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Toxoplasmosis
Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic
disease caused by
Toxoplasma gondii.
Toxoplasma gondii
• an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes
the disease toxoplasmosis.
• Found worldwide, is capable of infecting virtually all
warm-blooded animals,
• but felids such as domestic cats are the only known
definitive hosts in which the parasite may undergo
sexual reproduction
LifeCycle
Life Cycle
T. gondii is considered to have three stages of infection; the tachyzoite stage of rapid division,
the bradyzoite stage of slow division within tissue cysts, and the oocyst environmental stage
Life Cycle - notes
The lifecycle of T. gondii may be broadly summarized into two
components:
• a sexual component that occurs only within cats (felids, wild or
domestic),
• an asexual component that can occur within virtually all warm-
blooded animals, including humans, cats, and birds.
• Because T. gondii can sexually reproduce only within cats, cats are
therefore the definitive host of T. gondii.
• All other hosts – in which only asexual reproduction can occur – are
intermediate hosts.
Life Cycle - notes
Oocysts are formed inside cat intestine by consuming a cyst
• When a cat is infected with T. gondii (e.g. by consuming an
infected mouse carrying the parasite's tissue cysts), the
parasite survives passage through the stomach, and infecting
epithelial cells of the cat's small intestine.
• Inside these intestinal cells, the parasites undergo sexual
development and reproduction, producing millions of thick-
walled, zygote-containing cysts known as oocysts.
Life Cycle - notes
Cat to other hosts
• Cat shed Oocysts through its fecal matter and can then spread to soil,
water, food, or anything potentially contaminated with the feces
• Ingestion of oocysts by humans or other warm-blooded animals is one of
the common routes of infection
Inside Human host
• the cyst wall is dissolved by proteolytic enzymes in the stomach and small
intestine, freeing sporozoites from within the oocyst.
• The parasites first invade cells in and surrounding the intestinal
epithelium
• inside these cells, the parasites differentiate into tachyzoites, the motile
and quickly multiplying cellular stage of T. gondii
Life Cycle - notes
Asexual reproduction in the intermediate host
• Inside host cells, the tachyzoites replicate inside specialized vacuoles
(called the parasitophorous vacuoles) created during parasitic entry into
the cell.
• Tachyzoites multiply inside this vacuole until the host cell dies and
ruptures, releasing and spreading the tachyzoites via the bloodstream to
all organs and tissues of the body, including the brain
Life Cycle - notes
Formation of tissue cysts
• Following the initial period of infection characterized by tachyzoite
proliferation throughout the body
• pressure from the host's immune system causes T. gondii tachyzoites to
convert into bradyzoites, the semidormant, slowly dividing cellular stage
of the parasite.
• Inside host cells, clusters of these bradyzoites are known as tissue cysts.
Life Cycle
Transmission
• by consuming raw or undercooked meat containing T. gondii tissue
cysts.
• by ingesting water, soil, vegetables, or anything contaminated with
oocysts shed in the feces of an infected animal. oocysts are resilient to
harsh environmental conditions and can survive over a year in
contaminated soil.
• from a blood transfusion or organ transplant
• from transplacental transmission from mother to fetus
• from drinking unpasteurized goat milk
• Cleaning cat litter boxes is a potential route of infection
Toxoplasmosis
Symptoms
• When illness occurs, it is usually mild with “flu-like” symptoms (e.g., tender lymph
nodes, muscle aches, etc.) that last for weeks to months and then go away.
• However, the parasite remains in their body in an inactive state. It can become
reactivated if the person becomes immunosuppressed.
• Headache, Confusion, Poor coordination, Seizures
• Lung problems that may resemble tuberculosis or Pneumocystis jiroveci
pneumonia, a common opportunistic infection that occurs in people with AIDS
• Blurred vision caused by severe inflammation of your retina (ocular toxoplasmosis)
• Behavioral changes and schizophrenia
Toxoplasmosis
Many early infections during pregnancy end in stillbirth or
miscarriage. Infants who survive are likely to be born with
serious problems, such as:
• Seizures
• An enlarged liver and spleen
• Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice)
• Severe eye infections
ocular toxoplasmosis
• the most common cause of infections in the back of the eye (posterior
segment) worldwide.
• The causative agent is Toxoplasma gondii
• A unilateral decrease in visual acuity is the most common symptom of
toxoplasmic retinitis.
• Under ophthalmic examination, toxoplasmic chorioretinitis classically
appears as a focal, white retinitis with overlying moderate inflammation of
the vitreous humour.
• Congenital toxoplasmosis may lead to hydrocephalus, seizures, lymphadenopathy,
hepatosplenomegaly, rash, and fever.
• retinochoroiditis is the most common manifestation, occurring in 3/4 of cases.
Diagnosis
• detected in blood, amniotic fluid, or cerebrospinal fluid by using polymerase
chain reaction
• ELISA
• immunosorbent agglutination assay test (IAAT)
• Amniocentesis. In this procedure, which may be done safely after 15 weeks
of pregnancy, doctor uses a fine needle to remove a small amount of fluid
from amniotic sac. Tests are then performed on the fluid to check for
evidence of toxoplasmosis.
• Brain biopsy. In rare cases, especially if you don't respond to treatment, a
neurosurgeon may take a small sample of brain tissue. The sample is then
analyzed in a laboratory to check for toxoplasmosis cysts.
Treatment
Pyrimethamine (Daraprim).
• This medication, typically used for malaria, is a folic acid antagonist.
• It may prevent your body from absorbing the B vitamin folate (folic
acid, vitamin B-9), especially when you take high doses over a long
period.
• For that reason, your doctor may recommend taking additional folic
acid.
• Other potential side effects of pyrimethamine include bone marrow
suppression and liver toxicity.
Sulfadiazine
• This antibiotic is used with pyrimethamine to treat toxoplasmosis.

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Toxoplasmosis - an obligate intracellular parasitie

  • 1. Toxoplasmosis Toxoplasmosis is a parasitic disease caused by Toxoplasma gondii.
  • 2. Toxoplasma gondii • an obligate intracellular, parasitic alveolate that causes the disease toxoplasmosis. • Found worldwide, is capable of infecting virtually all warm-blooded animals, • but felids such as domestic cats are the only known definitive hosts in which the parasite may undergo sexual reproduction
  • 4. Life Cycle T. gondii is considered to have three stages of infection; the tachyzoite stage of rapid division, the bradyzoite stage of slow division within tissue cysts, and the oocyst environmental stage
  • 5. Life Cycle - notes The lifecycle of T. gondii may be broadly summarized into two components: • a sexual component that occurs only within cats (felids, wild or domestic), • an asexual component that can occur within virtually all warm- blooded animals, including humans, cats, and birds. • Because T. gondii can sexually reproduce only within cats, cats are therefore the definitive host of T. gondii. • All other hosts – in which only asexual reproduction can occur – are intermediate hosts.
  • 6. Life Cycle - notes Oocysts are formed inside cat intestine by consuming a cyst • When a cat is infected with T. gondii (e.g. by consuming an infected mouse carrying the parasite's tissue cysts), the parasite survives passage through the stomach, and infecting epithelial cells of the cat's small intestine. • Inside these intestinal cells, the parasites undergo sexual development and reproduction, producing millions of thick- walled, zygote-containing cysts known as oocysts.
  • 7. Life Cycle - notes Cat to other hosts • Cat shed Oocysts through its fecal matter and can then spread to soil, water, food, or anything potentially contaminated with the feces • Ingestion of oocysts by humans or other warm-blooded animals is one of the common routes of infection Inside Human host • the cyst wall is dissolved by proteolytic enzymes in the stomach and small intestine, freeing sporozoites from within the oocyst. • The parasites first invade cells in and surrounding the intestinal epithelium • inside these cells, the parasites differentiate into tachyzoites, the motile and quickly multiplying cellular stage of T. gondii
  • 8. Life Cycle - notes Asexual reproduction in the intermediate host • Inside host cells, the tachyzoites replicate inside specialized vacuoles (called the parasitophorous vacuoles) created during parasitic entry into the cell. • Tachyzoites multiply inside this vacuole until the host cell dies and ruptures, releasing and spreading the tachyzoites via the bloodstream to all organs and tissues of the body, including the brain
  • 9. Life Cycle - notes Formation of tissue cysts • Following the initial period of infection characterized by tachyzoite proliferation throughout the body • pressure from the host's immune system causes T. gondii tachyzoites to convert into bradyzoites, the semidormant, slowly dividing cellular stage of the parasite. • Inside host cells, clusters of these bradyzoites are known as tissue cysts.
  • 11. Transmission • by consuming raw or undercooked meat containing T. gondii tissue cysts. • by ingesting water, soil, vegetables, or anything contaminated with oocysts shed in the feces of an infected animal. oocysts are resilient to harsh environmental conditions and can survive over a year in contaminated soil. • from a blood transfusion or organ transplant • from transplacental transmission from mother to fetus • from drinking unpasteurized goat milk • Cleaning cat litter boxes is a potential route of infection
  • 12. Toxoplasmosis Symptoms • When illness occurs, it is usually mild with “flu-like” symptoms (e.g., tender lymph nodes, muscle aches, etc.) that last for weeks to months and then go away. • However, the parasite remains in their body in an inactive state. It can become reactivated if the person becomes immunosuppressed. • Headache, Confusion, Poor coordination, Seizures • Lung problems that may resemble tuberculosis or Pneumocystis jiroveci pneumonia, a common opportunistic infection that occurs in people with AIDS • Blurred vision caused by severe inflammation of your retina (ocular toxoplasmosis) • Behavioral changes and schizophrenia
  • 13. Toxoplasmosis Many early infections during pregnancy end in stillbirth or miscarriage. Infants who survive are likely to be born with serious problems, such as: • Seizures • An enlarged liver and spleen • Yellowing of the skin and whites of the eyes (jaundice) • Severe eye infections
  • 14. ocular toxoplasmosis • the most common cause of infections in the back of the eye (posterior segment) worldwide. • The causative agent is Toxoplasma gondii • A unilateral decrease in visual acuity is the most common symptom of toxoplasmic retinitis. • Under ophthalmic examination, toxoplasmic chorioretinitis classically appears as a focal, white retinitis with overlying moderate inflammation of the vitreous humour. • Congenital toxoplasmosis may lead to hydrocephalus, seizures, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, rash, and fever. • retinochoroiditis is the most common manifestation, occurring in 3/4 of cases.
  • 15. Diagnosis • detected in blood, amniotic fluid, or cerebrospinal fluid by using polymerase chain reaction • ELISA • immunosorbent agglutination assay test (IAAT) • Amniocentesis. In this procedure, which may be done safely after 15 weeks of pregnancy, doctor uses a fine needle to remove a small amount of fluid from amniotic sac. Tests are then performed on the fluid to check for evidence of toxoplasmosis. • Brain biopsy. In rare cases, especially if you don't respond to treatment, a neurosurgeon may take a small sample of brain tissue. The sample is then analyzed in a laboratory to check for toxoplasmosis cysts.
  • 16. Treatment Pyrimethamine (Daraprim). • This medication, typically used for malaria, is a folic acid antagonist. • It may prevent your body from absorbing the B vitamin folate (folic acid, vitamin B-9), especially when you take high doses over a long period. • For that reason, your doctor may recommend taking additional folic acid. • Other potential side effects of pyrimethamine include bone marrow suppression and liver toxicity. Sulfadiazine • This antibiotic is used with pyrimethamine to treat toxoplasmosis.