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Training and Development MBA HR specialization, KannurUniversity 
1 
Training HRPD VJIM 
Jinuachan Vadakkemulanjanal, Faculty 
Vimal Jyothi Institutions, Chemperi, KannurKerala 
+91-460-2213399, 2212240, office@vjim.ac.in
Module 6 
•Role of training 
•Training Process 
•Training Need Analysis 
•Training Techniques 
•Evaluation of the training effectiveness 
2 
Training HRPD VJIM
Definition 
Trainingis the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience. 
Development is any learning activity, which is directed towards future, needs rather than present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance. 
3 
Training HRPD VJIM
Training, Development, and Education 
HRD programs are divided into three main categories: Training, Development, and Education. 
Training is the acquisition of technology, which permits employees to perform their present job to standards. 
---It improves human performance on the present job or of the hired. Also, it is given when new technology in introduced into the workplace: automation 
Development is training the people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints. 
--It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive rather than reactive: cockroach model 
--It enables workers to create better products, faster services, and more competitive organizations. It is learning for growth of the individual, but not related to a specific present or future job 
4 
Training HRPD VJIM
Training, Development, and Education 
Education is training people to do a different job. It is often given to people who have been identified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or upward, or to increase their potential. 
Unlike training, which can be fully evaluated immediately upon the learners returning to work, education can only be completely evaluated when the learners move on to their future jobs or tasks. 
5 
Training HRPD VJIM
Distinction between Training and Education 
The following table draws a distinction between training and education more clearly. 
Training Education 
ApplicationTheoreticalorientation 
JobExperienceClassroomlearning 
SpecificTasksGeneralconcepts 
NarrowperspectiveBroadperspective 
6 
Training HRPD VJIM
Distinction between Training and Development 
Learning Training Development 
Who Non-managers Managers 
What Technical Theoretical 
Why Specific job General 
When Short term Long term 
7 
Training HRPD VJIM
Purpose of Training 
•To increase productivity and quality 
•To promote versatility and adaptability to new methods 
•To reduce the number of accidents 
•To reduce labour turnover 
•To increase job satisfaction displaying itself in lower labour turn-over and less absenteeism 
•To increase efficiency 
8 
Training HRPD VJIM
When does the need for training arise? 
•The installation of new equipment or techniques 
•A change in working methods or products produced 
•A realization that performance is inadequate 
•Labour shortage, necessitating the upgrading of some employees 
•A desire to reduce the amount of scrap and to improve quality 
•An increase in the number of accidents 
•Promotion or transfer of individual employees. 
•Ensures availability of necessary skills and there could be a pool of talent from which to promote from. 
9 
Training HRPD VJIM
Role/Advantages of Training 
1. Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes toward profits orientation. 
2. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization. 
3. Improves the morale of the workforce. 
4. Helps people identify with organizational goals. 
5. Helps create a better corporate image. 
6. Fasters authentically, openness and trust. 
7. Improves the relationship between boss and subordinate. 
8. Aids in organizational development. 
9. Learns from the trainee. 
10. Helps prepare guidelines for work. 
10 
Training HRPD VJIM
Disadvantages of training 
1. Can be a financial drain on resources; expensive development and testing, expensive to operate? 
2. Often takes people away from their job for varying periods of time; 
3. Equips staff to leave for a better job 
4. Bad habits passed on 
5. Narrow experience 
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Training HRPD VJIM
Areas of training 
12 
Training HRPD VJIM
Areas of Training 
Knowledge 
Herethetraineelearnsaboutasetofrulesandregulationsaboutthejob,thestaffandtheproductsorservicesofferedbythecompany.Theaimistomakethenewemployeefullyawareofwhatgoesinsideandoutsidethecompany. 
Technical Skills 
Theemployeeistaughtaspecificskill(e.g.,operatingamachineandhandlingcomputer)sothathecanacquirethatskillandcontributemeaningfully. 
13 
Training HRPD VJIM
Areas of Training Conti. 
Social Skills 
Theemployeeismadetolearnabouthimselfandother,developarightmentalattitude,towardsthejob,colleaguesandthecompany. 
Theprincipalfocusisonteachingtheemployeehowtobeateammemberandgetahead. 
Techniques 
Thisinvolvestheapplicationofknowledgeandskilltovariouson- the-jobsituations..Itwillgoalongwayinobtainingemployeeloyalty,supportandcommitmenttocompanyactivities. 
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Training HRPD VJIM
Need for Employee Training 
1.Communications:Theincreasingdiversityoftoday'sworkforcebringsawidevarietyoflanguagesandcustoms. Crossculture,high/lowcontextissues 
2.Computerskills:Computerskillsarebecominganecessityforconductingadministrativeandofficetasks. 
3.Customerservice:Increasedcompetitionintoday'sglobalmarketplacemakesitcriticalthatemployeesunderstandandmeettheneedsofcustomers. 
4.Diversity:Diversitytrainingusuallyincludesexplanationabouthowpeoplehavedifferentperspectivesandviews,andincludestechniquestovaluediversity 
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Training HRPD VJIM
Need for Employee Training Conti. 
5. Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility (CSR). Today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace. 
6. Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace. 
7. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, CQI, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc. 
8. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment, hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc. 
16 
Training HRPD VJIM
Training Process 17 
Training HRPD VJIM
18 
Training HRPD VJIM
Steps in the Training Process 
Plan 
Execute 
Conceptualize 
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Training HRPD VJIM
OrganizationalObjectives & Strategies 
The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It is only after answering these related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources. 
20 
Training HRPD VJIM
Training Need Analysis(TNA) 
•It is an analysis to the design of effective training models. 
•The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective 
performance and present level of performance. 
21 
Training HRPD VJIM
Why TNA? 
Trainingneedanalysisisconductedtodeterminewhetherresourcesrequiredareavailableornot. 
Ithelpstoplanthebudgetofthecompany,areaswheretrainingisrequired,andalsohighlightstheoccasionswheretrainingmightnotbe 
appropriatebutrequiresalternateaction. 
22 
Training HRPD VJIM
GAP created from planning to Execution of training 
Training HRPD VJIM 
23
TNA for Target competency analysis 
24 
Training HRPD VJIM
TNA 
25 
Training HRPD VJIM
Organizational level 
•TNA at this level focuses on strategic planning, business need, and goals. 
•It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats. 
•HRD assess employees about the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level 
26 
Training HRPD VJIM
•After the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, 
•The identified strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. 
•Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. 
•Opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs. 
27 
Training HRPD VJIM
Individual Level 
–This level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. 
--Evaluate an employee: is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be negative, then certainly there is a need of training. 
28 
Training HRPD VJIM
Individual analysis methods 
•Appraisal and performance review 
•Peer appraisal 
•Competency assessments 
•Subordinate appraisal 
•Client feedback 
•Customer feedback 
•Self-assessment or self-appraisal 
29 
Training HRPD VJIM
Operational Level 
Here the focus is on the work that is being assigned to the employees. 
The job analyst collect the data on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. 
It is done through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions,etc. 
Present job and future expectations in job are analyzed 
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Training HRPD VJIM
We Learn 
1% through taste 
1.5% through touch 
3.5% through smell 
11% through hearing 
83% through sight 
We Remember 
10% of what we read 
20% of what we hear 
30% of what we see 
50% of what we see and hear 
80% of what we say 
90% of what we say as we act 
Training Techniques
Lecture 
Demonstration 
Small Group Activity/ 
Discussion 
Case Study 
Role Play 
Training Techniques 
Training HRPD VJIM 32
Choosing a Training Method 
1.Identify the type of learning outcome that you want training to influence. 
2.Consider the extent to which the learning method facilitates learning and transfer of training. 
3.Evaluate the costs related to development and use of the method. 
4.Consider the effectiveness of the training method. 
33 
Training HRPD VJIM
Adult education 
Vocational training 
E-learning 
Types of Training Techniques 
‘Traditional’ lecture 
Class discussion 
Group discussion 
Practical exercise 
Project work 
Self learning 
34 
Training HRPD VJIM
•Presentation methods: 
–Lectures 
–Audio-visual techniques 
•Hands-on Methods 
–On-the-job training (OJT) 
–Simulations 
–Case studies 
–Business games 
–Role plays 
–Behavior modeling 
35 
Training HRPD VJIM
Simulation model 
•Represents a real-life situation. 
•Trainees’ decisions result in outcomes that mirror what would happen if on the job. 
•Used to teach: 
–Production and process skills-PLC, SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) 
–Management and interpersonal skills 
–Reduces cost in making real models 
36 
Training HRPD VJIM
Case study 
•Description about how employees or an organization dealt with a difficult situation. 
•Trainees are required to: 
–Analyze and critique actions taken 
–Indicate the appropriate actions 
–Suggest what might have been done differently 
37 
Training HRPD VJIM
Role Play 
•Trainees act out characters assigned to them. 
•Information regarding the situation is provided to the trainees. 
•Focus on interpersonal responses. 
•Outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees. 
•The more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level of participant focus and intensity. 
38 
Training HRPD VJIM
Behavior Modeling 
•Involves presenting trainees with a model who demonstrates key behaviors to replicate. 
•Provides trainees opportunity to practice the key behaviors. 
•Based on the principles of social learning theory. 
•More appropriate for learning skills and behaviors than factual information. 
•Effective for teaching interpersonal and computer skills. 
39 
Training HRPD VJIM
Group Building Methods 
•Involve trainees: 
–Sharing ideas and experiences 
–Building group identity 
–Understanding interpersonal dynamics 
•focus on helping teams to increase their skills for effective teamwork. 
•Group building methods include: 
–Adventure learning 
–Team training 
–Action learning 
40 
Training HRPD VJIM
41Training HRPD VJIM
•Companies are investing millions of dollars in training programs to help to gain a competitive advantage. 
•Training investment is increasing because learning creates knowledge which differentiates between those companies and employees who are successful and those who are not. 
•Company expects the outcomes or benefits related to training to be measurable 
Evaluation of Training effectiveness 
42 
Training HRPD VJIM
Training should target for workplace efficiency 
43Training HRPD VJIM
Evaluation of Training effectiveness 
•Training effectivenessrefers to the benefits that the company and the trainees receive from training. 
•Evaluation designrefers to from whom, what, when, and how information needed for determining the effectiveness of the training program will be collected 
44Training HRPD VJIM
Training process 
45 
Define Training NeedsProvide for Training 
MonitorDesign and Plan TrainingEvaluate Training OutcomesTraining HRPD VJIM
Training evaluation involves: 
•Formative evaluation –evaluation conducted to improve the training process. 
•Summative evaluation –evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participating in the training program. 
46Training HRPD VJIM
Why Should a Training Program be evaluated? 
•To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. 
•To assess whether content, organization, and administration of the program contribute to learning and the useful in real job scenario. 
•To identify which trainees benefited most or least from the program. 
47 
Training HRPD VJIM
•To gather data to assist in marketing training programs. 
•To determine the financial benefits and costs of the programs. 
•To compare the costs and benefits of training versus non-training investments. 
•To compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to choose the best program. 
Why Should a Training Program be evaluated? 
48 
Training HRPD VJIM
The Evaluation ProcessConduct a Needs AnalysisDevelop Measurable Learning OutcomesDevelop Outcome MeasuresChoose an Evaluation StrategyPlan and Execute the Evaluation 
49 
Training HRPD VJIM
Training Outcomes: Kirk-patrick’s Four-Level Framework of Evaluation Criteria 
Level 
Criteria 
Focus 
1 
Reactions 
Trainee satisfaction 
2 
Learning 
Acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, behavior 
3 
Behavior 
Improvement of behavior on the job 
4 
Results 
Business results achieved by trainees6 -50
Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: 
Cognitive Outcomes 
Skill-Based Outcomes 
Affective Outcomes 
Results 
Return on Investment 
Training HRPD VJIM 51
Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (continued) 
•Cognitive Outcomes 
–Determine the degree to which trainees are familiar with the principles, facts, techniques, procedures, or processes emphasized in the training program. 
–Measure what knowledge trainees learned in the program. 
•Skill-Based Outcomes 
–Assess the level of technical or motor skills. 
–Include acquisition or learning of skills and use of skills on the job. 
52 
Training HRPD VJIM
Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (continued) 
•Affective Outcomes 
–Include attitudes and motivation. 
–Trainees’ perceptions of the program including the facilities, trainers, and content. 
•Results 
–Determine the training program’s payoff for the company. 
53Training HRPD VJIM
Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (continued) 
•Return on Investment (ROI) 
–Comparing the training’s monetary benefits with the cost of the training. 
•Direct costs 
•Indirect costs 
•Benefits 
54Training HRPD VJIM
Types of Evaluation Designs 
•Posttest –only 
•Pretest / posttest 
•Posttest –only with Comparison group 
•Pretest / posttest with Comparison group 
•Time series 
•Time series with Comparison group and Reversal 
•Solomon Four –group 
6 -55Training HRPD VJIM
Evaluation of Course Effectiveness 
•So how well is a specific course working? 
•You can look at it from two dimensions, both important in the context of social auditing and adult learners: 
Perceived LearningThis is what the students think they’ve learned, and how the course has met their expectationsDemonstrated LearningThis is what the students can show they’ve learned, through test results or performance in the field, etc. 56Training HRPD VJIM
Perceived Learning 
•Here are some ways to measure what students think they’ve learned and how the course met their expectations: 
–Post-course questionnaire/survey 
•In-class 
•Online 
–Phone interviews with sample of students 
–Student testimonials 
–Debriefing sessions with trainer after the exam 
–Student evaluations of trainer 
–Peer grading –students assess each others’ performance 
57Training HRPD VJIM
Demonstrated Learning 
•Here are some ways to measure what the student actually learned: 
–Compare pre-and post-course questionnaire and quizzes (should be the same questions on each, for comparison) 
–External evaluation methods 
–Take-home exams or projects (to give time to synthesize material) 
–Follow-up surveys to test knowledge retention and change over time 
–Witness or shadow audits to measure performance of auditor in the field and the long-term impact of the training on operational knowledge, skills and behavior 
58Training HRPD VJIM
Effectiveness of Overall Program 
•So how well is your overall training program working? 
•You need to pick some key performance indicators to measure. 
•Here are some to consider as baseline measurements: 
–Average Student Performance in course 
–Trainer and course ratings by students and observers 
–Number of returning students 
–If possible, field performance measurement or achievement of available or relevant certification 
59 
Training HRPD VJIM
Your feed back expected toMail: jinuachan@gmail.comSocial profiles: jinuachanVadakkemulanjanal Text/ voice connectivity: +91-9447373415 
Thanks 
60 
Training HRPD VJIM

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Training and develpment hrdp ii module 6 nov 2014

  • 1. Training and Development MBA HR specialization, KannurUniversity 1 Training HRPD VJIM Jinuachan Vadakkemulanjanal, Faculty Vimal Jyothi Institutions, Chemperi, KannurKerala +91-460-2213399, 2212240, office@vjim.ac.in
  • 2. Module 6 •Role of training •Training Process •Training Need Analysis •Training Techniques •Evaluation of the training effectiveness 2 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 3. Definition Trainingis the formal and systematic modification of behavior through learning which occurs as a result of education, instruction, development and planned experience. Development is any learning activity, which is directed towards future, needs rather than present needs, and which is concerned more with career growth than immediate performance. 3 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 4. Training, Development, and Education HRD programs are divided into three main categories: Training, Development, and Education. Training is the acquisition of technology, which permits employees to perform their present job to standards. ---It improves human performance on the present job or of the hired. Also, it is given when new technology in introduced into the workplace: automation Development is training the people to acquire new horizons, technologies, or viewpoints. --It enables leaders to guide their organizations onto new expectations by being proactive rather than reactive: cockroach model --It enables workers to create better products, faster services, and more competitive organizations. It is learning for growth of the individual, but not related to a specific present or future job 4 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 5. Training, Development, and Education Education is training people to do a different job. It is often given to people who have been identified as being promotable, being considered for a new job either lateral or upward, or to increase their potential. Unlike training, which can be fully evaluated immediately upon the learners returning to work, education can only be completely evaluated when the learners move on to their future jobs or tasks. 5 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 6. Distinction between Training and Education The following table draws a distinction between training and education more clearly. Training Education ApplicationTheoreticalorientation JobExperienceClassroomlearning SpecificTasksGeneralconcepts NarrowperspectiveBroadperspective 6 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 7. Distinction between Training and Development Learning Training Development Who Non-managers Managers What Technical Theoretical Why Specific job General When Short term Long term 7 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 8. Purpose of Training •To increase productivity and quality •To promote versatility and adaptability to new methods •To reduce the number of accidents •To reduce labour turnover •To increase job satisfaction displaying itself in lower labour turn-over and less absenteeism •To increase efficiency 8 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 9. When does the need for training arise? •The installation of new equipment or techniques •A change in working methods or products produced •A realization that performance is inadequate •Labour shortage, necessitating the upgrading of some employees •A desire to reduce the amount of scrap and to improve quality •An increase in the number of accidents •Promotion or transfer of individual employees. •Ensures availability of necessary skills and there could be a pool of talent from which to promote from. 9 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 10. Role/Advantages of Training 1. Leads to improved profitability and/or more positive attitudes toward profits orientation. 2. Improves the job knowledge and skills at all levels of the organization. 3. Improves the morale of the workforce. 4. Helps people identify with organizational goals. 5. Helps create a better corporate image. 6. Fasters authentically, openness and trust. 7. Improves the relationship between boss and subordinate. 8. Aids in organizational development. 9. Learns from the trainee. 10. Helps prepare guidelines for work. 10 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 11. Disadvantages of training 1. Can be a financial drain on resources; expensive development and testing, expensive to operate? 2. Often takes people away from their job for varying periods of time; 3. Equips staff to leave for a better job 4. Bad habits passed on 5. Narrow experience 11 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 12. Areas of training 12 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 13. Areas of Training Knowledge Herethetraineelearnsaboutasetofrulesandregulationsaboutthejob,thestaffandtheproductsorservicesofferedbythecompany.Theaimistomakethenewemployeefullyawareofwhatgoesinsideandoutsidethecompany. Technical Skills Theemployeeistaughtaspecificskill(e.g.,operatingamachineandhandlingcomputer)sothathecanacquirethatskillandcontributemeaningfully. 13 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 14. Areas of Training Conti. Social Skills Theemployeeismadetolearnabouthimselfandother,developarightmentalattitude,towardsthejob,colleaguesandthecompany. Theprincipalfocusisonteachingtheemployeehowtobeateammemberandgetahead. Techniques Thisinvolvestheapplicationofknowledgeandskilltovariouson- the-jobsituations..Itwillgoalongwayinobtainingemployeeloyalty,supportandcommitmenttocompanyactivities. 14 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 15. Need for Employee Training 1.Communications:Theincreasingdiversityoftoday'sworkforcebringsawidevarietyoflanguagesandcustoms. Crossculture,high/lowcontextissues 2.Computerskills:Computerskillsarebecominganecessityforconductingadministrativeandofficetasks. 3.Customerservice:Increasedcompetitionintoday'sglobalmarketplacemakesitcriticalthatemployeesunderstandandmeettheneedsofcustomers. 4.Diversity:Diversitytrainingusuallyincludesexplanationabouthowpeoplehavedifferentperspectivesandviews,andincludestechniquestovaluediversity 15 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 16. Need for Employee Training Conti. 5. Ethics: Today's society has increasing expectations about corporate social responsibility (CSR). Today's diverse workforce brings a wide variety of values and morals to the workplace. 6. Human relations: The increased stresses of today's workplace can include misunderstandings and conflict. Training can people to get along in the workplace. 7. Quality initiatives: Initiatives such as Total Quality Management, CQI, Quality Circles, benchmarking, etc., require basic training about quality concepts, guidelines and standards for quality, etc. 8. Safety: Safety training is critical where working with heavy equipment, hazardous chemicals, repetitive activities, etc., but can also be useful with practical advice for avoiding assaults, etc. 16 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 17. Training Process 17 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 19. Steps in the Training Process Plan Execute Conceptualize 19 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 20. OrganizationalObjectives & Strategies The first step in the training process in an organization is the assessment of its objectives and strategies. What business are we in? At what level of quality do we wish to provide this product or service? Where do we want to be in the future? It is only after answering these related questions that the organization must assess the strengths and weaknesses of its human resources. 20 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 21. Training Need Analysis(TNA) •It is an analysis to the design of effective training models. •The purpose of training need analysis is to determine whether there is a gap between what is required for effective performance and present level of performance. 21 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 22. Why TNA? Trainingneedanalysisisconductedtodeterminewhetherresourcesrequiredareavailableornot. Ithelpstoplanthebudgetofthecompany,areaswheretrainingisrequired,andalsohighlightstheoccasionswheretrainingmightnotbe appropriatebutrequiresalternateaction. 22 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 23. GAP created from planning to Execution of training Training HRPD VJIM 23
  • 24. TNA for Target competency analysis 24 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 25. TNA 25 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 26. Organizational level •TNA at this level focuses on strategic planning, business need, and goals. •It starts with the assessment of internal environment of the organization such as, procedures, structures, policies, strengths, and weaknesses and external environment such as opportunities and threats. •HRD assess employees about the required Knowledge, Skills, and Attitudes (KSAs) based on the future KSAs requirements at each level 26 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 27. •After the SWOT analysis, weaknesses can be dealt with the training interventions, •The identified strengths can further be strengthened with continued training. •Threats can be reduced by identifying the areas where training is required. •Opportunities can be exploited by balancing it against costs. 27 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 28. Individual Level –This level focuses on each and every individual in the organization. --Evaluate an employee: is performing at desired level or the performance is below expectation. If the difference between the expected performance and actual performance comes out to be negative, then certainly there is a need of training. 28 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 29. Individual analysis methods •Appraisal and performance review •Peer appraisal •Competency assessments •Subordinate appraisal •Client feedback •Customer feedback •Self-assessment or self-appraisal 29 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 30. Operational Level Here the focus is on the work that is being assigned to the employees. The job analyst collect the data on whether the job is clearly understood by an employee or not. It is done through technical interview, observation, psychological test; questionnaires asking the closed ended as well as open ended questions,etc. Present job and future expectations in job are analyzed 30 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 31. We Learn 1% through taste 1.5% through touch 3.5% through smell 11% through hearing 83% through sight We Remember 10% of what we read 20% of what we hear 30% of what we see 50% of what we see and hear 80% of what we say 90% of what we say as we act Training Techniques
  • 32. Lecture Demonstration Small Group Activity/ Discussion Case Study Role Play Training Techniques Training HRPD VJIM 32
  • 33. Choosing a Training Method 1.Identify the type of learning outcome that you want training to influence. 2.Consider the extent to which the learning method facilitates learning and transfer of training. 3.Evaluate the costs related to development and use of the method. 4.Consider the effectiveness of the training method. 33 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 34. Adult education Vocational training E-learning Types of Training Techniques ‘Traditional’ lecture Class discussion Group discussion Practical exercise Project work Self learning 34 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 35. •Presentation methods: –Lectures –Audio-visual techniques •Hands-on Methods –On-the-job training (OJT) –Simulations –Case studies –Business games –Role plays –Behavior modeling 35 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 36. Simulation model •Represents a real-life situation. •Trainees’ decisions result in outcomes that mirror what would happen if on the job. •Used to teach: –Production and process skills-PLC, SCADA (supervisory control and data acquisition) –Management and interpersonal skills –Reduces cost in making real models 36 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 37. Case study •Description about how employees or an organization dealt with a difficult situation. •Trainees are required to: –Analyze and critique actions taken –Indicate the appropriate actions –Suggest what might have been done differently 37 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 38. Role Play •Trainees act out characters assigned to them. •Information regarding the situation is provided to the trainees. •Focus on interpersonal responses. •Outcomes depend on the emotional (and subjective) reactions of the other trainees. •The more meaningful the exercise, the higher the level of participant focus and intensity. 38 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 39. Behavior Modeling •Involves presenting trainees with a model who demonstrates key behaviors to replicate. •Provides trainees opportunity to practice the key behaviors. •Based on the principles of social learning theory. •More appropriate for learning skills and behaviors than factual information. •Effective for teaching interpersonal and computer skills. 39 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 40. Group Building Methods •Involve trainees: –Sharing ideas and experiences –Building group identity –Understanding interpersonal dynamics •focus on helping teams to increase their skills for effective teamwork. •Group building methods include: –Adventure learning –Team training –Action learning 40 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 42. •Companies are investing millions of dollars in training programs to help to gain a competitive advantage. •Training investment is increasing because learning creates knowledge which differentiates between those companies and employees who are successful and those who are not. •Company expects the outcomes or benefits related to training to be measurable Evaluation of Training effectiveness 42 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 43. Training should target for workplace efficiency 43Training HRPD VJIM
  • 44. Evaluation of Training effectiveness •Training effectivenessrefers to the benefits that the company and the trainees receive from training. •Evaluation designrefers to from whom, what, when, and how information needed for determining the effectiveness of the training program will be collected 44Training HRPD VJIM
  • 45. Training process 45 Define Training NeedsProvide for Training MonitorDesign and Plan TrainingEvaluate Training OutcomesTraining HRPD VJIM
  • 46. Training evaluation involves: •Formative evaluation –evaluation conducted to improve the training process. •Summative evaluation –evaluation conducted to determine the extent to which trainees have changed as a result of participating in the training program. 46Training HRPD VJIM
  • 47. Why Should a Training Program be evaluated? •To identify the program’s strengths and weaknesses. •To assess whether content, organization, and administration of the program contribute to learning and the useful in real job scenario. •To identify which trainees benefited most or least from the program. 47 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 48. •To gather data to assist in marketing training programs. •To determine the financial benefits and costs of the programs. •To compare the costs and benefits of training versus non-training investments. •To compare the costs and benefits of different training programs to choose the best program. Why Should a Training Program be evaluated? 48 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 49. The Evaluation ProcessConduct a Needs AnalysisDevelop Measurable Learning OutcomesDevelop Outcome MeasuresChoose an Evaluation StrategyPlan and Execute the Evaluation 49 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 50. Training Outcomes: Kirk-patrick’s Four-Level Framework of Evaluation Criteria Level Criteria Focus 1 Reactions Trainee satisfaction 2 Learning Acquisition of knowledge, skills, attitudes, behavior 3 Behavior Improvement of behavior on the job 4 Results Business results achieved by trainees6 -50
  • 51. Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: Cognitive Outcomes Skill-Based Outcomes Affective Outcomes Results Return on Investment Training HRPD VJIM 51
  • 52. Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (continued) •Cognitive Outcomes –Determine the degree to which trainees are familiar with the principles, facts, techniques, procedures, or processes emphasized in the training program. –Measure what knowledge trainees learned in the program. •Skill-Based Outcomes –Assess the level of technical or motor skills. –Include acquisition or learning of skills and use of skills on the job. 52 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 53. Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (continued) •Affective Outcomes –Include attitudes and motivation. –Trainees’ perceptions of the program including the facilities, trainers, and content. •Results –Determine the training program’s payoff for the company. 53Training HRPD VJIM
  • 54. Outcomes Used in Evaluating Training Programs: (continued) •Return on Investment (ROI) –Comparing the training’s monetary benefits with the cost of the training. •Direct costs •Indirect costs •Benefits 54Training HRPD VJIM
  • 55. Types of Evaluation Designs •Posttest –only •Pretest / posttest •Posttest –only with Comparison group •Pretest / posttest with Comparison group •Time series •Time series with Comparison group and Reversal •Solomon Four –group 6 -55Training HRPD VJIM
  • 56. Evaluation of Course Effectiveness •So how well is a specific course working? •You can look at it from two dimensions, both important in the context of social auditing and adult learners: Perceived LearningThis is what the students think they’ve learned, and how the course has met their expectationsDemonstrated LearningThis is what the students can show they’ve learned, through test results or performance in the field, etc. 56Training HRPD VJIM
  • 57. Perceived Learning •Here are some ways to measure what students think they’ve learned and how the course met their expectations: –Post-course questionnaire/survey •In-class •Online –Phone interviews with sample of students –Student testimonials –Debriefing sessions with trainer after the exam –Student evaluations of trainer –Peer grading –students assess each others’ performance 57Training HRPD VJIM
  • 58. Demonstrated Learning •Here are some ways to measure what the student actually learned: –Compare pre-and post-course questionnaire and quizzes (should be the same questions on each, for comparison) –External evaluation methods –Take-home exams or projects (to give time to synthesize material) –Follow-up surveys to test knowledge retention and change over time –Witness or shadow audits to measure performance of auditor in the field and the long-term impact of the training on operational knowledge, skills and behavior 58Training HRPD VJIM
  • 59. Effectiveness of Overall Program •So how well is your overall training program working? •You need to pick some key performance indicators to measure. •Here are some to consider as baseline measurements: –Average Student Performance in course –Trainer and course ratings by students and observers –Number of returning students –If possible, field performance measurement or achievement of available or relevant certification 59 Training HRPD VJIM
  • 60. Your feed back expected toMail: jinuachan@gmail.comSocial profiles: jinuachanVadakkemulanjanal Text/ voice connectivity: +91-9447373415 Thanks 60 Training HRPD VJIM