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TRANSPORT RESEARCH IN MALAYSIA:
Gaps and Paving the Future
Prof. Dr. Ahmad Farhan bin Mohd Sadullah
Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic and International)
&
Professor in Transport
UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA
“Transport researchers to the fore, giving
impact where it matters”
AFS@USM
Negative perceptions towards transport researchers
in Malaysia?
University researchers work are
too academic, useless to the
real world
They are just interested in
publication, they are not living in
the real life
Researchers “syok sendiri”,
their works are only good for
the shelves
They make things sound so
complicated. The industry and
professionals just cannot
understand
Their research is a waste of
money
Academics are useless, they
are slow and not competent
enough to help solve the
country’s problems
AFS@USM
Quotes on how transport researchers are perceived
negatively
University researchers work are
too academic, useless to the
real world
They are just interested in
publication, they are not living in
the real life
Researchers “syok sendiri”,
their works are only good for
the shelves
They make things sound so
complicated The industry and
professionals just cannot
understand
Their research is a waste of
money
Academics are useless, they
are slow and not competent
enough to help solve the
country’s problems
WE NEED TO CHANGE
THESE PERCEPTIONS
AFS@USM
WHY ARE YOU HERE?
OUTCOMES OF THIS WEBINAR
• We will appreciate the extensive problem statement possibilities for transport
research in Malaysia
• We are able to choose problem statements for research that will give the best
impact to solving transport problems
• We are able to articulate (dissect) the issues deeper, so that our research
design is sound, effective and will help to solve real transport problems
• We are able to work as a team of researchers
• Transport researchers in Malaysia are respected and will have positive
influence on the future of transport in Malaysia
AFS@USM
Contents
1. The transport scene in Malaysia : Our problem statement(s)
2. How transport affect our lives?
3. The research eco-system: The Whys? and Whats?
4. Dissecting the transport research
5. The way forward
AFS@USM
1. THE TRANSPORT SCENE IN MALAYSIA
AFS@USM
THE TRANSPORT SCENE IN MALAYSIA
What are your first reactions?
More
positive
More
Negative
or
AFS@USM
THE TRANSPORT SCENE IN MALAYSIA
What are your first reactions?
More
positive
More
Negative
or
Modern
Safe
Reliable
Accessible
Comfortable
Affordable
Not safe
Deteriorating
unreliable
Poor access
Costly
Not available
Congested Poor level of
service
AFS@USM
HOW CAN WE
DESCRIBE THE
TRANSPORT SCENE
IN MALAYSIA?
AFS@USM
The role of TRANSPORT
Roads and Infra-structure
Resilient infra-structure
Safe transport system
Reliable Mobility & Quality
life-style
World class
transport system
Describing Transport
based on
Maslow’s Hierarchy
of Human Needs
AFS@USM
Describing
TRANSPORT/
MOBILITY
in and for Sustainable
Development Goals
(SDG)
Sustainable Development Goals Mobility Role
1 No Poverty Indirect
2 Zero Hunger Indirect
3 Good Health and Well Being Direct
4 Quality Education Indirect
5 Gender Equality Indirect
6 Clean Water and Sanitation Indirect
7 Affordable and Clean Energy Indirect
8 Decent Work and Economic Growth Direct
9 Industry Innovation and Infrastructure Direct
10 Reduced Inequalities Direct
11 Sustainable Cities and Communities Direct
12 Responsible Consumption & Production Direct
13 Climate Action Indirect
14 Life Below Water
15 Life on Land Indirect
16 Peace and Justice
17 Partnership for the goals
AFS@USM
How much did
we progress
and achieve?
Describing Transport based on
Malaysia’s future plan
Looking forward to the
12th Malaysia Plan
AFS@USM
AFS@USM
AFS@USM
THESE ARE GIVING US
MANY PROBLEM
STATEMENTS
AFS@USM
2. HOW TRANSPORT AFFECT OUR LIVES
AFS@USM
Aspirations
Direct
implications
of failure
Secondary
implications
of failure
Aligned to the needs of the people
Helping to achieve the SDG
The Malaysian Transport Policy 2019-2030 Goals
Safety issues Poor level of service
Reliability issues Affordability issues
Pollution from vehicles Uncomfortable
No access Inconvenience
Urban mobility problems Increase in cost of goods
Other urban problems Lower spending power
Marginalized society Net loss to government
SDG goals unattained Net loss to society
TRANSPORT AFFECTING OUR LIVES
AFS@USM
3. THE RESEARCH ECO-SYSTEM
AFS@USM
Relevant research
problem statements
Fundamental Research Basic Data research Creating enablers
Applied Research
Problem Solving
Research
Product/service
development
Publications Conferences & knowledge sharing platforms
Policy adoption
Guidelines, manual,
specifications and
standards
Authority’s adoption
Industries’ adoption
Problems solved
Recognition by peer researchers : publication citation/future postgraduates etc
Recognition by fellow professionals : through conferences and knowledge sharing platforms
Recognition by the industry as an expert and as a reference person
Recognition by the government and authority as an expert and as a reference person
Acknowledged problem solver to the transport issues
The aim of research
Different types of
research
Post-research
Outcomes of
research
Measure of IMPACT
Including to students
AFS@USM
THE RESEARCH ECO-SYSTEM
4. DISSECTING THE TRANSPORT RESEARCH
AFS@USM
Disclaimer:
The items highlighted in the following discussion, are not exhaustive
DEMAND SUPPLY
Demand and
Supply
EQUILIBRIUM
Travel
Behaviour
Consumption
Behaviour
Transport
systems
Transport
Infrastructure
Transport
Operations
Resources
We need to understand and
estimate demand as
accurately as possible
We need to make sure when
demand and supply
interacts, they satisfy the
needs of demand, serve the
function of mobility (people,
goods), and do not affect the
sustainability of the world and
humanity
We need to ensure that the
supply is available and
sufficient
AFS@USM
DEMAND SUPPLY
Demand and
Supply
EQUILIBRIUM
Travel
Behaviour
Consumption
Behaviour
Transport
systems
Transport
Infrastructure
Transport
Operations
Resources
We need to understand and
estimate demand as
accurately as possible
We need to make sure when
demand and supply
interacts, they satisfy the
needs of demand, serve the
function of mobility (people,
goods), and do not affect the
sustainability of the world and
humanity
We need to ensure that the
supply is available and
sufficient
AFS@USM
Between DEMAND, SUPPLY
and their interaction,
transport solutions require a
multi-disciplinary approach
DEMAND SUPPLY
Demand and
Supply
EQUILIBRIUM
Travel
Behaviour
Consumption
Behaviour
Transport
systems
Transport
Infrastructure
Transport
Operations
Resources
Demand Estimation
1. 4 Stage or its variant (trip
generation, trip distribution, modal
split and trip assignment)
2. More detailed demand behavior
3. Variation/changes in demand
4. Other demand related issues
- The modelling needs, the influencing factors
- Origin-destination studies
- Value of time studies
- Generalised Cost of travel
- Demand Elasticity
- Influencing factors
- Seasonal changes
- Incident induced
- COVID19 and new normal
- Disaster situation
- others
AFS@USM
Land Use and
transport
- Planning issues
- Land use
transport
interaction
- Implications to
mobility needs,
etc
Other factors affecting
DEMAND
DEMAND SUPPLY
Demand and
Supply
EQUILIBRIUM
Travel
Behaviour
Consumption
Behaviour
Transport
systems
Transport
Infrastructure
Transport
Operations
Resources
Demand for Mobility
of GOODS
Other factors influencing
consumption behavior
- Purchasing power
- Seasonal changes
- Market fluctuation
- Elasticity of demand
- others
Demand for Services
Logistical needs
Plus peoples’
travel needs
Implications to
Demand and Supply
Interaction
AFS@USM
Other factors affecting
DEMAND
Government driven
incentives,
initiatives and
constraints
DEMAND SUPPLY
Demand and
Supply
EQUILIBRIUM
Travel
Behaviour
Consumption
Behaviour
Transport
systems
Transport
Infrastructure
Transport
Operations
Resources
AFS@USM
Automobile
- Standards
- Technology
- Autonomous
- Comfort/ergonomics
- Safety etc
Public Transport
- Types of public transport
and standards
- Future of rail
- Governance
- Planning
- Operations
- Level of Service etc
Personal transit
- Technology
- Micro mobility
- Governance
- Safety etc
E-hailing and Delivery
Vehicles
- Technology
- Governance
- Support etc
The Logistic Industry
- Governance
- Supply-chain issues
- Multi-modal
- etc
Commercial Vehicles
- Adequacy
- Issue of overloading
- Issue of cost
- Governance
- etc
Roads
- Pavement
- Forgiving roads
- Alignment
- Planning and governance
- Financing, etc
Highways
- HNDP
- Financing
- Capacity and LOS
- Maintenance
- Disaster, etc
Infrastructure
- Sustainability
- Financial model
- Adequacy
- Construction
- Maintenance, etc
Multimodal
- Adequacy
- Supply chain
- Regulation
- Affecting demand, etc
Future mobility
- Technology
- Cost effectiveness
- Infra-support
- Demand behavior, etc
Land Use and transport
- Planning issues
- Land use transport
interaction
- Implications to
mobility needs, etc
Non-motorized mobility
- Vulnerability
- Pedestrian
- Cycling
- Safe route, etc
Governance
- Federal centric
- Localising
- APAD/LPKP/JPJ
- Effectiveness, etc
Talent
- Skill set
- Competency
- Career path
- Academic/training
programmes, etc
Financing and
Resources
- Financial model
- Consolidated
funds
- Sustainability
- Budgeting, etc
OTHERS and NEW
OPPORTUNITIES
AFS@USM
DEMAND SUPPLY
Demand and
Supply
EQUILIBRIUM
Travel
Behaviour
Consumption
Behaviour
Transport
systems
Transport
Infrastructure
Transport
Operations
Resources
We need to make sure
when demand and supply
interacts, they satisfy the
needs of demand, serve
the function of mobility
(people, goods), and do not
affect the sustainability of
the world and humanity
Traffic Engineering
- Capacity
- Fundamentals
- Simulation
- PCU
- Level of service
Congestion
Management
- Technology
- Restraining measures
- Simulation
- Demand strategies
- Traffic management
Restaining Measures
- Technology
- Elasticity
- Social impact
- Economical impacts
Damage, Wear & Tear
- To infrastructure
- To vehicles
- To environment
- Cost
- Safety
- Roadworthiness
- Enforcement
Safety Issues
- System
- Roads
- User
- Vehicles
- Data
- Interventions
Pollutions
- Emission
- Noise
- Roadside
- Modelling
Energy Consumption
- Alternative fuel
- Pollution
- Savings cost
- Battery/hybrid
- Electrical car
- Technology
Impact to Environment
- Pollution
- Energy
- Visual Intrusion
- Effects on SDG
Impact on Society
- Access
- Travel cost
- Safety
- Lifestyle
- Time management
Impact on Economy
- Affecting productivity
- Delays
- Affecting logistics
- Accessibility to
mobility
- Additional travel costs
Land use-transport
Interaction – Role of
Planners
- Proper planning
- Authority
- Compliance
- Impact
Role of Technology
- To help achieve
equilibrium
- To help represent
interaction
Role of enforcement
- POBC
- The WILL to enforce
- Technology
- Data
- Effectiveness
Role of advocacy
- Influencing behavior
- Social change
- Social marketing
Role of authorities
- Source of authority
- Acts and regulations
- Capacity
- Constraints
Role of Community
- Advocacy
- Champions
- Localisation
- Society based
Simulation and System
Representaion
- Modelling
- IOT
- Navigation
- Statistics
- GIS, spatial modellling
Impact on Aspirations
- Data and monitoring
- CQI
- Assesment
- New strategies
Future Mobility
- Future eco-
system
- Technology and
Innovation
- Mass vs
personalized
Special Situations
- Effects on demand
- Change of behavior
- Understanding
behavior
- Preparedness
- Invincible facilities
So, Where are the GAPS?
So, Where are the GAPS?
Gaps exist when:
1. Malaysian researchers tend to
flock into the same areas and
leaving many more areas un-
addressed
2. Malaysia has not established
fundamental data research that
will be the basis for many
transport work
3. Research results are not seen to
be solving the problem of
transport in Malaysia
5. PAVING THE FUTURE: THE WAY FORWARD
AFS@USM
PAVING THE FUTURE
REVISITING OUR OUTCOMES
• We will appreciate the extensive problem
statement possibilities for transport research in
Malaysia : DONE
• We are able to choose problem statements for
research that will give the best impact to solving
transport problems : DONE
• We are able to articulate (dissect) the issues
deeper, so that our research design is sound,
effective and will help to solve real transport
problems: NEED MORE WORK
• We are able to work as a team of researchers :
THIS IS OUR CHANCE
• Transport researchers in Malaysia are respected
and will have positive influence on the future of
transport in Malaysia : WE HAVE TO PROVE IT
1. We need to identify WHO? is interested in WHAT?
2. We need to create inter-disciplinary clusters and work
across institutions/universities
3. We need to further dissect the topic to reveal more issues
and more detailed problems statement (e.g for public
transport is given next)
4. We need to craft “big and impactful problem statements”
5. Finding opportunities for funding – guiding and influencing
granting agencies
6. We can build on existing network platforms
7. We need to have a common platform to exchange ideas
continuously
GOOD LUCK & LET US ACHIEVE THIS:
“Transport researchers to the fore, giving impact
where it matters”
A POSSIBLE RESEARCH FRAMEWORK FOR
PUBLIC TRANSPORT
EXAMPLE OF DISSECTION IN A CLUSTER
Adopted from a proposal made by me to SPAD in 2012 and based on
previous effort done by many experts of the past with some
adjustments to fit the present
AFS@USM
Research Grant and Collaboration with Researchers
Issues
Supply Issues
Public Transport &
Impact on Others
Enforcement
strategies
Licensing
terms &
condition
Regulating
terms
Monitoring
performance
Federal vs
local issues
Inter -
agency
issues
Image
building
Operators
issues
Technology
application to
improve demand
Infrastructure
Technology of
supply
Seamlessness
Safety and security
issue
Gap identification
of current network
Affordable
effect of cost
LOS &
Performance
Environment
Social issues
& security
Sustainability
Operational
issues
Demand &
travel behavior
influencing
factors
Accessibility
Modeling
of demand
APAD Related Initiatives
Operators license vs .
vehicle based license
SPAD Act vs.
PAD Act vs LPKP Act
Planning &
Initiatives
Mission &
Vission
Demand Supply
Governance &
Authority
Policy
directions
Safety issues
wellness
Public Transport
Research
Framework
Enforcement
strategies
Licensing
terms &
condition
Regulating
terms
Monitoring
performance
Federal vs
local issues
Inter -
agency
issues
Governance &
Authority
Policy
directions
• Public engagement
• Direction to winning the heart of
public user
• Implementation plan
• Response rather than only hear
the issue/problem
• LPKP Act 1984 remnants
• Good or bad about thepolicy
and its evidence
• Fully regulated vs semi-
regulated vs deregulated
• Which one is better to
overcome this issues?
• Pricing strategy?
• Identify type of
licensee
• State of licensee
• Renew or
revoke?
• Struggle on enforcement
• Less of human power
• A study on SPAD Act and
LPKP Act
• Theory vs. Practical
• Waiting time, level of service etc
• Comprehensive index system :
Perspective of operators, society
and environment
•Terminal problem, etc
• Partnering
• Understanding
• the structure
Public Transport
Research
Framework
Image
building
Technology
application to
improve demand
Affordable
effect of cost
LOS &
Performance
Demand &
travel behavior
influencing
factors
Accessibility
Modeling
of demand
Demand Supply
• Current image
• How to improve
image on public
transport
• Multi- disciplinary
• Information system
• GPS, etc
• Not enough
information and
education
• Relate to time
• Waiting time vs.
transfer time
• identify route coverage
for access time
• Gaps?
• GIS, accessibility , etc
• Operation in the
country
• Future performance
• Manipulating data,
influence of data,etc
get from operator
• Estimate
• Elasticity
• Opportunity
• Splits
• Modal split, etc
Public Transport
Research
Framework
Supply Issues
Operators
issues
Infrastructure
Technology of
supply
Seamlessness
Safety and security
issue
Gap identification
of current network
Operational
issues
• Klang Valley
focus
• What about other
cities?
• urban vs rural
• Issues on vehicle
• Issues on driver
• i.e career path,
supply of driver,
control of driver,
SHE, etc
• Business sustainability. Perspective of
operators, friendly with passengers.
What kind of module?
• What is their culture e.g ‘prebet sapu’
in Kelantan
• Activity or strategy
• Seamless travel
• Terminal, etc
• Different types of
modes, traffic
route issues
• On the road –
traffic
• Drivers issues,
professionalism
of driver, etc
Public Transport
Research
Framework
ROLE OF RESEARCH CENTRES: GOVERNMENT LINKED
• Malaysian Institute of Road Safety
Research (MIROS) (MOT)
• Maritime Institute of Malaysia
(MIMA), (MOT)
• National Rail Centre of Excellence
(MOT)
• Pusat Kecemerlangan
Kejuruteraan dan Teknologi JKR
(CrEATE) (MOW)
• Malaysian Automotive Robotics
and IOT Institute (MARii), (MITI)
These Government linked
research centres should play
the leading role in defining the
appropriate research focus in
the scope of their mandate
We, researchers at the
universities, should also work
closely with these government
research centres. But we need
to be seen as a worthy
collaborator
ROLE OF RESEARCH CENTRES: UNIVERSITIES
• Centre for Automotive Research (UKM)
• Institute for Vehicle System and
Engineering (IVeSE) (UTM)
o Automotive Development Centre (UTM)
o UTM Centre for Low Carbon Transport
o Marine Technology Centre
• Vehicle System Engineering Research Lab
(MJIT, UTM)
• Automotive Engineering Centre (UMP)
• UTP Centre for Automotive Research and
Electrical Mobility
• Transport Innovation Centre (Swinburne,
Sarawak)
• Malaysian Institute of Transport (MITRANS)
(UITM)
• Road Safety Research Centre (RSRC) (UPM)
• Motorsports Technology Research Center
(MOTECH) (UNIMAP)
• Centre for Transportation Research (UM)
• Sustainable Urban Transport Research
Centre (UKM)
• ICOE Rail (UTHM)
• Asia Rail Centre (UNIKL)
• Centre for Railway Infrastructure and
Engineering (UTAR)
• Smart Driving Research Centre (SDRC)
(UTHM)
• Malaysian Institute for Supply
Chain Innovation (UITM)
o Mobility Centre(s) of
Excellence
• Centre of Logistics and
Transport (UUM)
• Technology and Supply Chain
Institute (UUM)
Let us make these
research centers more
impactful
Perhaps a new working
model is needed!
CONCLUDING REMARKS
• Do not be in the comfort zone of your present area of expertise. Be prepared
to re-tool/re-skill/re-align to give you more opportunities
• Transport requires many solutions and thus many research efforts
• You need to help bridge the gaps of the present and for opportunities in the
future
• Do not stop at just “Journals with Impact Factor”, you need to rise to the
challenge of giving impact that matters
• LET US WORK TOGETHER
THANK YOU
“Let us change the negative
perceptions toward transport
researchers”
cefrhn@usm.my
“Transport researchers to the fore, giving
impact where it matters”

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Transport research gaps and paving the future v2 (Slide)

  • 1. TRANSPORT RESEARCH IN MALAYSIA: Gaps and Paving the Future Prof. Dr. Ahmad Farhan bin Mohd Sadullah Deputy Vice Chancellor (Academic and International) & Professor in Transport UNIVERSITI SAINS MALAYSIA “Transport researchers to the fore, giving impact where it matters” AFS@USM
  • 2. Negative perceptions towards transport researchers in Malaysia? University researchers work are too academic, useless to the real world They are just interested in publication, they are not living in the real life Researchers “syok sendiri”, their works are only good for the shelves They make things sound so complicated. The industry and professionals just cannot understand Their research is a waste of money Academics are useless, they are slow and not competent enough to help solve the country’s problems AFS@USM
  • 3. Quotes on how transport researchers are perceived negatively University researchers work are too academic, useless to the real world They are just interested in publication, they are not living in the real life Researchers “syok sendiri”, their works are only good for the shelves They make things sound so complicated The industry and professionals just cannot understand Their research is a waste of money Academics are useless, they are slow and not competent enough to help solve the country’s problems WE NEED TO CHANGE THESE PERCEPTIONS AFS@USM
  • 4. WHY ARE YOU HERE?
  • 5. OUTCOMES OF THIS WEBINAR • We will appreciate the extensive problem statement possibilities for transport research in Malaysia • We are able to choose problem statements for research that will give the best impact to solving transport problems • We are able to articulate (dissect) the issues deeper, so that our research design is sound, effective and will help to solve real transport problems • We are able to work as a team of researchers • Transport researchers in Malaysia are respected and will have positive influence on the future of transport in Malaysia AFS@USM
  • 6. Contents 1. The transport scene in Malaysia : Our problem statement(s) 2. How transport affect our lives? 3. The research eco-system: The Whys? and Whats? 4. Dissecting the transport research 5. The way forward AFS@USM
  • 7. 1. THE TRANSPORT SCENE IN MALAYSIA AFS@USM
  • 8. THE TRANSPORT SCENE IN MALAYSIA What are your first reactions? More positive More Negative or AFS@USM
  • 9. THE TRANSPORT SCENE IN MALAYSIA What are your first reactions? More positive More Negative or Modern Safe Reliable Accessible Comfortable Affordable Not safe Deteriorating unreliable Poor access Costly Not available Congested Poor level of service AFS@USM
  • 10. HOW CAN WE DESCRIBE THE TRANSPORT SCENE IN MALAYSIA? AFS@USM
  • 11. The role of TRANSPORT Roads and Infra-structure Resilient infra-structure Safe transport system Reliable Mobility & Quality life-style World class transport system Describing Transport based on Maslow’s Hierarchy of Human Needs AFS@USM
  • 12. Describing TRANSPORT/ MOBILITY in and for Sustainable Development Goals (SDG) Sustainable Development Goals Mobility Role 1 No Poverty Indirect 2 Zero Hunger Indirect 3 Good Health and Well Being Direct 4 Quality Education Indirect 5 Gender Equality Indirect 6 Clean Water and Sanitation Indirect 7 Affordable and Clean Energy Indirect 8 Decent Work and Economic Growth Direct 9 Industry Innovation and Infrastructure Direct 10 Reduced Inequalities Direct 11 Sustainable Cities and Communities Direct 12 Responsible Consumption & Production Direct 13 Climate Action Indirect 14 Life Below Water 15 Life on Land Indirect 16 Peace and Justice 17 Partnership for the goals AFS@USM
  • 13. How much did we progress and achieve? Describing Transport based on Malaysia’s future plan Looking forward to the 12th Malaysia Plan AFS@USM
  • 16. THESE ARE GIVING US MANY PROBLEM STATEMENTS AFS@USM
  • 17. 2. HOW TRANSPORT AFFECT OUR LIVES AFS@USM
  • 18. Aspirations Direct implications of failure Secondary implications of failure Aligned to the needs of the people Helping to achieve the SDG The Malaysian Transport Policy 2019-2030 Goals Safety issues Poor level of service Reliability issues Affordability issues Pollution from vehicles Uncomfortable No access Inconvenience Urban mobility problems Increase in cost of goods Other urban problems Lower spending power Marginalized society Net loss to government SDG goals unattained Net loss to society TRANSPORT AFFECTING OUR LIVES AFS@USM
  • 19. 3. THE RESEARCH ECO-SYSTEM AFS@USM
  • 20. Relevant research problem statements Fundamental Research Basic Data research Creating enablers Applied Research Problem Solving Research Product/service development Publications Conferences & knowledge sharing platforms Policy adoption Guidelines, manual, specifications and standards Authority’s adoption Industries’ adoption Problems solved Recognition by peer researchers : publication citation/future postgraduates etc Recognition by fellow professionals : through conferences and knowledge sharing platforms Recognition by the industry as an expert and as a reference person Recognition by the government and authority as an expert and as a reference person Acknowledged problem solver to the transport issues The aim of research Different types of research Post-research Outcomes of research Measure of IMPACT Including to students AFS@USM THE RESEARCH ECO-SYSTEM
  • 21. 4. DISSECTING THE TRANSPORT RESEARCH AFS@USM Disclaimer: The items highlighted in the following discussion, are not exhaustive
  • 22. DEMAND SUPPLY Demand and Supply EQUILIBRIUM Travel Behaviour Consumption Behaviour Transport systems Transport Infrastructure Transport Operations Resources We need to understand and estimate demand as accurately as possible We need to make sure when demand and supply interacts, they satisfy the needs of demand, serve the function of mobility (people, goods), and do not affect the sustainability of the world and humanity We need to ensure that the supply is available and sufficient AFS@USM
  • 23. DEMAND SUPPLY Demand and Supply EQUILIBRIUM Travel Behaviour Consumption Behaviour Transport systems Transport Infrastructure Transport Operations Resources We need to understand and estimate demand as accurately as possible We need to make sure when demand and supply interacts, they satisfy the needs of demand, serve the function of mobility (people, goods), and do not affect the sustainability of the world and humanity We need to ensure that the supply is available and sufficient AFS@USM Between DEMAND, SUPPLY and their interaction, transport solutions require a multi-disciplinary approach
  • 24. DEMAND SUPPLY Demand and Supply EQUILIBRIUM Travel Behaviour Consumption Behaviour Transport systems Transport Infrastructure Transport Operations Resources Demand Estimation 1. 4 Stage or its variant (trip generation, trip distribution, modal split and trip assignment) 2. More detailed demand behavior 3. Variation/changes in demand 4. Other demand related issues - The modelling needs, the influencing factors - Origin-destination studies - Value of time studies - Generalised Cost of travel - Demand Elasticity - Influencing factors - Seasonal changes - Incident induced - COVID19 and new normal - Disaster situation - others AFS@USM Land Use and transport - Planning issues - Land use transport interaction - Implications to mobility needs, etc Other factors affecting DEMAND
  • 25. DEMAND SUPPLY Demand and Supply EQUILIBRIUM Travel Behaviour Consumption Behaviour Transport systems Transport Infrastructure Transport Operations Resources Demand for Mobility of GOODS Other factors influencing consumption behavior - Purchasing power - Seasonal changes - Market fluctuation - Elasticity of demand - others Demand for Services Logistical needs Plus peoples’ travel needs Implications to Demand and Supply Interaction AFS@USM Other factors affecting DEMAND Government driven incentives, initiatives and constraints
  • 26. DEMAND SUPPLY Demand and Supply EQUILIBRIUM Travel Behaviour Consumption Behaviour Transport systems Transport Infrastructure Transport Operations Resources AFS@USM Automobile - Standards - Technology - Autonomous - Comfort/ergonomics - Safety etc Public Transport - Types of public transport and standards - Future of rail - Governance - Planning - Operations - Level of Service etc Personal transit - Technology - Micro mobility - Governance - Safety etc E-hailing and Delivery Vehicles - Technology - Governance - Support etc The Logistic Industry - Governance - Supply-chain issues - Multi-modal - etc Commercial Vehicles - Adequacy - Issue of overloading - Issue of cost - Governance - etc Roads - Pavement - Forgiving roads - Alignment - Planning and governance - Financing, etc Highways - HNDP - Financing - Capacity and LOS - Maintenance - Disaster, etc Infrastructure - Sustainability - Financial model - Adequacy - Construction - Maintenance, etc Multimodal - Adequacy - Supply chain - Regulation - Affecting demand, etc Future mobility - Technology - Cost effectiveness - Infra-support - Demand behavior, etc Land Use and transport - Planning issues - Land use transport interaction - Implications to mobility needs, etc Non-motorized mobility - Vulnerability - Pedestrian - Cycling - Safe route, etc Governance - Federal centric - Localising - APAD/LPKP/JPJ - Effectiveness, etc Talent - Skill set - Competency - Career path - Academic/training programmes, etc Financing and Resources - Financial model - Consolidated funds - Sustainability - Budgeting, etc OTHERS and NEW OPPORTUNITIES
  • 27. AFS@USM DEMAND SUPPLY Demand and Supply EQUILIBRIUM Travel Behaviour Consumption Behaviour Transport systems Transport Infrastructure Transport Operations Resources We need to make sure when demand and supply interacts, they satisfy the needs of demand, serve the function of mobility (people, goods), and do not affect the sustainability of the world and humanity Traffic Engineering - Capacity - Fundamentals - Simulation - PCU - Level of service Congestion Management - Technology - Restraining measures - Simulation - Demand strategies - Traffic management Restaining Measures - Technology - Elasticity - Social impact - Economical impacts Damage, Wear & Tear - To infrastructure - To vehicles - To environment - Cost - Safety - Roadworthiness - Enforcement Safety Issues - System - Roads - User - Vehicles - Data - Interventions Pollutions - Emission - Noise - Roadside - Modelling Energy Consumption - Alternative fuel - Pollution - Savings cost - Battery/hybrid - Electrical car - Technology Impact to Environment - Pollution - Energy - Visual Intrusion - Effects on SDG Impact on Society - Access - Travel cost - Safety - Lifestyle - Time management Impact on Economy - Affecting productivity - Delays - Affecting logistics - Accessibility to mobility - Additional travel costs Land use-transport Interaction – Role of Planners - Proper planning - Authority - Compliance - Impact Role of Technology - To help achieve equilibrium - To help represent interaction Role of enforcement - POBC - The WILL to enforce - Technology - Data - Effectiveness Role of advocacy - Influencing behavior - Social change - Social marketing Role of authorities - Source of authority - Acts and regulations - Capacity - Constraints Role of Community - Advocacy - Champions - Localisation - Society based Simulation and System Representaion - Modelling - IOT - Navigation - Statistics - GIS, spatial modellling Impact on Aspirations - Data and monitoring - CQI - Assesment - New strategies Future Mobility - Future eco- system - Technology and Innovation - Mass vs personalized Special Situations - Effects on demand - Change of behavior - Understanding behavior - Preparedness - Invincible facilities
  • 28. So, Where are the GAPS?
  • 29. So, Where are the GAPS? Gaps exist when: 1. Malaysian researchers tend to flock into the same areas and leaving many more areas un- addressed 2. Malaysia has not established fundamental data research that will be the basis for many transport work 3. Research results are not seen to be solving the problem of transport in Malaysia
  • 30. 5. PAVING THE FUTURE: THE WAY FORWARD AFS@USM
  • 31. PAVING THE FUTURE REVISITING OUR OUTCOMES • We will appreciate the extensive problem statement possibilities for transport research in Malaysia : DONE • We are able to choose problem statements for research that will give the best impact to solving transport problems : DONE • We are able to articulate (dissect) the issues deeper, so that our research design is sound, effective and will help to solve real transport problems: NEED MORE WORK • We are able to work as a team of researchers : THIS IS OUR CHANCE • Transport researchers in Malaysia are respected and will have positive influence on the future of transport in Malaysia : WE HAVE TO PROVE IT 1. We need to identify WHO? is interested in WHAT? 2. We need to create inter-disciplinary clusters and work across institutions/universities 3. We need to further dissect the topic to reveal more issues and more detailed problems statement (e.g for public transport is given next) 4. We need to craft “big and impactful problem statements” 5. Finding opportunities for funding – guiding and influencing granting agencies 6. We can build on existing network platforms 7. We need to have a common platform to exchange ideas continuously GOOD LUCK & LET US ACHIEVE THIS: “Transport researchers to the fore, giving impact where it matters”
  • 32. A POSSIBLE RESEARCH FRAMEWORK FOR PUBLIC TRANSPORT EXAMPLE OF DISSECTION IN A CLUSTER Adopted from a proposal made by me to SPAD in 2012 and based on previous effort done by many experts of the past with some adjustments to fit the present AFS@USM
  • 33. Research Grant and Collaboration with Researchers Issues Supply Issues Public Transport & Impact on Others Enforcement strategies Licensing terms & condition Regulating terms Monitoring performance Federal vs local issues Inter - agency issues Image building Operators issues Technology application to improve demand Infrastructure Technology of supply Seamlessness Safety and security issue Gap identification of current network Affordable effect of cost LOS & Performance Environment Social issues & security Sustainability Operational issues Demand & travel behavior influencing factors Accessibility Modeling of demand APAD Related Initiatives Operators license vs . vehicle based license SPAD Act vs. PAD Act vs LPKP Act Planning & Initiatives Mission & Vission Demand Supply Governance & Authority Policy directions Safety issues wellness Public Transport Research Framework
  • 34. Enforcement strategies Licensing terms & condition Regulating terms Monitoring performance Federal vs local issues Inter - agency issues Governance & Authority Policy directions • Public engagement • Direction to winning the heart of public user • Implementation plan • Response rather than only hear the issue/problem • LPKP Act 1984 remnants • Good or bad about thepolicy and its evidence • Fully regulated vs semi- regulated vs deregulated • Which one is better to overcome this issues? • Pricing strategy? • Identify type of licensee • State of licensee • Renew or revoke? • Struggle on enforcement • Less of human power • A study on SPAD Act and LPKP Act • Theory vs. Practical • Waiting time, level of service etc • Comprehensive index system : Perspective of operators, society and environment •Terminal problem, etc • Partnering • Understanding • the structure Public Transport Research Framework
  • 35. Image building Technology application to improve demand Affordable effect of cost LOS & Performance Demand & travel behavior influencing factors Accessibility Modeling of demand Demand Supply • Current image • How to improve image on public transport • Multi- disciplinary • Information system • GPS, etc • Not enough information and education • Relate to time • Waiting time vs. transfer time • identify route coverage for access time • Gaps? • GIS, accessibility , etc • Operation in the country • Future performance • Manipulating data, influence of data,etc get from operator • Estimate • Elasticity • Opportunity • Splits • Modal split, etc Public Transport Research Framework
  • 36. Supply Issues Operators issues Infrastructure Technology of supply Seamlessness Safety and security issue Gap identification of current network Operational issues • Klang Valley focus • What about other cities? • urban vs rural • Issues on vehicle • Issues on driver • i.e career path, supply of driver, control of driver, SHE, etc • Business sustainability. Perspective of operators, friendly with passengers. What kind of module? • What is their culture e.g ‘prebet sapu’ in Kelantan • Activity or strategy • Seamless travel • Terminal, etc • Different types of modes, traffic route issues • On the road – traffic • Drivers issues, professionalism of driver, etc Public Transport Research Framework
  • 37. ROLE OF RESEARCH CENTRES: GOVERNMENT LINKED • Malaysian Institute of Road Safety Research (MIROS) (MOT) • Maritime Institute of Malaysia (MIMA), (MOT) • National Rail Centre of Excellence (MOT) • Pusat Kecemerlangan Kejuruteraan dan Teknologi JKR (CrEATE) (MOW) • Malaysian Automotive Robotics and IOT Institute (MARii), (MITI) These Government linked research centres should play the leading role in defining the appropriate research focus in the scope of their mandate We, researchers at the universities, should also work closely with these government research centres. But we need to be seen as a worthy collaborator
  • 38. ROLE OF RESEARCH CENTRES: UNIVERSITIES • Centre for Automotive Research (UKM) • Institute for Vehicle System and Engineering (IVeSE) (UTM) o Automotive Development Centre (UTM) o UTM Centre for Low Carbon Transport o Marine Technology Centre • Vehicle System Engineering Research Lab (MJIT, UTM) • Automotive Engineering Centre (UMP) • UTP Centre for Automotive Research and Electrical Mobility • Transport Innovation Centre (Swinburne, Sarawak) • Malaysian Institute of Transport (MITRANS) (UITM) • Road Safety Research Centre (RSRC) (UPM) • Motorsports Technology Research Center (MOTECH) (UNIMAP) • Centre for Transportation Research (UM) • Sustainable Urban Transport Research Centre (UKM) • ICOE Rail (UTHM) • Asia Rail Centre (UNIKL) • Centre for Railway Infrastructure and Engineering (UTAR) • Smart Driving Research Centre (SDRC) (UTHM) • Malaysian Institute for Supply Chain Innovation (UITM) o Mobility Centre(s) of Excellence • Centre of Logistics and Transport (UUM) • Technology and Supply Chain Institute (UUM) Let us make these research centers more impactful Perhaps a new working model is needed!
  • 39. CONCLUDING REMARKS • Do not be in the comfort zone of your present area of expertise. Be prepared to re-tool/re-skill/re-align to give you more opportunities • Transport requires many solutions and thus many research efforts • You need to help bridge the gaps of the present and for opportunities in the future • Do not stop at just “Journals with Impact Factor”, you need to rise to the challenge of giving impact that matters • LET US WORK TOGETHER
  • 40. THANK YOU “Let us change the negative perceptions toward transport researchers” cefrhn@usm.my “Transport researchers to the fore, giving impact where it matters”