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RANI DURGAVATI
VISHVAVIDYALAY
JABALPUR M.P.
A HOME ASSIGNMENT BASED ON BASED ON INORGANIC
CHEMISTRY
Session - 2020-21
Topic - Trans Effect
SUBMITTED TO :
Under the supervision
of
Dr. PRADEEP KUMAR
VISHWAKARMA
Dept. Of. P.G. Studies &
Research in chemistry and
SUBMITTED BY :
SURENDRA KUMAR KACHHI
M.Sc. 2nd semester
Dept.of P.G.Studies
&Research in Chemistry
and Pharmacy
Content
Trans effect
Illustration of Trans effect
Explanation of Trans effect
Theories of Trans effect
a.Polarization theory
b.Pai- bonding theory
Applications of trans effect
Summary
Trans Effect series
High end
Trans effect decreases Trans effect decreases
CN-, CO, C2H4, NO > PR3, H- > CH - , C H --, tu, R S > NO -, I-, SCN- > Br- > Cl- > Py >
NH ,
3 6 5 2
3
RNH2 > OH- > H2O
Low end
The ligands lying at the low end of the series are easily
polarisable ligands.
I- > Br- > Cl-
Polarizability decreases
Trans effect decreases
TRANS EFFECT
The effect of the ligand trans to the leaving ligand on the rate of substitution
reaction in square planar complexes is called trans effect.
Chat et al have proposed that the trans effect of a group coordinated to a
metal ion is the tendency of that group to direct an incoming group to
occupy the position trans to that group.
Trans effect may also be defined as the labilsation of ligands trans to
other trans directing ligands.
II
[Pt Cl3 (NO2)]2- + NH3
?
?
 It is generally accepted that the trans effect arises from two separate
influences: one arising in the ground-state and the other in the
transition-state itself.
 i.e., There are two possible modes by which the trans ligand, T can
enhance the rate of the substitution reaction.
It can either destabilize the ground-state by weakening the metal-
ligand (Pt-X) bond trans to T ligand or it can stabilize the 5-
coordinate transition-state.
Both the modes will increase the rate of the reaction, because, the
activation energy, Ea is decreased in both cases.
(a) Poor trans
effect: low ground
state, high
transition state.
(b) σ-Bonding
effect higher energy
groundstate
(trans influence).
(c) π – Bonding effect:
lower energy transition
state, (trans effect).
Energy
Fig. Activation Energy and the trans Effect.
- Grinberg
A/c to this theory, the primary positive charge of Pt(II) induces
a dipole in all the four ligands.
If the four ligands are identical as in (a), then the dipoles
induced by the metal ion cancel out each other and the
resultant dipole is zero (Fig.(a))
. Here none of the four ligands shows trans effect.
❖ If the four ligands are not identical as in Fig.(b), then the
induced dipoles do not cancel out each other.
One of the earliest theory was the Polarization theory proposed by
Grinberg, in which a good trans-directing ligand was visualized as
being more polarizable.
❖ The two X ligands which are similar and trans to each other
balance each other. But the other two trans ligands, T and X, which
are not similar, the induced dipoles do not balance each other.
δ
δ δ
δ
Polarized Pt(II)
ion
Polarized Trans ligand Attraction of X for
Pt(II) is reduced
(a) (b)
Fig. Effect of polarization in (a) [Pt L4] and (b) [Pt X3 T] complexes
This figure represents the polarization of metal ion induced by
a highly polarizable trans ligand, T in [Pt X3 T] complex as
compared to [Pt L4] complex.
X
Shorter and stronger bond
Fig. (c) Result of polarization
theory
T
Longer and weaker bond
X
Pt X
❖ Hence, the attraction of X for Pt(II) is reduced and the bond trans to T (Pt-X)
is weakened and consequently lengthened. i.e., Pt-X bond trans to T is weaker
and longer than Pt-X bonds that are cis to T (Fig.(c))
❖ This facilitates the replacement of X by Y(entering ligand) at a point trans to
T.
This theory predicts that trans effect is important only when the central metal ion
itself is polarizable and large in size. Actually the order of importance of trans
effect is Pt(II) > Pd(II) > Ni(II). Because, the size and polarizability decrease in the
same order.
If the ligand T is highly polarizable in [Pt X3 T] complex, then Pt-X bond trans to T
is
longer than Pt-X bond cis to T. This is evident from the following example.
The trans effect order is
Br- > Cl- > NH3
Merit:
This theory explain very well the trans effect of ligands that are
present at the low end of trans effect series, like H2O , OH- , NH3, Cl-
, Br- , etc.
Defect:
This theory cannot explain the high trans-effect of the ligands like
-
Evidence in favour of the polarization theory
π- bonding theory (or) Transition-state
theory
❖ Chatt and Orgel gave the π- bonding theory.
According to this theory, the vacant π or π orbitals of π –
bonding ligands accept a pair of electrons from the filled d-
orbitals of the metal ( dyz or dxz orbitals ) to form M L π- bond. (d
π- p π overlapping or d π- d π- overlapping).
A/C to Orgel, the very good π- acceptor ligands effectively
withdraw electron density that will accumulate on the metal
as a result of adding a fifth ligand (y), thereby stabilizing the
5-coordinate transition-state.
So, the energy of the 5-coordinate trigonal bipyramidal
transition state is lowered which results in the lowering of
energy of activation(Ea ) of the substitution reaction. Thus,
the rate of the ligand substitution is increased due to the
presence of π- bonding trans ligands.
In the structure of TBP 5-coordinated intermediate, π-
bonding trans ligand occupy the equatorial position and
the two cis-inert ligands occupy the axial positions.
❖ According to Chatt, the formation of M - L π-bond in the complex
increases the electron density in the direction of T ligand and diminishes
the electron density in the direction of X trans to T.
Vacant
P
z
orbital
of
π-
bonding
trans
ligand
Vacant
d
orbital
of
π-bonding
trans
ligand
Filled dyz orbital of Pt(II)
Fig.(i) Formation of d π- p π bond in
TBP 5-coordinated transition-state
Filled dyz orbital of Pt(II)
Fig.(ii) Formation of d π- d π bond
in TBP 5-coordinated transition-
state
π
𝜎
Fig.(iii): Formation of trigonal
bipyramidal 5- coordinated
π
𝜎
Based on the relative π-
acceptor ability of ligands, the
trans effect order is
❖ Thus, Pt-X bond trans to T is weakened. This facilitates the approach of the
entering ligand Y with its lone pair in the direction of diminished electron density
to form the 5- coordinated transition state complex, which on loosing X, yields the
substituted complex.
Evidences in favour of the π-bonding Theory
The Pt-X bond trans to the π- bonding C2H4 ligand in complexes of [Pt X3
(C2H4) ]- type has been found to be longer than that cis to it. Trans effect
of C2H4 > X-
[Pt
Cl
3
(C
2
H
4
)
]
-
[Pt
Br
3
(C
2
H
4
)
]
-
Merit of π- bonding Theory
It explains the trans effect of π- acceptor ligands which lie at the high end of
trans effect series
① Synthesis of geometrical isomers of Pt(II) SPL complexes
(i) Synthesis of cis- and trans- [Pt Cl2 (NH3)2]
(ii) Synthesis of cis- and trans- [Pt Cl2 (NH3)(NO2)]
-
II
I
(iii) Synthesis of geometrical isomers of [Pt (Br) (Cl) (NH3) (py)]
② To distinguish between cis-and trans-isomers of [Pt X2 A2] type
complexes:
[Kurnakov’s test]
① Synthesis of geometrical isomers of Pt(II) SPL complexes
I
(i) Synthesis of cis- and trans- [Pt Cl2 (NH3)2]
 cis-[Pt Cl2 (NH3)2] is obtained by treating [Pt Cl4]2- ion with NH3
 trans-[Pt Cl2 (NH3)2] is obtained by treating [Pt (NH3)4]2+ ion with Cl-
② To distinguish between cis-and trans-isomers of [Pt X2 A2] type complexes:
[Kurnakov’s
test]
The trans effect order is tu > Cl- > NH3
Less
soluble
More
soluble
2+
 The Trans effect gives the relationship between the reaction
rate and the nature of the ligand trans to the leaving group
 The ability of a group to direct substitution into its opposite
position (i.e. trans) in the square
planner complex is called the trans effect.
 The Trans directing ability of the -bonding ligands increases
with the increase of their ability to form metal–ligand -bond.
 The Trans effect of the ligands which are not able to form metal-
ligand -bonds, increases with the increase of their
polarizability.
 Ligands highest in the series are strong π-acceptors, followed
by strong σ-donors. Ligands at the low end of the series have
neither strong σ-donor nor π-acceptor abilities.
trans effect M.Sc  notes.pptx

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trans effect M.Sc notes.pptx

  • 1. RANI DURGAVATI VISHVAVIDYALAY JABALPUR M.P. A HOME ASSIGNMENT BASED ON BASED ON INORGANIC CHEMISTRY Session - 2020-21 Topic - Trans Effect SUBMITTED TO : Under the supervision of Dr. PRADEEP KUMAR VISHWAKARMA Dept. Of. P.G. Studies & Research in chemistry and SUBMITTED BY : SURENDRA KUMAR KACHHI M.Sc. 2nd semester Dept.of P.G.Studies &Research in Chemistry and Pharmacy
  • 2. Content Trans effect Illustration of Trans effect Explanation of Trans effect Theories of Trans effect a.Polarization theory b.Pai- bonding theory Applications of trans effect Summary
  • 3. Trans Effect series High end Trans effect decreases Trans effect decreases CN-, CO, C2H4, NO > PR3, H- > CH - , C H --, tu, R S > NO -, I-, SCN- > Br- > Cl- > Py > NH , 3 6 5 2 3 RNH2 > OH- > H2O Low end The ligands lying at the low end of the series are easily polarisable ligands. I- > Br- > Cl- Polarizability decreases Trans effect decreases TRANS EFFECT The effect of the ligand trans to the leaving ligand on the rate of substitution reaction in square planar complexes is called trans effect. Chat et al have proposed that the trans effect of a group coordinated to a metal ion is the tendency of that group to direct an incoming group to occupy the position trans to that group. Trans effect may also be defined as the labilsation of ligands trans to other trans directing ligands.
  • 5.  It is generally accepted that the trans effect arises from two separate influences: one arising in the ground-state and the other in the transition-state itself.  i.e., There are two possible modes by which the trans ligand, T can enhance the rate of the substitution reaction. It can either destabilize the ground-state by weakening the metal- ligand (Pt-X) bond trans to T ligand or it can stabilize the 5- coordinate transition-state. Both the modes will increase the rate of the reaction, because, the activation energy, Ea is decreased in both cases. (a) Poor trans effect: low ground state, high transition state. (b) σ-Bonding effect higher energy groundstate (trans influence). (c) π – Bonding effect: lower energy transition state, (trans effect). Energy Fig. Activation Energy and the trans Effect.
  • 6. - Grinberg A/c to this theory, the primary positive charge of Pt(II) induces a dipole in all the four ligands. If the four ligands are identical as in (a), then the dipoles induced by the metal ion cancel out each other and the resultant dipole is zero (Fig.(a)) . Here none of the four ligands shows trans effect. ❖ If the four ligands are not identical as in Fig.(b), then the induced dipoles do not cancel out each other. One of the earliest theory was the Polarization theory proposed by Grinberg, in which a good trans-directing ligand was visualized as being more polarizable. ❖ The two X ligands which are similar and trans to each other balance each other. But the other two trans ligands, T and X, which are not similar, the induced dipoles do not balance each other.
  • 7. δ δ δ δ Polarized Pt(II) ion Polarized Trans ligand Attraction of X for Pt(II) is reduced (a) (b) Fig. Effect of polarization in (a) [Pt L4] and (b) [Pt X3 T] complexes This figure represents the polarization of metal ion induced by a highly polarizable trans ligand, T in [Pt X3 T] complex as compared to [Pt L4] complex. X Shorter and stronger bond Fig. (c) Result of polarization theory T Longer and weaker bond X Pt X ❖ Hence, the attraction of X for Pt(II) is reduced and the bond trans to T (Pt-X) is weakened and consequently lengthened. i.e., Pt-X bond trans to T is weaker and longer than Pt-X bonds that are cis to T (Fig.(c)) ❖ This facilitates the replacement of X by Y(entering ligand) at a point trans to T.
  • 8. This theory predicts that trans effect is important only when the central metal ion itself is polarizable and large in size. Actually the order of importance of trans effect is Pt(II) > Pd(II) > Ni(II). Because, the size and polarizability decrease in the same order. If the ligand T is highly polarizable in [Pt X3 T] complex, then Pt-X bond trans to T is longer than Pt-X bond cis to T. This is evident from the following example. The trans effect order is Br- > Cl- > NH3 Merit: This theory explain very well the trans effect of ligands that are present at the low end of trans effect series, like H2O , OH- , NH3, Cl- , Br- , etc. Defect: This theory cannot explain the high trans-effect of the ligands like - Evidence in favour of the polarization theory
  • 9. π- bonding theory (or) Transition-state theory ❖ Chatt and Orgel gave the π- bonding theory. According to this theory, the vacant π or π orbitals of π – bonding ligands accept a pair of electrons from the filled d- orbitals of the metal ( dyz or dxz orbitals ) to form M L π- bond. (d π- p π overlapping or d π- d π- overlapping). A/C to Orgel, the very good π- acceptor ligands effectively withdraw electron density that will accumulate on the metal as a result of adding a fifth ligand (y), thereby stabilizing the 5-coordinate transition-state. So, the energy of the 5-coordinate trigonal bipyramidal transition state is lowered which results in the lowering of energy of activation(Ea ) of the substitution reaction. Thus, the rate of the ligand substitution is increased due to the presence of π- bonding trans ligands. In the structure of TBP 5-coordinated intermediate, π- bonding trans ligand occupy the equatorial position and the two cis-inert ligands occupy the axial positions. ❖ According to Chatt, the formation of M - L π-bond in the complex increases the electron density in the direction of T ligand and diminishes the electron density in the direction of X trans to T.
  • 10. Vacant P z orbital of π- bonding trans ligand Vacant d orbital of π-bonding trans ligand Filled dyz orbital of Pt(II) Fig.(i) Formation of d π- p π bond in TBP 5-coordinated transition-state Filled dyz orbital of Pt(II) Fig.(ii) Formation of d π- d π bond in TBP 5-coordinated transition- state π 𝜎 Fig.(iii): Formation of trigonal bipyramidal 5- coordinated π 𝜎 Based on the relative π- acceptor ability of ligands, the trans effect order is ❖ Thus, Pt-X bond trans to T is weakened. This facilitates the approach of the entering ligand Y with its lone pair in the direction of diminished electron density to form the 5- coordinated transition state complex, which on loosing X, yields the substituted complex.
  • 11. Evidences in favour of the π-bonding Theory The Pt-X bond trans to the π- bonding C2H4 ligand in complexes of [Pt X3 (C2H4) ]- type has been found to be longer than that cis to it. Trans effect of C2H4 > X- [Pt Cl 3 (C 2 H 4 ) ] - [Pt Br 3 (C 2 H 4 ) ] - Merit of π- bonding Theory It explains the trans effect of π- acceptor ligands which lie at the high end of trans effect series
  • 12. ① Synthesis of geometrical isomers of Pt(II) SPL complexes (i) Synthesis of cis- and trans- [Pt Cl2 (NH3)2] (ii) Synthesis of cis- and trans- [Pt Cl2 (NH3)(NO2)] - II I (iii) Synthesis of geometrical isomers of [Pt (Br) (Cl) (NH3) (py)] ② To distinguish between cis-and trans-isomers of [Pt X2 A2] type complexes: [Kurnakov’s test] ① Synthesis of geometrical isomers of Pt(II) SPL complexes I (i) Synthesis of cis- and trans- [Pt Cl2 (NH3)2]  cis-[Pt Cl2 (NH3)2] is obtained by treating [Pt Cl4]2- ion with NH3
  • 13.  trans-[Pt Cl2 (NH3)2] is obtained by treating [Pt (NH3)4]2+ ion with Cl- ② To distinguish between cis-and trans-isomers of [Pt X2 A2] type complexes: [Kurnakov’s test] The trans effect order is tu > Cl- > NH3 Less soluble More soluble 2+
  • 14.  The Trans effect gives the relationship between the reaction rate and the nature of the ligand trans to the leaving group  The ability of a group to direct substitution into its opposite position (i.e. trans) in the square planner complex is called the trans effect.  The Trans directing ability of the -bonding ligands increases with the increase of their ability to form metal–ligand -bond.  The Trans effect of the ligands which are not able to form metal- ligand -bonds, increases with the increase of their polarizability.  Ligands highest in the series are strong π-acceptors, followed by strong σ-donors. Ligands at the low end of the series have neither strong σ-donor nor π-acceptor abilities.