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Training Workshop on
Project Cycle Management
1
Workshop Objectives
I. Understand concept and procedures
of PCM methodology:
・Planning
・Monitoring and Evaluation
II. Apply PCM methodology to analyze your
problems and identify strategies and actions.
III. Formulate a draft action plan.
2
Part 1
4
● Definition of PCM
● 6 Steps of PCM
Project Cycle Management (PCM)
Project Cycle Management
FORMULATION
IMPLEMENTATION
EVALUATION
Participatory
Planning
Monitoring &
Evaluation
PDM
PLAN
DO
SEE
A management tool that treats a project as a cycle by using PDM as a base.
5
Project: An undertaking for the purpose
of achieving established objectives,
within a given budget and time period.
Project Cycle: The entire process of an
undertaking a project: from formulation,
implementation to evaluation.
6
PDM (Project Design Matrix)
Narrative Summary Objectively
Verifiable
Indicators
Measurement of the
performance of the project
objectives and outputs
Means of
Verification
Sources of data for verifying
indicators
Important
Assumptions
Overall Goal
Long term development effect
Project Purpose
An objective that is expected to be
achieved by the end of project
period.
Outputs
Intermediate goals that should be
reached to achieve the Project
Purpose.
Activities
Specific actions intended to
produce the Outputs through
effective use of the Inputs.
Inputs
Physical, financial and human resources to carry out
project Activities
Pre-Conditions
7
Project Design Matrix (PDM)
• Is a matrix with 16 boxes (4x4)
• Is a summary table of the projects (=
Objectives, Activities, Inputs and
other components)
• Shows logical interrelationships among
components
8
Features of PCM Method
9
・ Participatory
・Consistency
・Logicality
・Accountability
・Transparency
1-1 Project Planning based on PCM
10
Process of Consensus Building among Stakeholders
PCM Workshop-House Rules
1. Write your own ideas on a card
2. Write only one idea per card
3. Describe in specific and brief sentences
4. Stick to the facts and avoid abstractions and
generalizations
5. Write your ideas on the cards before discussing
them
6. Obtain consensus when removing cards from the
board
7. Don’t ask who wrote a particular card.
11
12
Traffic Sign Cards
? INFO
STOP
Skip now and come back
later
Collect information
Disagreement Not required further
discussion or analysis
Steps for Participatory Planning
13
Analytical Stage Planning Stage
Who are
related?
What are the
problems?
What are the
solutions?
Which
solution to
take?
Essential
project
components
Detailed work
plan
Step 1:Stakeholders Analysis
Purpose:
To identify the issues, problems, and
current conditions of the target area
through analysing the area and local
residents targeted for assistance, related
groups, related organizations/ agencies.
14
Step 1:Stakeholders Analysis
Steps:
1. List all stakeholders and categorise
(beneficiaries, negatively affected groups,
potential opponents, decision makers,
implementers, supporting groups, etc.)
2. Select key stakeholders and analyse their
characteristics, problems, needs, etc.
3. Identify the target group(s).
15
16
Categories
Beneficiaries Who will likely benefit from the
project.
Negatively
Affected Groups
Who will be negatively affected
by the project.
Potential
Opponents
Who may oppose or obstruct
the project.
Decision Makers Whom with decision-making
authority
Supporting
Groups
Who will likely cooperate with
the Project
Implementers Who will implement the Project
17
Detailed AnalysisName of Group Characteristics:
Population, education
level, socio-cultural/
economic
characteristics, etc.
Problem/
Challenges
Needs/
Interests
Village people
Women in a
village
Children and
mothers in a
village
Step 2: Problems Analysis
Purpose:
To analyse Negative conditions that are
affecting the life of target group and
Visually represent the causes and
effects of these conditions existing in
the project area and/or sector.
18
Step 2: Problems Analysis
Steps:
1. Select the core problem
2. Identify the direct causes of the core problem
3. Develop the problems tree downwards (add
causes)
4. Identify the direct effects of the core problem
5. Develop the problems tree upwards (add
effects)
19
Problem Tree
(Cause-Effect Relationship)
20
House income is low
Expenditure is
high
Utilities is
high.
Salary is low
House rent is
expensive.
Children do not
receive good
education.
Life is unstable
EFFECT
CAUSE
Core
Problem
How to write Problem cards
1. Indicate existing problems
2. Write problems-negative conditions
3. Write one problem per card
4. Describe the problems in a sentence.
5. Try to avoid “No”
6. Do not include cause and effect in one
card
21
Step 3:Objectives Analysis
Purpose:
Clarifies the “means-ends” relationship
between the desirable situation after all
the problems that have been affecting
the target group and the area are solved.
22
Objective Tree
23
House income
is low
Expenditure is
high.
Utilities are
high.
Salary is low
.
House rent is
expensive.
Children do not
receive good
education.
Life is
unstable.
Core Problem
PROBLEM TREE
Negative statements
House income
is increased.
Expenditure is
decreased.
Utilities are
decreased.
Income sources
are increased.
Family moves to
less expensive
apt.
Children receives
good education.
Life becomes
stable.
Core
Objective
OBJECTIVES TREE
Positive statements
Wife has part-
time job.
Husband works
on weekends.
Effect
Cause
Ends
Means
Step 3 Objective Analysis
Steps:
1. Rephrase all problem cards into desirable and
realistic conditions (objectives)
2. Revise the statement if not realistic
3. Delete cards when inappropriate
4. Add new cards that are necessary and
relevant
5. Ensure that “cause-effect” relations have
become “means-ends” relations
24
Step 4: Project Selection
25
House income
is increased.
Expenditure is
decreased.
Utilities are
decreased.
Income sources
are increased.
Family moves to
less expensive
apt.
Children receives
good education.
Life becomes
stable.
Core
Objective
OBJECTIVES TREE
Wife has part-
time job.
Husband works
on weekends.
Approach A
Project for Increasing
of House Income
Approach B
Project for Increasing of Income Sources
Approach C
Project for Decreasing of Expenditures
Step 4: Project Selection
Steps:
• Identify several sets of approaches (means-ends
branches)
• Comparing the approaches based on criteria:
(Policy Priority, Needs, Inputs, Feasibility,
Effectiveness, Sustainability, Negative
Impact)
• Select the approach to be undertaken by the
project
26
Step 4: Project Selection
Approach A Approach B Approach C
Target Group DHMT CHEWs CHWs
Policy Priority High Middle Middle
Needs High High High
Inputs Low High Low
Effectiveness High High High
Sustainability Middle Low Middle
27
Step 5:Formulation of PDM
Narrative
Summary
OVI MOV Important
Assumptions
Overall Goal
Project
Purpose
Outputs
1.
2.
Activities
1-1.To..
1-2.To..
2-1.
2-2.
Inputs
Pre-Conditions
28
Overall
Goal
Project
Purpose
Output 1 Output 2 Assumption
Activity 1-1
Activity 1-2
Activity 2-1
Activity 2-2
PDM: Narrative Summary
Overall Goal
Nutrition of children below 5 is improved.
Project Purpose
Appropriate services are provided at the MCH Center.
Output
1 MCH Center is established.
2 Capacities of health workers are strengthened.
3 Health &Nutrition Education Program is provided to
community people.
Activity
1-1
1-2
1-3
29
Output 2
Project Purpose
Overall Goal
Activity 2 Activity 1 Activity 3
Output 3
Output 1
No logical
leap ?
Is Project Purpose the direct
effect to the target group?
Are enough Outputs set to
reach Project Purpose?
3-5 years after the end of the Project.
At the time when the Project ends.
PDM: Pre-conditions and
Important Assumptions
30
Influential external conditions required
for the project success, but beyond
control of the project.
= not sure (50/50), therefore, need
to be monitored
Necessary conditions that should be
fulfilled before a project is started.
Vertical Logic (Causal Link) of PDM
Narrative
Summary
Objectively
Verifiable
Indicators
Means of
Verification
Important
Assumptions
Overall Goal
Project
Purpose
Outputs
Activities Inputs
Pre-Conditions
31
If
If
If
And if
And if
And if
Then
Then
Then
If
Then
IF --- THEN
Relationship
TIME
Step 6:Formulation of POs
• Activities (often more detailed than PDM)
• Expected results (Activity indicators)
• Time frame (Schedule)
• Responsible persons
• Inputs/Resources
32
PDM Detailed Project Work Plan
Plan of
Operations
Plan of Operations (Example)
Output 2: Capacities of health workers are strengthened.
Activities Indicators Time
Schedule
Responsible
Person(s)
2-1 To prepare for
training plan.
2-2 To formulate a task
force.
2-3 To develop
curriculum
2-4 To develop training
manual.
2-5 To train trainers.
2-6 To select the target
HWs.
2-7 To implement training
to the selected HWs.
Training program is
prepared by Oct.’12.
7 members are
selected.
Training curriculum
for each level is
developed.
One training manual
for each level is
developed.
1 trainer at each
district are selected.
10 HWs at each
target facilities are
selected.
50 HWs in total are
trained.
DHMT
DHMT
Task Force
TF
TF
TF
TF/
Trainers
33
Part 2
Project Monitoring/ Evaluation based on PCM
34
● Definition of Monitoring and Evaluation
● Methods of M&E based on PCM
35
Monitoring
• What: An ongoing process to check the
progress of a project against its plan
and modify the plan if necessary.
• By Whom: Project’s implementers.
・ Based on: PDM and PO
Monitoring Targets
1.Execution of activities
2.Achievement of Outputs
3.Achievement of Project Purpose
4.Change in Important Assumptions
36
Successful Project Performance results from regular monitoring based on PDM
and PO and timely follow-up.
➢Are activities implemented as
as planed in terms of time
schedule and indicators
set in PO?
➢ Are objectives of the Project
(Outputs and Project Purpose)
likely to be achieved within
the Project period as set in PDM?
➢ What are contributing factors and
and constraining factors (including
changes in important assumptions)?
Activities Indicators Time
Schedule
Responsible
Person(s)
Narrative
Summary
Objectively
Verifiable
Indicators
Means of
Verification
Important
Assumptions
Overall Goal
Project
Purpose
Outputs
Activities Inputs
Pre-Conditions
Basic Process of Monitoring
37
Check the Progress in comparison with plan
Detect Problems
Finding the solutions and revise the plan
38
Systematic and objective assessment of
a plan and the outcomes of an on-
going or completed
project, program or policy
Evaluation
What (Definition ofDAC-OECD)
By Whom: Evaluators (for external evaluation)
Project implementers (for internal evaluation)
Five Evaluation Criteria
Relevance, Effectiveness, Efficiency,
Impact and Sustainability
Five Evaluation Criteria
Criteria Basic Ideas
Relevance Are the “project purpose” and “overall goal” still
meaningful?
Effectiveness Whether the “project purpose” has been achieved, and
how much contribution did “outputs” make?
Efficiency To what extent have “inputs” been converted to
“outputs”?
Impact What positive or negative, either direct or indirect
effects have happened?
Sustainability To what extent will the recipient country's
organizations be able to retain the positive effects of
the project?
39
40
Successful Project Performance results from well-design of the Project
【Relations between Project Design Criteria and Five Evaluation Criteria】
Project Selection Criteria Five Evaluation Criteria
・ Policy Priority
・ Needs of Target Groups/Community
. Feasibility (Duration/Budget)
・ Effectiveness
・ Inputs
・ Sustainability
・ Negative Impact
Relevance
Effectiveness
Efficiency
Sustainability
Impact
Steps of Evaluation
● Implementation
Process
● Achievements
● Evaluation
- Relevance
- Effectiveness
- Efficiency
- Impact
- Sustainability
● Conclusions
● Lessons Learnt
● Recommendations
41
Analysis of promoting /
inhibiting factors
42
Part 3:
Let’s draft an action plan
1. Front Page
Project Title, The Main Organizer of the Project,
Target Group of the Project, Project Site(s),
Duration of the Project
2. Main Body
・Background Information
・Problems to be solved
・Project Strategies
・Major Activities
3. Attachment: PDM and PO
43
Outline (example)
Background Information
• Policy/strategies in health sector
• Basic health data
• Administration/health system in the country
• Information on your organization
• Your responsibilities
44
Problems to be solved
Your knowledge/skills of Stakeholders Analysis
and Problem Analysis can be applied to this
section.
1) Identify a target group
2) Analyze Problems of the target group
3) Identify the core problem
4) Make a problem tree, paying attention to cause-
effect relations among the problems.
45
Project Strategies
Your knowledge/skills of Objective Analysis
and Project Selection can be applied to this
section.
1) Make Objective Tree based on Problem
Tree.
2) Select the approach on the Objective Tree.
3) Identify Project Purpose and Outputs
46
Major Activities
➢ Identify Activities to reach identified
outputs.
➢ Be sure that activities are listed so as
to match an appropriate Output.
➢ Activities are listed in chronological
order.
47
Output 1 Output 2
Activity 1-1 Activity 2-1
1-2 2-2
1-3 2-3
Thank you very much 
48
48
‫ات‬‫الحظ‬‫م‬‫مرور‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫م‬
‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ب‬‫ار‬‫ز‬‫م‬١‫ا‬
1- ‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ب‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫اج‬‫ت‬‫ح‬‫ي‬‫م‬‫ي‬‫ب‬‫ق‬‫ت‬‫ل‬‫دسى‬‫ت‬‫ه‬‫ق‬‫ي‬‫ق‬‫د‬‫اذ‬‫خ‬‫ي‬‫ال‬‫ار‬‫ر‬‫ق‬‫ع‬‫ي‬‫سر‬‫أن‬‫ش‬‫ب‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ب‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫من‬‫ث‬‫حي‬‫ه‬‫اج‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ح‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫م‬‫ا‬‫م‬‫ي‬‫م‬‫ر‬‫لت‬‫ل‬‫ى‬‫زئ‬‫ج‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫أ‬‫و‬‫ل‬‫م‬‫ا‬‫ك‬‫ال‬‫أو‬‫االزالة‬‫املة‬‫ك‬‫ال‬ .
2- ‫ز‬‫هت‬‫ج‬‫ي‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬‫ب‬‫د‬‫ب‬‫الة‬‫ح‬‫ال‬‫االت‬‫ح‬‫حوادث‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ه‬‫ي‬‫ل‬‫ع‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ظ‬‫ي‬‫ق‬‫ي‬‫ض‬‫ل‬‫ظرق‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫طة‬‫ت‬‫ح‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬
‫ا‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ه‬‫ام‬‫ح‬‫وازد‬‫ا‬‫م‬‫م‬‫ت‬‫ط‬‫ي‬‫ل‬‫رة‬‫ت‬‫ف‬‫الوصول‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬‫ل‬
‫من‬‫ظرق‬‫ل‬‫ا‬
‫عة‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫س‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ؤث‬‫وب‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ش‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ب‬‫لى‬‫ع‬‫اة‬‫ت‬‫ح‬‫ن‬‫ي‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ص‬‫لم‬‫ا‬ .
3- ‫وحدة‬‫ن‬‫سري‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫اج‬‫ت‬‫ح‬‫ي‬‫ا‬‫ده‬‫زوب‬‫لت‬‫هزة‬‫ج‬‫أ‬‫ب‬‫س‬‫ف‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ل‬
‫اعى‬‫ت‬‫ص‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ث‬‫حي‬‫ان‬‫لى‬‫ع‬‫ا‬‫وى‬‫ي‬‫س‬‫م‬‫ر‬‫وق‬‫ي‬‫م‬‫ا‬‫ه‬‫ب‬‫ة‬‫اي‬‫ع‬‫لر‬‫ل‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ة‬‫ي‬‫س‬‫ف‬‫و‬‫ه‬ CPAP ‫ط‬‫ق‬‫ف‬.
4- ‫رورة‬‫ض‬‫د‬‫زوب‬‫ث‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬
‫ا‬‫از‬‫ه‬‫ج‬‫ي‬‫عة‬‫ش‬‫لأل‬‫ة‬‫ي‬‫ع‬‫ط‬‫ق‬‫لم‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ظ‬‫ي‬‫اع‬‫ف‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫ال‬‫عدد‬‫حوادث‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ه‬‫ل‬‫ت‬‫ق‬‫ت‬‫س‬‫ب‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬
‫ا‬‫و‬‫عدم‬‫ود‬‫وج‬‫از‬‫ه‬‫ج‬‫عة‬‫ش‬‫لأل‬‫ة‬‫ي‬‫ع‬‫ط‬‫ق‬‫لم‬‫ا‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫أى‬‫أة‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫م‬
‫ة‬‫ي‬‫ح‬‫ص‬‫ة‬‫ي‬‫م‬‫كو‬‫ح‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫اق‬‫ظ‬‫ي‬‫كز‬‫ر‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫م‬‫ا‬‫ك‬‫ال‬‫ب‬ .
5- ‫رورة‬‫ض‬‫د‬‫زوب‬‫ث‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬
‫ا‬‫از‬‫ه‬‫ج‬‫ي‬‫ل‬‫ت‬‫ل‬‫خ‬‫ت‬‫ل‬
‫ازات‬‫غ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫الدم‬‫ب‬‫ود‬‫لوج‬‫الث‬‫ب‬‫ات‬‫د‬‫وح‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬
‫ا‬‫ب‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫اج‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ح‬‫ا‬‫د‬‫دب‬‫ش‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ذ‬‫ه‬‫از‬‫ه‬‫ج‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ى‬‫وه‬ : ‫ن‬‫سري‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ة‬‫اي‬‫ع‬‫والر‬‫كزة‬‫ر‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬
‫ل‬‫ت‬‫س‬‫غ‬‫و‬‫لى‬‫لك‬‫ا‬ .
6- ‫رورة‬‫ض‬‫د‬‫زوب‬‫ث‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬
‫ا‬‫از‬‫ه‬‫ج‬‫ي‬‫ات‬‫موح‬‫ل‬‫ل‬‫ة‬‫ي‬‫ب‬‫صو‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ف‬‫لل‬ Echocardiography ‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ظ‬‫ي‬‫اج‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ح‬‫ال‬‫االت‬‫ح‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ف‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ة‬‫اي‬‫ع‬‫الر‬‫ب‬‫كزة‬‫ر‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ووح‬‫دة‬
‫ال‬‫ف‬‫ط‬‫اال‬‫ن‬‫سري‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫دة‬‫ش‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ذ‬‫له‬‫از‬‫ه‬‫ج‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ .

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Training workshop on project cycle management

  • 1. Training Workshop on Project Cycle Management 1
  • 2. Workshop Objectives I. Understand concept and procedures of PCM methodology: ・Planning ・Monitoring and Evaluation II. Apply PCM methodology to analyze your problems and identify strategies and actions. III. Formulate a draft action plan. 2
  • 3. Part 1 4 ● Definition of PCM ● 6 Steps of PCM Project Cycle Management (PCM)
  • 4. Project Cycle Management FORMULATION IMPLEMENTATION EVALUATION Participatory Planning Monitoring & Evaluation PDM PLAN DO SEE A management tool that treats a project as a cycle by using PDM as a base. 5
  • 5. Project: An undertaking for the purpose of achieving established objectives, within a given budget and time period. Project Cycle: The entire process of an undertaking a project: from formulation, implementation to evaluation. 6
  • 6. PDM (Project Design Matrix) Narrative Summary Objectively Verifiable Indicators Measurement of the performance of the project objectives and outputs Means of Verification Sources of data for verifying indicators Important Assumptions Overall Goal Long term development effect Project Purpose An objective that is expected to be achieved by the end of project period. Outputs Intermediate goals that should be reached to achieve the Project Purpose. Activities Specific actions intended to produce the Outputs through effective use of the Inputs. Inputs Physical, financial and human resources to carry out project Activities Pre-Conditions 7
  • 7. Project Design Matrix (PDM) • Is a matrix with 16 boxes (4x4) • Is a summary table of the projects (= Objectives, Activities, Inputs and other components) • Shows logical interrelationships among components 8
  • 8. Features of PCM Method 9 ・ Participatory ・Consistency ・Logicality ・Accountability ・Transparency
  • 9. 1-1 Project Planning based on PCM 10 Process of Consensus Building among Stakeholders
  • 10. PCM Workshop-House Rules 1. Write your own ideas on a card 2. Write only one idea per card 3. Describe in specific and brief sentences 4. Stick to the facts and avoid abstractions and generalizations 5. Write your ideas on the cards before discussing them 6. Obtain consensus when removing cards from the board 7. Don’t ask who wrote a particular card. 11
  • 11. 12 Traffic Sign Cards ? INFO STOP Skip now and come back later Collect information Disagreement Not required further discussion or analysis
  • 12. Steps for Participatory Planning 13 Analytical Stage Planning Stage Who are related? What are the problems? What are the solutions? Which solution to take? Essential project components Detailed work plan
  • 13. Step 1:Stakeholders Analysis Purpose: To identify the issues, problems, and current conditions of the target area through analysing the area and local residents targeted for assistance, related groups, related organizations/ agencies. 14
  • 14. Step 1:Stakeholders Analysis Steps: 1. List all stakeholders and categorise (beneficiaries, negatively affected groups, potential opponents, decision makers, implementers, supporting groups, etc.) 2. Select key stakeholders and analyse their characteristics, problems, needs, etc. 3. Identify the target group(s). 15
  • 15. 16 Categories Beneficiaries Who will likely benefit from the project. Negatively Affected Groups Who will be negatively affected by the project. Potential Opponents Who may oppose or obstruct the project. Decision Makers Whom with decision-making authority Supporting Groups Who will likely cooperate with the Project Implementers Who will implement the Project
  • 16. 17 Detailed AnalysisName of Group Characteristics: Population, education level, socio-cultural/ economic characteristics, etc. Problem/ Challenges Needs/ Interests Village people Women in a village Children and mothers in a village
  • 17. Step 2: Problems Analysis Purpose: To analyse Negative conditions that are affecting the life of target group and Visually represent the causes and effects of these conditions existing in the project area and/or sector. 18
  • 18. Step 2: Problems Analysis Steps: 1. Select the core problem 2. Identify the direct causes of the core problem 3. Develop the problems tree downwards (add causes) 4. Identify the direct effects of the core problem 5. Develop the problems tree upwards (add effects) 19
  • 19. Problem Tree (Cause-Effect Relationship) 20 House income is low Expenditure is high Utilities is high. Salary is low House rent is expensive. Children do not receive good education. Life is unstable EFFECT CAUSE Core Problem
  • 20. How to write Problem cards 1. Indicate existing problems 2. Write problems-negative conditions 3. Write one problem per card 4. Describe the problems in a sentence. 5. Try to avoid “No” 6. Do not include cause and effect in one card 21
  • 21. Step 3:Objectives Analysis Purpose: Clarifies the “means-ends” relationship between the desirable situation after all the problems that have been affecting the target group and the area are solved. 22
  • 22. Objective Tree 23 House income is low Expenditure is high. Utilities are high. Salary is low . House rent is expensive. Children do not receive good education. Life is unstable. Core Problem PROBLEM TREE Negative statements House income is increased. Expenditure is decreased. Utilities are decreased. Income sources are increased. Family moves to less expensive apt. Children receives good education. Life becomes stable. Core Objective OBJECTIVES TREE Positive statements Wife has part- time job. Husband works on weekends. Effect Cause Ends Means
  • 23. Step 3 Objective Analysis Steps: 1. Rephrase all problem cards into desirable and realistic conditions (objectives) 2. Revise the statement if not realistic 3. Delete cards when inappropriate 4. Add new cards that are necessary and relevant 5. Ensure that “cause-effect” relations have become “means-ends” relations 24
  • 24. Step 4: Project Selection 25 House income is increased. Expenditure is decreased. Utilities are decreased. Income sources are increased. Family moves to less expensive apt. Children receives good education. Life becomes stable. Core Objective OBJECTIVES TREE Wife has part- time job. Husband works on weekends. Approach A Project for Increasing of House Income Approach B Project for Increasing of Income Sources Approach C Project for Decreasing of Expenditures
  • 25. Step 4: Project Selection Steps: • Identify several sets of approaches (means-ends branches) • Comparing the approaches based on criteria: (Policy Priority, Needs, Inputs, Feasibility, Effectiveness, Sustainability, Negative Impact) • Select the approach to be undertaken by the project 26
  • 26. Step 4: Project Selection Approach A Approach B Approach C Target Group DHMT CHEWs CHWs Policy Priority High Middle Middle Needs High High High Inputs Low High Low Effectiveness High High High Sustainability Middle Low Middle 27
  • 27. Step 5:Formulation of PDM Narrative Summary OVI MOV Important Assumptions Overall Goal Project Purpose Outputs 1. 2. Activities 1-1.To.. 1-2.To.. 2-1. 2-2. Inputs Pre-Conditions 28 Overall Goal Project Purpose Output 1 Output 2 Assumption Activity 1-1 Activity 1-2 Activity 2-1 Activity 2-2
  • 28. PDM: Narrative Summary Overall Goal Nutrition of children below 5 is improved. Project Purpose Appropriate services are provided at the MCH Center. Output 1 MCH Center is established. 2 Capacities of health workers are strengthened. 3 Health &Nutrition Education Program is provided to community people. Activity 1-1 1-2 1-3 29 Output 2 Project Purpose Overall Goal Activity 2 Activity 1 Activity 3 Output 3 Output 1 No logical leap ? Is Project Purpose the direct effect to the target group? Are enough Outputs set to reach Project Purpose? 3-5 years after the end of the Project. At the time when the Project ends.
  • 29. PDM: Pre-conditions and Important Assumptions 30 Influential external conditions required for the project success, but beyond control of the project. = not sure (50/50), therefore, need to be monitored Necessary conditions that should be fulfilled before a project is started.
  • 30. Vertical Logic (Causal Link) of PDM Narrative Summary Objectively Verifiable Indicators Means of Verification Important Assumptions Overall Goal Project Purpose Outputs Activities Inputs Pre-Conditions 31 If If If And if And if And if Then Then Then If Then IF --- THEN Relationship TIME
  • 31. Step 6:Formulation of POs • Activities (often more detailed than PDM) • Expected results (Activity indicators) • Time frame (Schedule) • Responsible persons • Inputs/Resources 32 PDM Detailed Project Work Plan Plan of Operations
  • 32. Plan of Operations (Example) Output 2: Capacities of health workers are strengthened. Activities Indicators Time Schedule Responsible Person(s) 2-1 To prepare for training plan. 2-2 To formulate a task force. 2-3 To develop curriculum 2-4 To develop training manual. 2-5 To train trainers. 2-6 To select the target HWs. 2-7 To implement training to the selected HWs. Training program is prepared by Oct.’12. 7 members are selected. Training curriculum for each level is developed. One training manual for each level is developed. 1 trainer at each district are selected. 10 HWs at each target facilities are selected. 50 HWs in total are trained. DHMT DHMT Task Force TF TF TF TF/ Trainers 33
  • 33. Part 2 Project Monitoring/ Evaluation based on PCM 34 ● Definition of Monitoring and Evaluation ● Methods of M&E based on PCM
  • 34. 35 Monitoring • What: An ongoing process to check the progress of a project against its plan and modify the plan if necessary. • By Whom: Project’s implementers. ・ Based on: PDM and PO Monitoring Targets 1.Execution of activities 2.Achievement of Outputs 3.Achievement of Project Purpose 4.Change in Important Assumptions
  • 35. 36 Successful Project Performance results from regular monitoring based on PDM and PO and timely follow-up. ➢Are activities implemented as as planed in terms of time schedule and indicators set in PO? ➢ Are objectives of the Project (Outputs and Project Purpose) likely to be achieved within the Project period as set in PDM? ➢ What are contributing factors and and constraining factors (including changes in important assumptions)? Activities Indicators Time Schedule Responsible Person(s) Narrative Summary Objectively Verifiable Indicators Means of Verification Important Assumptions Overall Goal Project Purpose Outputs Activities Inputs Pre-Conditions
  • 36. Basic Process of Monitoring 37 Check the Progress in comparison with plan Detect Problems Finding the solutions and revise the plan
  • 37. 38 Systematic and objective assessment of a plan and the outcomes of an on- going or completed project, program or policy Evaluation What (Definition ofDAC-OECD) By Whom: Evaluators (for external evaluation) Project implementers (for internal evaluation) Five Evaluation Criteria Relevance, Effectiveness, Efficiency, Impact and Sustainability
  • 38. Five Evaluation Criteria Criteria Basic Ideas Relevance Are the “project purpose” and “overall goal” still meaningful? Effectiveness Whether the “project purpose” has been achieved, and how much contribution did “outputs” make? Efficiency To what extent have “inputs” been converted to “outputs”? Impact What positive or negative, either direct or indirect effects have happened? Sustainability To what extent will the recipient country's organizations be able to retain the positive effects of the project? 39
  • 39. 40 Successful Project Performance results from well-design of the Project 【Relations between Project Design Criteria and Five Evaluation Criteria】 Project Selection Criteria Five Evaluation Criteria ・ Policy Priority ・ Needs of Target Groups/Community . Feasibility (Duration/Budget) ・ Effectiveness ・ Inputs ・ Sustainability ・ Negative Impact Relevance Effectiveness Efficiency Sustainability Impact
  • 40. Steps of Evaluation ● Implementation Process ● Achievements ● Evaluation - Relevance - Effectiveness - Efficiency - Impact - Sustainability ● Conclusions ● Lessons Learnt ● Recommendations 41 Analysis of promoting / inhibiting factors
  • 41. 42 Part 3: Let’s draft an action plan
  • 42. 1. Front Page Project Title, The Main Organizer of the Project, Target Group of the Project, Project Site(s), Duration of the Project 2. Main Body ・Background Information ・Problems to be solved ・Project Strategies ・Major Activities 3. Attachment: PDM and PO 43 Outline (example)
  • 43. Background Information • Policy/strategies in health sector • Basic health data • Administration/health system in the country • Information on your organization • Your responsibilities 44
  • 44. Problems to be solved Your knowledge/skills of Stakeholders Analysis and Problem Analysis can be applied to this section. 1) Identify a target group 2) Analyze Problems of the target group 3) Identify the core problem 4) Make a problem tree, paying attention to cause- effect relations among the problems. 45
  • 45. Project Strategies Your knowledge/skills of Objective Analysis and Project Selection can be applied to this section. 1) Make Objective Tree based on Problem Tree. 2) Select the approach on the Objective Tree. 3) Identify Project Purpose and Outputs 46
  • 46. Major Activities ➢ Identify Activities to reach identified outputs. ➢ Be sure that activities are listed so as to match an appropriate Output. ➢ Activities are listed in chronological order. 47 Output 1 Output 2 Activity 1-1 Activity 2-1 1-2 2-2 1-3 2-3
  • 47. Thank you very much  48
  • 48. 48 ‫ات‬‫الحظ‬‫م‬‫مرور‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫م‬ ‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ب‬‫ار‬‫ز‬‫م‬١‫ا‬ 1- ‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ب‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫اج‬‫ت‬‫ح‬‫ي‬‫م‬‫ي‬‫ب‬‫ق‬‫ت‬‫ل‬‫دسى‬‫ت‬‫ه‬‫ق‬‫ي‬‫ق‬‫د‬‫اذ‬‫خ‬‫ي‬‫ال‬‫ار‬‫ر‬‫ق‬‫ع‬‫ي‬‫سر‬‫أن‬‫ش‬‫ب‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ب‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫من‬‫ث‬‫حي‬‫ه‬‫اج‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ح‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫م‬‫ا‬‫م‬‫ي‬‫م‬‫ر‬‫لت‬‫ل‬‫ى‬‫زئ‬‫ج‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫أ‬‫و‬‫ل‬‫م‬‫ا‬‫ك‬‫ال‬‫أو‬‫االزالة‬‫املة‬‫ك‬‫ال‬ . 2- ‫ز‬‫هت‬‫ج‬‫ي‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬‫ب‬‫د‬‫ب‬‫الة‬‫ح‬‫ال‬‫االت‬‫ح‬‫حوادث‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ه‬‫ي‬‫ل‬‫ع‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ظ‬‫ي‬‫ق‬‫ي‬‫ض‬‫ل‬‫ظرق‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫طة‬‫ت‬‫ح‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ه‬‫ام‬‫ح‬‫وازد‬‫ا‬‫م‬‫م‬‫ت‬‫ط‬‫ي‬‫ل‬‫رة‬‫ت‬‫ف‬‫الوصول‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬‫ل‬ ‫من‬‫ظرق‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫عة‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫س‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ؤث‬‫وب‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ش‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ب‬‫لى‬‫ع‬‫اة‬‫ت‬‫ح‬‫ن‬‫ي‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ص‬‫لم‬‫ا‬ . 3- ‫وحدة‬‫ن‬‫سري‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫اج‬‫ت‬‫ح‬‫ي‬‫ا‬‫ده‬‫زوب‬‫لت‬‫هزة‬‫ج‬‫أ‬‫ب‬‫س‬‫ف‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ل‬ ‫اعى‬‫ت‬‫ص‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ث‬‫حي‬‫ان‬‫لى‬‫ع‬‫ا‬‫وى‬‫ي‬‫س‬‫م‬‫ر‬‫وق‬‫ي‬‫م‬‫ا‬‫ه‬‫ب‬‫ة‬‫اي‬‫ع‬‫لر‬‫ل‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ة‬‫ي‬‫س‬‫ف‬‫و‬‫ه‬ CPAP ‫ط‬‫ق‬‫ف‬. 4- ‫رورة‬‫ض‬‫د‬‫زوب‬‫ث‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫از‬‫ه‬‫ج‬‫ي‬‫عة‬‫ش‬‫لأل‬‫ة‬‫ي‬‫ع‬‫ط‬‫ق‬‫لم‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ظ‬‫ي‬‫اع‬‫ف‬‫ي‬‫ر‬‫ال‬‫عدد‬‫حوادث‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ى‬‫ن‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ا‬‫ه‬‫ل‬‫ت‬‫ق‬‫ت‬‫س‬‫ب‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫و‬‫عدم‬‫ود‬‫وج‬‫از‬‫ه‬‫ج‬‫عة‬‫ش‬‫لأل‬‫ة‬‫ي‬‫ع‬‫ط‬‫ق‬‫لم‬‫ا‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫أى‬‫أة‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫م‬ ‫ة‬‫ي‬‫ح‬‫ص‬‫ة‬‫ي‬‫م‬‫كو‬‫ح‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫اق‬‫ظ‬‫ي‬‫كز‬‫ر‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ل‬‫م‬‫ا‬‫ك‬‫ال‬‫ب‬ . 5- ‫رورة‬‫ض‬‫د‬‫زوب‬‫ث‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫از‬‫ه‬‫ج‬‫ي‬‫ل‬‫ت‬‫ل‬‫خ‬‫ت‬‫ل‬ ‫ازات‬‫غ‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫الدم‬‫ب‬‫ود‬‫لوج‬‫الث‬‫ب‬‫ات‬‫د‬‫وح‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫ب‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫اج‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ح‬‫ا‬‫د‬‫دب‬‫ش‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ذ‬‫ه‬‫از‬‫ه‬‫ج‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ى‬‫وه‬ : ‫ن‬‫سري‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ة‬‫اي‬‫ع‬‫والر‬‫كزة‬‫ر‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ ‫ل‬‫ت‬‫س‬‫غ‬‫و‬‫لى‬‫لك‬‫ا‬ . 6- ‫رورة‬‫ض‬‫د‬‫زوب‬‫ث‬‫ى‬‫ف‬‫ش‬‫ت‬‫مس‬‫ل‬ ‫ا‬‫از‬‫ه‬‫ج‬‫ي‬‫ات‬‫موح‬‫ل‬‫ل‬‫ة‬‫ي‬‫ب‬‫صو‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ف‬‫لل‬ Echocardiography ‫ا‬‫ر‬‫ظ‬‫ي‬‫اج‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫ح‬‫ال‬‫االت‬‫ح‬‫ب‬‫ل‬‫ف‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ة‬‫اي‬‫ع‬‫الر‬‫ب‬‫كزة‬‫ر‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫ووح‬‫دة‬ ‫ال‬‫ف‬‫ط‬‫اال‬‫ن‬‫سري‬‫ت‬‫ب‬‫م‬‫ل‬‫ا‬‫دة‬‫ش‬‫ب‬‫ا‬‫ذ‬‫له‬‫از‬‫ه‬‫ج‬‫ل‬‫ا‬ .

Editor's Notes

  1. 3 objectives: at the end of the workshop, you will Know the concept of PCM and methodologies PCM stands for Project Cycle Management) 2) Acquire skills of applying PCM methodology to find your problems and identify strategies and actions in areas of soil diagnosis. 3) Come to apply PCM methodologies to draft your action plan .
  2. Output of the workshop is: PDM (Project Design Matrix)