible which is undesirable. A Varactor diode is designed to store electric charge not to conduct electric current. So Varactor diode should always be operated in reverse bias. When a reverse bias voltage is applied, the electrons from n-region and holes from p-region moves away from the junction. As a result, the width of depletion region increases and the capacitance decreases. However, if the applied reverse bias voltage is very low the capacitance will be very large. The capacitance is inversely proportional to the width of the depletion region and directly proportional to the surface area of the p-region and n-region. So the capacitance decreases as the as the width of depletion region increases.
  • 10. LEDs are a type of semiconductor called "Light Emitting Diode". White LEDs, which have achieved practical realization through the use of high-brightness blue LEDs developed in 1993 based on Gallium Nitride, are attracting increased attention as a 4th type of light source.
  • 11. LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) are semiconductor light sources that combine a P-type semiconductor (larger hole concentration) with an N-type semiconductor (larger electron concentration). Applying a sufficient forward voltage will cause the electrons and holes to recombine at the P-N junction, releasing energy in the form of light Compared with conventional light sources that first convert electrical energy into heat, and then into light, LEDs (Light Emitting Diodes) convert electrical energy directly into light, delivering efficient light generation with little-wasted electricity.
  • 12. The symbol of LED is similar to the normal p-n junction diode except that it contains arrows pointing away from the diode indicating that light is being emitted by the diode. Two types of LEDs are available, a lamp type (leaded) and a chip type (surface mount). Users can select the ideal type based on set requirements.
  • 13. Blue LED+Yellow Phosphor Combining a blue LED with yellow phosphor, which is a complementary color, will yield white light. This method is easier than other solutions and provides high efficiency, making it the most popular choice on the market. Red LED+Green LED+Blue LED Combining the 3 primary colors will result in white light. Generally this method isn't used for lighting, but for full-color LED devices
  • 14. Advantages • The cost of LED’s is less and they are tiny. • By using the LED’s the electricity is controlled. • The intensity of the LED differs with the help of the microcontroller. Applications • LED is used as a bulb in the homes and industries • The light emitting diodes are used in the motorcycles and cars • These are used in the mobile phones to display the message • At the traffic light signals led’s are used