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BOHR International Journal of Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning
2022, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 20–22
https://doi.org/10.54646/bijiam.004
www.bohrpub.com
Transforming African Education Systems through
the Application of IOT
Nikodemus Angula
Department of Management, Namibia University of science and technology, Windhoek, Namibia
E-mail: chcangula@gmail.com; nangula@nust.na
Abstract. The project sought to provide a paradigm for improving African education systems through the use of
the IOT. The created IOT model for Africa will enable African countries, notably Namibia, to exchange educational
content and resources with other African countries. The objective behind the IOT paradigm in Africa’s education
sectors is to provide open access to knowledge and information. The study revealed that there are no recognised
platforms in African education systems that are utilised by African governments to interact, communicate, and
share educational material directly with African institutions. As a result, the current research developed a model for
transforming African education systems using the IOT in the Namibian context, which will serve as a centralised
online platform for self-study, new skill acquisition, and self-improvement using materials provided by African
institutions of higher learning. Everyone is welcome to use the platform, including students, instructors, and
members of the general public.
INTRODUCTION
Smartness and object interactivity are two key components
of IoT in traditional elearning (Bayani, Leiton). IoTs is
a word that refers to a large platform that may supply
learners and instructors with a range of remote learning
devices and objects (Bayani et al., 2018). High interac-
tion between virtual and real things, according to Soava
et al. (2014), can develop a large number of collaborative
settings. Furthermore, according to Economy & Report
(2016), IoT approaches envisage the world in which struc-
tural problems in a bridge are discovered before it falls.
In addition, IoT enables for customised solutions in all
industries, both in terms of manufacturing and services.
Furthermore, IoT may empower individuals in ways that
would not be feasible otherwise, such as providing free-
dom for persons with impairments and special needs in
areas like transportation. Firms and government agen-
cies may use the IOT to achieve their goals in new and
inventive ways.
For the purposes of this research, a model for transform-
ing African education systems through the application of
the IOT in the Namibian context will be developed, which
will serve as a centralised online platform for self-study,
the acquisition of new skills, and self-improvement using
materials provided by African institutions of education
and higher learning.
PROBLEM STATEMENT
In today’s world ICTs have played a significant role as
a building block of modern society. IoTs is challenging
in today’s operation and implementation since most enti-
ties cannot afford to have the capacity and capability
of implementing it because of its complex and technical
issue (Soava et al., 2014). In developing countries the IOT
remains a concern because most of the remote areas do
not have electricity in the everyday lives of people. In
developed countries IoTs work perfect because they have
access to electricity everyday therefore IOT play a funda-
mental role in economic and social development in ways
that would have been challenging across the globe(Nilsson,
Andersson et al., n.d.). Moreover, IOT is defined by Nilsson
et al. (n.d.) as an ecosystem in which applications as
services are driven by data collected from devices that
sense interface with the physical world. Many literatures
indicated that IOT is important in all the sectors such as
health education, agriculture, transportation, manufactur-
ing, electric grids, and many more.
20
Transforming African Education Systems through the Application of IOT 21
Aim and Objectives
The primary goal of this research was to provide
a paradigm for reforming African education systems
through the use of the IOT.
The Objectives Were
• To determine the usage of IOT in the African educa-
tion systems.
• To establish the level of access and usage of IOT in the
African education systems.
• To identify the challenges facing Africa in accessing
and using of IOT.
LITERATURE REVIEW
This section discusses the scientific and general overview
of a the usage of IOT in the African education systems, the
level of access and usage of IOT in the African education
systems and the challenges facing Africa in accessing and
using of IOT.
The usage of IOT in the African education systems
IOT is a relatively new idea that has the ability to improve
learning and teaching (Nesnelern et al., 2019). Although
IOT is evolving and becoming more popular in today’s
educational environments, there is still a need to educate
instructors and students about the nature of it and how
it may be used for teaching and learning. IoT has the
potential to alter education by transforming how schools,
colleges, and universities acquire data, interact with users,
and automate operations, according to Abdel-basset et al.
(2018). The Internet of Things (IoT) is described as the net-
working of physical things through the use of embedded
sensors (Brief, n.d.). The usage of IOT in the education
arena has played a significant role in connecting and edu-
cating students on how information may be sent from one
device to another (Abdel-basset et al., 2018). Furthermore,
the IOT has a significant impact on schooling.
The level of access and usage of IOT in the
African education systems
In the African setting, IOT is a novel idea that has recently
become more accessible to the rest of the globe as a
result of the proliferation of mobile devices, entrenched
and pervasive connectivity, cloud computing, and data
analytics (Abdel-basset et al., 2018). In terms of information
technology, IOT is one of the buzzwords. The Internet of
Things has the power to convert any thing in the real
world into sentient objects. Furthermore, the IOT gives
us control over the items around us while also keeping
us informed of their status. IOT uses network, sensors,
big data, and artificial intelligence technologies to create
ideal service systems, hence it is considered an automation
and analytics system. Furthermore, the IoT improves the
cleanliness, performance, and control of any system.
The challenges facing Africa in accessing
and using of IOT
Many African countries continue to face difficulties in
implementing IoT as a relatively new concept. These
difficulties include compatibility issues with various IoT
systems, authentication and identification issues in IoT,
integration of IoT points with IoT software, IoT data
storage challenges, connectivity and power management.
Difficulties with IoT, unstructured data processing, and
inaccurate data collection (Barakabitze et al., 2019).
METHODOLOGY
This section describes the data collection methods and
procedures that will be used in the project, as well as the
types of data that will be gathered and how the data will
be evaluated. The purpose of the project, which is to build
a model for improving African education systems via the
application of IOT, affected the selection of approaches and
techniques. To pick 53 African nations, a simple random
selection procedure was applied. The data was collected
through secondary data. A quantitative approach using the
survey research design was used. For proof of concept a
prototype to enable IOT among institutions were devel-
oped in Namibia to enable sharing of resources.
BUSINESS BENEFITS
In the context of education, IoT is one of the technologies
used to help teachers keep track of their pupils and utilise
student performance data to continuously analyse effective
teaching and take a more informed instructional approach.
Students may utilise IOT to interact with their professors
and receive learning instructions and feedback even while
they are physically present in class. For example, a sick
student does not have to miss essential courses or acquire
assignments from their peers.
DISCUSSION OF RESULTS
In today’s world IOT is regarded as the key to information
access and dissemination as it provides communication
and collaboration among the physical and virtual objects
in various sectors. The are many benefits offered by IOT
such ease of access to information timely or in real time as
well as monitoring of data, adapting to new standards and
also automation and control.
IOT MODEL A NAMIBIAN CONTEXT
This is a centralised online platform for self-study,
new skill development, and self-improvement that uses
22 Nikodemus Angula
resources offered by African educational and higher learn-
ing institutions. Everyone, including students, instructors,
and members of the general public, can use the platform.
Figure 1. Prototype African educational content sharing frame-
work.
CONCLUSIONS
In today’s world, IoT plays a significant role in ensuring
that it has gadgets that self-report in real-time, enhancing
efficiency and bringing crucial information to the surface
faster than a system that relies on human interaction.
Furthermore, IoT allows for connectivity amongst smart
objects, allowing for conversation at any time, from any-
where, and with anybody.
REFERENCES
Abdel-basset, M., Manogaran, G., Mohamed, M., & Rushdy, E. (2018).
The decision-making process Internet of things in smart education
environment?: Supportive framework in the decision-making pro-
cess (May). https://doi.org/10.1002/cpe.4515.
Barakabitze, A. A., Lazaro, A. W., Ainea, N., Mkwizu, M. H., Maziku,
H., Matofali, A. X., ... Sanga, C. (2019). Transforming African
Education Systems in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math-
ematics (STEM) Using ICTs?: Challenges and Opportunities, 2019.
Bayani, M., Leiton, K., Loaiza, M., & Automation, I. L. (2018). Internet
of Things (IoT) Advantages on e-Learning in the Smart Orig-
inal Research Article Internet of Things (IoT) Advantages on
e-Learning in (January).
Brief, S. (n.d.). The Internet of Things in Education Improve learning and
teaching experiences by leveraging IoT on a secure foundation IoT
fundamentally changes the education equation.
Nesnelerİn, E., Krİtİk, İ., & Bakiş, B. İ. R. (2019). A Critical Overview of
Internet of Things in Education (January).
Nilsson, E., Andersson, D., Andersson, D., & Nilsson, E. (n.d.). Internet of
Things A survey about thoughts and knowledge.
The, M. O. N., Economy, D., & Report, B. (2016). The Internet of Things
2016 Ministerial Meeting on The Digital Economy (252).

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Transforming African Education Systems through the Application of IOT

  • 1. BOHR International Journal of Internet of Things, Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning 2022, Vol. 1, No. 1, pp. 20–22 https://doi.org/10.54646/bijiam.004 www.bohrpub.com Transforming African Education Systems through the Application of IOT Nikodemus Angula Department of Management, Namibia University of science and technology, Windhoek, Namibia E-mail: chcangula@gmail.com; nangula@nust.na Abstract. The project sought to provide a paradigm for improving African education systems through the use of the IOT. The created IOT model for Africa will enable African countries, notably Namibia, to exchange educational content and resources with other African countries. The objective behind the IOT paradigm in Africa’s education sectors is to provide open access to knowledge and information. The study revealed that there are no recognised platforms in African education systems that are utilised by African governments to interact, communicate, and share educational material directly with African institutions. As a result, the current research developed a model for transforming African education systems using the IOT in the Namibian context, which will serve as a centralised online platform for self-study, new skill acquisition, and self-improvement using materials provided by African institutions of higher learning. Everyone is welcome to use the platform, including students, instructors, and members of the general public. INTRODUCTION Smartness and object interactivity are two key components of IoT in traditional elearning (Bayani, Leiton). IoTs is a word that refers to a large platform that may supply learners and instructors with a range of remote learning devices and objects (Bayani et al., 2018). High interac- tion between virtual and real things, according to Soava et al. (2014), can develop a large number of collaborative settings. Furthermore, according to Economy & Report (2016), IoT approaches envisage the world in which struc- tural problems in a bridge are discovered before it falls. In addition, IoT enables for customised solutions in all industries, both in terms of manufacturing and services. Furthermore, IoT may empower individuals in ways that would not be feasible otherwise, such as providing free- dom for persons with impairments and special needs in areas like transportation. Firms and government agen- cies may use the IOT to achieve their goals in new and inventive ways. For the purposes of this research, a model for transform- ing African education systems through the application of the IOT in the Namibian context will be developed, which will serve as a centralised online platform for self-study, the acquisition of new skills, and self-improvement using materials provided by African institutions of education and higher learning. PROBLEM STATEMENT In today’s world ICTs have played a significant role as a building block of modern society. IoTs is challenging in today’s operation and implementation since most enti- ties cannot afford to have the capacity and capability of implementing it because of its complex and technical issue (Soava et al., 2014). In developing countries the IOT remains a concern because most of the remote areas do not have electricity in the everyday lives of people. In developed countries IoTs work perfect because they have access to electricity everyday therefore IOT play a funda- mental role in economic and social development in ways that would have been challenging across the globe(Nilsson, Andersson et al., n.d.). Moreover, IOT is defined by Nilsson et al. (n.d.) as an ecosystem in which applications as services are driven by data collected from devices that sense interface with the physical world. Many literatures indicated that IOT is important in all the sectors such as health education, agriculture, transportation, manufactur- ing, electric grids, and many more. 20
  • 2. Transforming African Education Systems through the Application of IOT 21 Aim and Objectives The primary goal of this research was to provide a paradigm for reforming African education systems through the use of the IOT. The Objectives Were • To determine the usage of IOT in the African educa- tion systems. • To establish the level of access and usage of IOT in the African education systems. • To identify the challenges facing Africa in accessing and using of IOT. LITERATURE REVIEW This section discusses the scientific and general overview of a the usage of IOT in the African education systems, the level of access and usage of IOT in the African education systems and the challenges facing Africa in accessing and using of IOT. The usage of IOT in the African education systems IOT is a relatively new idea that has the ability to improve learning and teaching (Nesnelern et al., 2019). Although IOT is evolving and becoming more popular in today’s educational environments, there is still a need to educate instructors and students about the nature of it and how it may be used for teaching and learning. IoT has the potential to alter education by transforming how schools, colleges, and universities acquire data, interact with users, and automate operations, according to Abdel-basset et al. (2018). The Internet of Things (IoT) is described as the net- working of physical things through the use of embedded sensors (Brief, n.d.). The usage of IOT in the education arena has played a significant role in connecting and edu- cating students on how information may be sent from one device to another (Abdel-basset et al., 2018). Furthermore, the IOT has a significant impact on schooling. The level of access and usage of IOT in the African education systems In the African setting, IOT is a novel idea that has recently become more accessible to the rest of the globe as a result of the proliferation of mobile devices, entrenched and pervasive connectivity, cloud computing, and data analytics (Abdel-basset et al., 2018). In terms of information technology, IOT is one of the buzzwords. The Internet of Things has the power to convert any thing in the real world into sentient objects. Furthermore, the IOT gives us control over the items around us while also keeping us informed of their status. IOT uses network, sensors, big data, and artificial intelligence technologies to create ideal service systems, hence it is considered an automation and analytics system. Furthermore, the IoT improves the cleanliness, performance, and control of any system. The challenges facing Africa in accessing and using of IOT Many African countries continue to face difficulties in implementing IoT as a relatively new concept. These difficulties include compatibility issues with various IoT systems, authentication and identification issues in IoT, integration of IoT points with IoT software, IoT data storage challenges, connectivity and power management. Difficulties with IoT, unstructured data processing, and inaccurate data collection (Barakabitze et al., 2019). METHODOLOGY This section describes the data collection methods and procedures that will be used in the project, as well as the types of data that will be gathered and how the data will be evaluated. The purpose of the project, which is to build a model for improving African education systems via the application of IOT, affected the selection of approaches and techniques. To pick 53 African nations, a simple random selection procedure was applied. The data was collected through secondary data. A quantitative approach using the survey research design was used. For proof of concept a prototype to enable IOT among institutions were devel- oped in Namibia to enable sharing of resources. BUSINESS BENEFITS In the context of education, IoT is one of the technologies used to help teachers keep track of their pupils and utilise student performance data to continuously analyse effective teaching and take a more informed instructional approach. Students may utilise IOT to interact with their professors and receive learning instructions and feedback even while they are physically present in class. For example, a sick student does not have to miss essential courses or acquire assignments from their peers. DISCUSSION OF RESULTS In today’s world IOT is regarded as the key to information access and dissemination as it provides communication and collaboration among the physical and virtual objects in various sectors. The are many benefits offered by IOT such ease of access to information timely or in real time as well as monitoring of data, adapting to new standards and also automation and control. IOT MODEL A NAMIBIAN CONTEXT This is a centralised online platform for self-study, new skill development, and self-improvement that uses
  • 3. 22 Nikodemus Angula resources offered by African educational and higher learn- ing institutions. Everyone, including students, instructors, and members of the general public, can use the platform. Figure 1. Prototype African educational content sharing frame- work. CONCLUSIONS In today’s world, IoT plays a significant role in ensuring that it has gadgets that self-report in real-time, enhancing efficiency and bringing crucial information to the surface faster than a system that relies on human interaction. Furthermore, IoT allows for connectivity amongst smart objects, allowing for conversation at any time, from any- where, and with anybody. REFERENCES Abdel-basset, M., Manogaran, G., Mohamed, M., & Rushdy, E. (2018). The decision-making process Internet of things in smart education environment?: Supportive framework in the decision-making pro- cess (May). https://doi.org/10.1002/cpe.4515. Barakabitze, A. A., Lazaro, A. W., Ainea, N., Mkwizu, M. H., Maziku, H., Matofali, A. X., ... Sanga, C. (2019). Transforming African Education Systems in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math- ematics (STEM) Using ICTs?: Challenges and Opportunities, 2019. Bayani, M., Leiton, K., Loaiza, M., & Automation, I. L. (2018). Internet of Things (IoT) Advantages on e-Learning in the Smart Orig- inal Research Article Internet of Things (IoT) Advantages on e-Learning in (January). Brief, S. (n.d.). The Internet of Things in Education Improve learning and teaching experiences by leveraging IoT on a secure foundation IoT fundamentally changes the education equation. Nesnelerİn, E., Krİtİk, İ., & Bakiş, B. İ. R. (2019). A Critical Overview of Internet of Things in Education (January). Nilsson, E., Andersson, D., Andersson, D., & Nilsson, E. (n.d.). Internet of Things A survey about thoughts and knowledge. The, M. O. N., Economy, D., & Report, B. (2016). The Internet of Things 2016 Ministerial Meeting on The Digital Economy (252).