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TYPE OF CAISSONS
Uses of Caissons
Caissons are more suitable for the deep
foundation under water where the foundation
should be extended up to or below the river bed
so as to obtain the proper stability.
Caissons as type of well foundation is constructed
in connection with excavation for foundation of
piers and abutments in rivers and lake, bridges,
break water dock structures for the point of
view of shore protection, lamp house etc.
When the construction of well foundation to be
done under water. The construction Of caisson
are more preferable.
 When depth of water in river, lake, or sea etc. are
more, than caisson structure is used.
 Caisson are used as foundation for bridges piers,
and abutments in rivers, seas, lakes, break
waters and other shore construction works.
 It is also used for pump house which are
subjected to huge vertical as well as horizontal
forces.
It is also occasionally used for large and multi-
storey building and other structures.
Types of Caissons
The Caissons is used for the purpose of placing
a foundation in correct position under water.
Three types of Caissons
1. Open Caisson
2. Box Caisson
3. Pneumatic Caisson
Open Caisson
It is a box type of structure which is open at the top
and at the bottom. Open Caisson are normally used
on sandy soils or soft bearing stratum and where no
firm bed is available at a higher depth.
According to the shape of caissons, open caissons
can be further classified into three types as;
1) Open Caisson
2) Single Wall Open Caisson
3) Cylindrical Open Caisson
4) Open Caissons with dredging wells.
Open Caisson
Construction of Open Caissons
If dry Conditions is not possible on site, then
caisson is built in barges or slipways.
Then it is towed to its towed to its final
position by floating.
Guide piles are normally used for sinking the
first few lifts.
Note that sinking of Caissons are directly
done in open water.
Advantages and Disadvantages of
Open Caissons
 Advantages
This type of Caisson can be extended up to
large depths.
Cost of Construction is relatively less on bed
level or lower side.
 Disadvantages
Since the placing of concrete is done for
concrete seal under water, it may not be
satisfactory.
If any obstruction of boulders or logs are
encountered, then progress of work becomes
slow.
Through cleaning and inspection at the bottom
of caisson is very difficult and hence not
possible.
The help of divers may be required for
excavation near haunches at the cutting edges.
Box Caissons
Box caisson is similar to open caisson, only
difference is that it is closed at the bottom.
 Box caisson is cast and cured properly on
ground and then it is launched in water by
filling sand or gravel or concrete in the empty
spaces.
Pneumatic Caissons
 This type of caisson is open at the bottom and close at
the top. Pneumatic caisson is specially used at the
place where it is not possible to construct the well.
 It is suitable for the depth of water more than 12 m.
 In the construction of Pneumatic Caisson, the
compressed air is used to remove water from the
working chamber and the foundation work is carried
out in dry condition.
 This type of caisson can be made of timber, concrete
or steel.
Pneumatic Caissons
Type of caissons

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Type of caissons

  • 2. Uses of Caissons Caissons are more suitable for the deep foundation under water where the foundation should be extended up to or below the river bed so as to obtain the proper stability. Caissons as type of well foundation is constructed in connection with excavation for foundation of piers and abutments in rivers and lake, bridges, break water dock structures for the point of view of shore protection, lamp house etc.
  • 3. When the construction of well foundation to be done under water. The construction Of caisson are more preferable.  When depth of water in river, lake, or sea etc. are more, than caisson structure is used.  Caisson are used as foundation for bridges piers, and abutments in rivers, seas, lakes, break waters and other shore construction works.  It is also used for pump house which are subjected to huge vertical as well as horizontal forces. It is also occasionally used for large and multi- storey building and other structures.
  • 4. Types of Caissons The Caissons is used for the purpose of placing a foundation in correct position under water. Three types of Caissons 1. Open Caisson 2. Box Caisson 3. Pneumatic Caisson
  • 5. Open Caisson It is a box type of structure which is open at the top and at the bottom. Open Caisson are normally used on sandy soils or soft bearing stratum and where no firm bed is available at a higher depth. According to the shape of caissons, open caissons can be further classified into three types as; 1) Open Caisson 2) Single Wall Open Caisson 3) Cylindrical Open Caisson 4) Open Caissons with dredging wells.
  • 7. Construction of Open Caissons If dry Conditions is not possible on site, then caisson is built in barges or slipways. Then it is towed to its towed to its final position by floating. Guide piles are normally used for sinking the first few lifts. Note that sinking of Caissons are directly done in open water.
  • 8. Advantages and Disadvantages of Open Caissons  Advantages This type of Caisson can be extended up to large depths. Cost of Construction is relatively less on bed level or lower side.
  • 9.  Disadvantages Since the placing of concrete is done for concrete seal under water, it may not be satisfactory. If any obstruction of boulders or logs are encountered, then progress of work becomes slow. Through cleaning and inspection at the bottom of caisson is very difficult and hence not possible. The help of divers may be required for excavation near haunches at the cutting edges.
  • 10. Box Caissons Box caisson is similar to open caisson, only difference is that it is closed at the bottom.  Box caisson is cast and cured properly on ground and then it is launched in water by filling sand or gravel or concrete in the empty spaces.
  • 11. Pneumatic Caissons  This type of caisson is open at the bottom and close at the top. Pneumatic caisson is specially used at the place where it is not possible to construct the well.  It is suitable for the depth of water more than 12 m.  In the construction of Pneumatic Caisson, the compressed air is used to remove water from the working chamber and the foundation work is carried out in dry condition.  This type of caisson can be made of timber, concrete or steel.