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TOWARD A SPECIALIZATION
IN SOCIAL JUSTICE
Research on the development of management &
leadership
GHERISSI, HEGAZI,.Y. (2012)
The development of leadership and management
University Atlantic International
United States
MODERNIST CREDENCIELS TO REDEFINE LEADERSHIP
DEVELOPMENT

https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/toward-a-specialization-
in-social-justice/isbn/978-3-8473-0490-6
KEY WORDS
Psychology, economic analysis, business
ethics, business policy & strategy, and
cultures talents
Abstract
The sociological disciplines design the statistical analysis
of social phenomena and the progress of the leadership in
the global world. The purpose of this study on leadership
development and organization describes the leadership
concept and the decision making approach and the
illegitimate laws that compromise ethics and institutions.
Current development in environmental sociology
framework contributes to make us aware about the
importance to apply ethical rules in societies and preparing
young leaders in the culture of humanism and civic
engagement.
The role of community leaders in the civil society is greatly
observed as an original experience that helps communities
to change their attitudes toward pessimist fate. It does
emphasize that cultivation of nations is available through
social services and humanitarian programs.
In addition that advanced technologies and
andragogy allowed developing countries to
access social sciences and to gain skills in
education and in the know-how in the organization
of societies. Consequently the spread of
education around the globe offered great
opportunities to leaders of the world to access
sciences and technology systems at distance
learning. The online education reflected the
potential of empowerment in education, the social
development and the necessity to adopt new life
skills. Leadership here illustrates a map road of
social justice and cultural intelligence that nurture
a socio-political perception of decency and
fairness
Rationale
The broad view in the progress of the human development depends from
community demand to concentrate on fairness in the distribution of
economic assets, and the economic crisis touch directly women and
gender equality in jobs, health, incomes and economical distribution. In
fact sociological studies explored women’s and genders issues and gave
to us a better understanding of economic distresses of today through the
oscillations of the development progress of the economic country "GDP"
that prove or not the evidence of the good distribution of assets among
societies.
The anthropology authority exposes nowadays environmental concerns
especially in poor countries through the analysis of the development and
poverty strategy which show a larger number of women and young
people discriminated and living challenged social, economic and
environmental concerns. In addition, the countries of environmental
deprivations have poor access to energy, water, sanitation and
technology.
Consequently sustainable development requires
equitable access for all to basic rights such us: health-
education- jobs fairness, and the rights of every
citizen to live a secure life.
Most populations of countries with economic
distresses have difficulties to improve health,
education and to access goods and public services
among their populations sectors. The Human
development index (HDI) is a measure that defines
human progress through the distribution fairness of
health, education and incomes by country.
Objectives
Giving better understanding of historical human behavior and
biological identities that contribute to the deviant forms of
identity ;
Develop and enhance skills of moral judgments;
Enhance knowledge and maintain ethical corporate
environments
Explore the role and responsibilities of corporations and
personal business;
Develop ability to think strategically and globally;
Applying policies in harmony to the real business and economic
problems;
Demonstrate that Cultural Intelligence is often learned and
improved according to person maturity;
Understand the meanings of motivation and perseverance
within multiethnic contexts.
individuals are cause and consequence of
constructionism
Humans are the creator of the social product, and their behavior
across historical anthropology reveals to us that human identity is the
creation of men and focuses on processes that encourage
discrimination, nonstandard roles and worlds. In fact theoretical
explanations lead to explore human’s behavior and their
considerations to diverse identities and differences which were
strengthened by the men of religion in order to gain the supremacy.
Ancestral ethnicities defined roles and identity of men and women
according to gender and biological aspects and represent today a
great example of deviant forms of identity. Furthermore decision
makers around the globe continue to apply discriminatory reforms on
women basic rights, and laws in poor countries are hurting women
and destitute them to their requirement rights.
Ethics contributes to investor loyalty
Several ethical decisions provide an overview of moral
philosophies and in decisions making-processes that
encourage people working in the fields of leadership in order to
benefit from decisions based on ethical behaviors.
Researchers suggest here to train employees and managers to
reach ethical approaches that strengthen appropriate
behaviors, like to encourage campaigns against gender and
racial discriminations in the work place.
Ferrell and Fraedrich (2012) in their book Business ethics:
ethical decision making 2012- provide moral philosophies that
contribute to help employees and managers
Teaching and learning ethical issues
Teaching tools and international policies provide
information that recognize ethical dilemma and help
to resolve ethical business challenges.
Guidelines of conduct use a range of analysis
disciplines that allow students to face business
challenges and suggest to him many role-play
simulations that provide sequential behaviors of
business reality.
Role-play case exposes a realistic and suitable
business ethics situation. In addition that suggested
role-play case increases conventional concepts to
business learning
Business vision and organization mission
statement
Business must be adapted to its competitive environment and
must link directly to the decision-making. The mission statement
joins the organization’s goals that comprehend:
The cores standards to which the firm is committed,
The core drive of the organization & the company visionary
goals that follow mission;
The cores values constitute the idea on which organization is
created and the mission express the thought. Consequently the
idea can be developed according to the environment change.
Cores values will don’t change even if the organization activates
in other sectors. While innovations and new change will be
appreciated by the community or direct customers, and gains
will be productive. Accordingly values maintain customer service
with advanced technology, integrity and social responsibility.
HOW DO INDIVIDUALS INCREASE THEIR
ABILITY TO ADAPT SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS
CULTURES?
Developing the cultural strategic thinking requires the
understanding and the respect of the traditions of others
cultures. The authors Eaerly and Joo Seng cited in example
the case of an airline that offered white carnations during
operations in Honk Gong, without knowing that white
carnations symbolize death and bad luck for many Asians.
Sociological theories emphasizes that ethical behavior and
social responsibility are the basis of the healthy global
business. And it's essential for global decision makers to
recognize the ethical issues in business and to apply ethical
reforms that prevent inequities and allow all sector
populations to participate in the national economic assets.
And ethics in business continues to be the public concern in
the poor countries and it’s important to understand that
unethical conduct hurt the business world and promotes
larger inequality among communities. In addition that
leadership in these countries is showed as a political merit
that enhances disparities and angry of communities.
REASONS TO INCREASE LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE
IN POOR COUNTRIES
Populations of poor countries register lack of knowledge and
illiteracy concerning their basic rights, and the ways to request a
living standard of life that respond to their needs.
The technology in the last 3 years broke barriers among
populations beyond borders, and enhanced communication
between young people and make populations of poor countries
understanding the reasons that place differences between them
and the other young people. The example of Tunisian young
people before revolution discovered that they are moving
mountains to obtain jobs without success. While German young
people are trusting their norms of employment and laws are clear
and fair to all.
Consequently the Tunisian young people are seeing that
employment is destined to families of powers or their followers
who exist to protect their interests. Finally German people are
improving their life and reaching their basic needs, while Tunisian
from the poorest communities are struggling to survive each day
and are encountering risks to migrate in illegally ways in other
countries looking for jobs.
HOW CULTURAL AND PERSONAL
ENVIRONMENT DEFINE HUMAN CONDITIONS?
Humanities are the academic disciplines that study the human
condition in a social, cultural, and personal context. And
human condition is observed as a discipline that comprehends
the humanities and the study of history, philosophy, literature
and art which help us to understand how the human condition
was arranged and how broader culture coalesces with social
life of human?.
BEHAVIORAL GENETICS
Knowledge, skills and research are the branches of
anthropology that reveal about learned societies and through
intellectual journals over the history.
Anthropology explores results of researches on cultures and
societies work on grounds that appreciate cultural difference
and its implications.
Anthropology explores societies to gain knowledge about
human beings and their activities and helps us understand
differences in fundamental values, attitudes and behavior
between people in different regions and organizations.
And cultures organized create a unique ethnicity that
influences the way of organizational thinking and human
behaviors.
The other social sciences as psychology, sociology and
anthropology associated contributed to our understanding of
organizational behavior in economics, political science and
history. Economic models contribute to provide us better
understanding of individual and organizational assessment.
HISTORY OF THE FEMINIST
ANTHROPOLOGY
The feminist anthropology refers to the first feminist
suffrage between 1850 and 1920s. And ethnographies
researches were created by men and have defined
individual’s roles in society according to biological sex.
Consequently women unity was created to raise women’s
voices and allow them to express about their experiences
and their concerns.
The famous Elsie Parsons (1875-1941), an American
sociologist began her movement and as social activist, she
used her ethnographic skills to promote
the individual free thinking and to encourage people to talk
about their experiences and fears, in order to promote
social reform and to look at anthropology as a part of all
liberal education. Her notion of feminism and of socio-
cultural norms are today still in debate. In other part, the
second union of feminists appeared between 1920 and
1980s. They argued that sex and gender are defined
respectively to sex by biology and to gender by culture.
IMPACT ON GENERAL CULTURES ON HUMAN FREEDOM:
CRITICAL THINKING
The philosophers Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) and Jean Paul Sartre
(1905-1980) were the figures of the most influential philosophical
movement in the Mid-Twentieth century. Kierkegaard explored the
immediate experience of the particular individual exposed to eternity,
while Sartre focused on human individual experiences in the
environmental social work. In fact their philosophies enhance theoretical
totalizations that distort the true individual decisions. The historical
relevance of existentialism was identified the two past centuries in an
effort to explain our present existence. And existentialism is
concentrated on modern stress that impact directly on general cultures.
The important factors in the existentialism show a large independence of
human freedom that allows them to create and to surpass themselves in
creativity, responsibility and in their personal integrity.
Critical thinking is relevant to principles of reasoning and link to logic and
scientific disciplines that study arguments as results of reasoning and a
large communication.
Critical thinking evaluates judgments and analyzes the particular historic
and social environment. And human ideas are organized in manner that
improves cognitive skills through effective logic and intellectual
SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES
Social activities are defined by achieving tasks that involve
mental and physical efforts in objective to develop the
production of goods and services that respond to the society's
needs. Jobs or the creation of jobs is the legal concept that
making people gaining income in exchange of their work. And
industry and economic institutions are seen as the main part of
social impact on societies and social living being in general.
And the economic distribution is in fact the economic system
that impact on societies and on their daily life. Jobs are closely
monopolized through structured processes that emphasize
social inequality. Furthermore sociology theory emerged social
behaviors that help us to understand societies and its diversity.
And understanding sociology’s past and today trends make us
gaining knowledge in the development of social interactions
CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND
HUMAN DIVERSITY
Cultural anthropology is defined through a range of
human, social and cultural experiences that
explore the human nature in its diversity.
Anthropologists explored diversities within human
societies and their different ways of living, speaking
and understanding. These individual characteristics
permitted to distinguish cultures, politics,
economies and environments. Furthermore cultural
anthropology introduced fundamental concepts that
extend the investigation of societal attitudes and
the various cultural patterns across generations
through lectures, discussions, reading and arts.
THE PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE: UNITY AND
PLURALITY
The academic discipline is defined as a problem in the
organization of knowledge and how knowledge corresponds to
reality?
Plato (424/423 BC – 348/347 BC) and the other philosophers
state that:” the oneness of the world could be matched by the
unity of knowledge about the world.” (Wikipedia) And philosophers
often had preference for the creation of a concept that embraces
reality and knowledge.
The academic discipline here reproduces the problem that our
knowledge of the world is divided in to diverse branches.
The logical positivists tried to re-establish the unity of knowledge
by calling to fundamental principles of logic.
PRIMITIVE CULTURES AND ITS IMPACT ON
CIVILIZATIONS
Modern anthropology is the study of human nature as it’s
seen in culture and civilization. And modern anthropology
explores preciously “primitive” and “civilized” societies that
make cultural anthropology as a distinct academic
discipline in the late of the 19s century.
Anthropologists have demonstrated that modern and
primitive cultures may be differ extensively but their recent
research have modified their vision, and they are now
focusing on globalization and increased contact between
societies and cultures, in order to have better
understanding of cultural practices in modern-societies.
Fried’s and Dole’s (1968) surveys of the literature in the abstract “The
Tribe as a Unit of Subsistence: Nomadic Pastoralism in the Middle
East”2009- reveal two dominant factors that define tribes, such us the
tribe system function through cultural and linguistic entity, and The
exploitation of ground and water in an area of subsistence requires
negotiations and regulations that make tribal system dominating talks.
Discussions are here achieved through tribal networks of personal
relationships that have power with the central leadership of tribes. In fact
the authors of surveys make us understanding here how much tribesmen
are implicated in their cultural beliefs and that tribal structure is dependent
of self-interests and regulations are articulated according to profits and
gain to tribes. It’s the case in Middle East, and the Palestinian Territories
are a great example of political and tribal culture. This hypothesis gives
reason to the most power people and discriminates weak people who are
generally poor people. Palestinian authority has difficulties to apply law,
and decisions of Legal court are sometimes not applied while tribal
communities continue to solve their problems through selected family
committee. And the tribal committees usually try to link problems to
solutions in disregard of their unfairness sometimes.
Furthermore tribal culture reveals strong decisions that
may lead to physical violence and social dislocation, like
for example killing for saving honor. And what we are
seeing today by Palestinian political groups the same
practices of power and self-interests at point that all
politics refuse the idea to the general elections in despite
of the dangerous decline in the Palestinian status. And
leadership here is seen as an autocratic style that has
poor leadership
THE DIVISION OF LABOR IN SOCIETY: THE
EPISTEMIC CULTURE
The French sociologist Emile Durkheim (1893) described how
“social order” was maintained in societies with different beliefs
of solidarity (mechanical and organic), and the transition for
more “primitive” societies to advanced societies. Durkheim
states that: “primitive society and mechanical solidarity with
people sharing the same values, contribute to maintain the
social order”. He argued that crime is an act that:” offends
strong and defined states of the collective conscience”. “The
Division of Labor in Society”(Emile Durkheim 1997). In a
capitalist society, the division of labor means that people are
allocated in society in function to merit and reward social
inequality that reflect natural inequality.
Durkheim argued that:” moral regulation was needed to
regulate economy and to maintain order in society with people
able” to compose their differences peaceably” (Rock Paul-
sociological theories of crime 2002).
ETHICAL BEHAVIOR THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE
HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
Corporations demonstrate that industries have cultural effect on
populations. And business request morals that provide fairness
and integrities.
Ethics is seen by our ancestries as applying values that make
us and others people happy.
Societal elements tend to control the initiative of businesses
that affect our community space. Corporations want in fact to
show their legitimacy in their decisions while their actions have
great influence on society.
But the truth demonstrates that industries have cultural effect
on populations. Consequently trade management reveals
inconsistent judgment that makes its integrity in distrust.
MORAL PHILOSOPHY
Ethics is seen as moral philosophy that separates the
right and the wrong things. Ethics is applied to principles
values. And if happiness aims to make one person in one
society happy, it means that certain actions are not good
for the society. And is it right to lie for a good cause? ,
and it’s true that many people around the globe live in
lavishness while other people are dying due to famine in
other regions of the world.
ANTHROPOLOGY AND ANCIENT ETHICS
The Darwinian theory of human nature states that the human
instinct is mostly strongly and expresses the basic human
instincts. This notion is in fact traduced in the worldwide
culture that dominates human feelings.
And passion, love and envy are rooted by humans and can
lead to irresponsible acts.
This applies to animals which live on instinct and are not able
to think, like is stipulated by Descartes (1595-1650).
And according to Mary Shelley (1797-1851) , humans and
animals grow in the same manner and instinct define the
existence.
The instinct stimulate humans to face the monster and skill
them to hate.
Furthermore the Locke’s theory of empiricism described
humans as learning through their experiences.
DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS
The deontological ethics states that our acts traduce our
maturity level in the design of right and wrong acts.
Consequently the theory of divine law describes our right
decisions toward certain actions as duty. And those
humans are born to apply the divine command of law.
THE ETHICAL APPROACH IN GOVERNANCE: MALE AND
FEMALE MORALITY
Moral principles are considered as depending of the divine law in
the modern world.
Thinkers see that male dominion is accentuated on classes of
rules at the cost of understanding feminine ethics.
According to Aristotle, moral virtue is the result of convention and
affirms that humans are not born with moral values and that
anything contrary to its nature is different from humans. He gave
the example of stones that move naturally in descending and not
in mounting.
Finally humans acquire things naturally and later display them
through activities. And human senses are showed as innate and
exercise them will learn to us to moderate them exactly like in the
case of arts practices.
The ethical approach in governance is defined as corporate
ethics. It’s ensuring a healthy governance of a structural system
that allows corporations to attain their objectives and to gain
resources.
Ethical business in the code of conduct contributes to recognize
the general corruption and briberies.
THE ETHICAL APPROACH IN
GOVERNANCE: MALE AND FEMALE
MORALITY
Moral principles are considered as depending of the
divine law in the modern world.
Thinkers see that male dominion is accentuated on
classes of rules at the cost of understanding feminine
ethics.
According to Aristotle, moral virtue is the result of
convention and affirms that humans are not born with
moral values and that anything contrary to its nature is
different from humans. He gave the example of stones
that move naturally in descending and not in mounting.
Finally humans acquire things naturally and later display them
through activities. And human senses are showed as innate and
exercise them will learn to us to moderate them exactly like in the
case of arts practices.
The ethical approach in governance is defined as corporate
ethics. It’s ensuring a healthy governance of a structural system
that allows corporations to attain their objectives and to gain
resources.
Ethical business in the code of conduct contributes to recognize
the general corruption and briberies.
The Austrian Abram Maslow, Psychologist conceived in 1954 a
hierarchy of human needs that constitutes
1- Physiological needs (Food, and human well-being)
2- Safety needs (Security and protection from eventual dangers)
3- Love and belonging needs (Friends, families, followers)
4- Esteem needs (respect and good opinion of others)
5- Self-actualization needs (Develop potential, create good
actions and promote justice)
1- Maslow’s hierarchy (fig. 1)
The Maslow’s hierarchy is a psychological study that influences
attitudes to the media. Advertisers are rapidly interested in what attract
people as product and market research among the market place.
http://psychology.about.com
ADVERTISING: CREATING NEEDS
Fig.2. Basic appeals of advertising
(listed by Jib Fowles in Mass Advertising as Social Forecast)
http://venturaenglish02fall09.wordpress.com/advertizings-15-
basic-appeals-by-jib-fowles/Fowles
LEGITIMATE WOMEN BUSINESS OWNERS:
INCREASING FAIR OPPORTUNITIES
The example of the American Ana Harvey, Assistant, and
Administrator for Women’s business ownership had
motivated women business owners for a long time. Her
office offers to women loan programs, which facilitate to
women to start their business and to develop gradually a
successful business.
Ana Harvey told that training and counseling support are
performing women skills and establishing a favorable
modern business that contribute to effective social and
professional relationship.
She gave some advices to women, who start a business
for the first time.
Women should a priory begin from her home, and they
need to plan a framework plan for their business with a
potential of expansion and socio-economic growth.
The idea of women owned- business, was exploited
before by our ancestors, while women was a fructuous
partner in the family income.
While it’s contribute to improve the social protection of
the less favored communities, and offer basic rights ,
health insurance, right to education and finally a
prosperous life to modest families. Negash (2006) in
her article on economic empowerment of women
,published by the Markula Center for Applied Ethics in
2006, states that women today is more emancipated
than before , but they are still considered passing in
the second plan in the developing countries .
Effectively women are reported has no equal access
to education, health care, business sector and in
positions of decision making.
More and more women of the Southeast Asian
countries are still understated in government and face
no equal education and jobs.
It’s clear that women investment in the economic
empowerment is a real defy to countries of inequities.
Therefore, women with regular income are reported
have strong personality and seems more sure of
themselves. They contribute to the family decisions in
food, education and health.
And women workers are reported having fewer
children and organized in their life. Furthermore
women farmers have tendency to use safe and
sustainable environmental practices.
MORALITY OF ETHICS: ADOPTING A PHILANTROPIC CULTURE
ACROSS POPULATIONS
Muhammad Yunus, in his book “Building Social Business: The New
Kind of Capitalism that Serves Humanity’s Most Pressing Needs”-
Published in 2010, describes social business as a powerful
technology that grow securely in the welfare activities.
Consequently, it’s imperative to implement business women centers
in poor countries to help poor women to launch their own enterprise,
and encouraging other women in needs to take advantage and to
allow them to live in secure position.
I remember my mother, when I was 12 years, who created a knitting
small business; she enrolled five women from areas of high
concerns, who are benefited from monthly Income, and economic
stability. They provided for many years the one’s family and had
taken in charge their personal expenses.
Curiously, I just notify that women of this époque were more active,
and were satisfied to live with the basics of life.
This kind of entrepreneurship creates the autonomy of women
first, and contributes to accomplish their duties successfully.
Women with owned-business, have essentially a high sense
of responsibility and organized comportment, it’s come from
their determination to launch their project. Their rebellion is so
strong, that strict traditions can’t stop them.
Women picture has really changed since 25 years ago.
Women don’t accept anymore the design of fertility symbol or
submissiveness. And women have now in many countries
equal rights than men, in education, job access and income.
Girls are outnumbering than boys in secondary schools, and
women are reported attend universities in 60 countries
according to the report of the world bank of 2011 “Gender
Equality and Development”. The problem is still persisting in
the developing countries, where men are still dominating
women.
“The true value of a human being can be found in the degree to which
he has attained liberation from the self”. Albert Einstein (1879-1955).
POLICY FORMULATION IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE HIGHEST
MANAGEMENT LEVEL
The solidity of the policy leads to the organization orientation and to
distinct between policy and strategy. Furthermore policy formulation is
the responsibility of the highest management level. While policy deals
with the daily activities and link to considerations and activities. Policy is
in fact the formulation of the methodology through activities and is used
to achieve strategy. The frequent evolutions in the business environment
are the consequences of the marketing development and the policies
are formulated according to corporate strategy and it’s evaluation.
It’s focuses on basic policies that provide a deep understanding of the
corporate management and a know how on how to deal with the
environmental change and reshape alternatives that face the highly
competitive business environment.
TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISM EXPLORES THE
SOCIAL SIDE OF HUMAN ACTIVITY
Rosalind Williams (2002) , Merit Roe Smith, Leo Max (1994) In the book
"gender and technology 2003, define gender as a way that analyze the
social side of human activity, and technology as a physical world that
associate gender and technology in techno-logical change. Consequently
the social change interact with the material world, and technology
investigations according to gender views and technology studies and
history. Thinking about technology surpasses age instruments such as
sewing, cooking, driving cars etc. And cultural studies are today the
technologies that are explored through social techniques and institutions.
The book of "gender and technology" compares historical technology and
concerns of social facts in trade, industry, transportation and energy
systems.
Societies here have their ways to create their material world and to
perceive the social organization. Authors understand technology and
social aspects according to cultures and the awareness of people in
knowledge. Finally the technological changes must ensure human
technological activities and creating new ways in designing, producing
and recycling.
Furthermore, philosophers link the social development to
the cultural values. But technical development, media and
technology remain the social change in history such us:
Development of technology that go beyond cultural and
political influence
Technologies effects on societies that continue to develop a
technology in
Function of society desires.
In fact, technological determinism has been summarized by
Meritt Roe Smith(1994) as "the belief in technology as a
key governing force in society". Effectively the social
change here is determined by the technological progress in
communication, logistics and new trade strategies that
liberate markets and make all access to profits.
Technology determines
history
I agree strongly Williams in her believe of
technology while we can measure the solidity
or the weaknesses of countries through their
access to technology progress and
communication.
It's the everlasting race to discover and to
create more and more. While human
development progress in harmony with
technological progress must evolve together to
acclimatize societies to the social change and
make them access to improvement.
Technological determinists believe that
progress can stop, and that progress tends to
allow technology to change our life.
But if technology becomes stable, it’s
contributes to decrease subsequently human
development.
In the book "Anthropological inquiry and education
2010", anthropology is observed as a social life that
carry a vision of a better world. Margaret Mead
(1901-1078)
Humans are born to create environment adaptable
to their needs ;
Technological changes are inevitable while human
development requests to upgrade societies and
populations to access their basic needs and the
information ;
Technology makes people more aware about their
needs and their rights ;
Daniel Chandler (2000) in "technological or Media
determinism states that "once technology is
introduced in to a culture that what follows is the
inevitable development of that technology".
Technology in the history signifies developments in
human needs and policies
That protects societies, human values and ecology.
The environment change grows with the human
development and the restructured cultures.
Furthermore overpopulation is an indicator that
reveals how much
Populations live in social justice and equities?
Technology here is new workings in our life that
develops business and creates opportunities for all
in condition that companies develop strategic
policies with the intention of protect team work from
abused rights and business from breakdown.
Murdick G. R, Moor R. C, Babson C.
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TOWARD A SPECIALIZATION IN SOCIAL JUSTICE 2.pptx

  • 1. TOWARD A SPECIALIZATION IN SOCIAL JUSTICE Research on the development of management & leadership GHERISSI, HEGAZI,.Y. (2012) The development of leadership and management University Atlantic International United States
  • 2. MODERNIST CREDENCIELS TO REDEFINE LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT  https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/toward-a-specialization- in-social-justice/isbn/978-3-8473-0490-6
  • 3. KEY WORDS Psychology, economic analysis, business ethics, business policy & strategy, and cultures talents
  • 4. Abstract The sociological disciplines design the statistical analysis of social phenomena and the progress of the leadership in the global world. The purpose of this study on leadership development and organization describes the leadership concept and the decision making approach and the illegitimate laws that compromise ethics and institutions. Current development in environmental sociology framework contributes to make us aware about the importance to apply ethical rules in societies and preparing young leaders in the culture of humanism and civic engagement. The role of community leaders in the civil society is greatly observed as an original experience that helps communities to change their attitudes toward pessimist fate. It does emphasize that cultivation of nations is available through social services and humanitarian programs.
  • 5. In addition that advanced technologies and andragogy allowed developing countries to access social sciences and to gain skills in education and in the know-how in the organization of societies. Consequently the spread of education around the globe offered great opportunities to leaders of the world to access sciences and technology systems at distance learning. The online education reflected the potential of empowerment in education, the social development and the necessity to adopt new life skills. Leadership here illustrates a map road of social justice and cultural intelligence that nurture a socio-political perception of decency and fairness
  • 6. Rationale The broad view in the progress of the human development depends from community demand to concentrate on fairness in the distribution of economic assets, and the economic crisis touch directly women and gender equality in jobs, health, incomes and economical distribution. In fact sociological studies explored women’s and genders issues and gave to us a better understanding of economic distresses of today through the oscillations of the development progress of the economic country "GDP" that prove or not the evidence of the good distribution of assets among societies. The anthropology authority exposes nowadays environmental concerns especially in poor countries through the analysis of the development and poverty strategy which show a larger number of women and young people discriminated and living challenged social, economic and environmental concerns. In addition, the countries of environmental deprivations have poor access to energy, water, sanitation and technology.
  • 7. Consequently sustainable development requires equitable access for all to basic rights such us: health- education- jobs fairness, and the rights of every citizen to live a secure life. Most populations of countries with economic distresses have difficulties to improve health, education and to access goods and public services among their populations sectors. The Human development index (HDI) is a measure that defines human progress through the distribution fairness of health, education and incomes by country.
  • 8. Objectives Giving better understanding of historical human behavior and biological identities that contribute to the deviant forms of identity ; Develop and enhance skills of moral judgments; Enhance knowledge and maintain ethical corporate environments Explore the role and responsibilities of corporations and personal business; Develop ability to think strategically and globally; Applying policies in harmony to the real business and economic problems; Demonstrate that Cultural Intelligence is often learned and improved according to person maturity; Understand the meanings of motivation and perseverance within multiethnic contexts.
  • 9. individuals are cause and consequence of constructionism Humans are the creator of the social product, and their behavior across historical anthropology reveals to us that human identity is the creation of men and focuses on processes that encourage discrimination, nonstandard roles and worlds. In fact theoretical explanations lead to explore human’s behavior and their considerations to diverse identities and differences which were strengthened by the men of religion in order to gain the supremacy. Ancestral ethnicities defined roles and identity of men and women according to gender and biological aspects and represent today a great example of deviant forms of identity. Furthermore decision makers around the globe continue to apply discriminatory reforms on women basic rights, and laws in poor countries are hurting women and destitute them to their requirement rights.
  • 10. Ethics contributes to investor loyalty Several ethical decisions provide an overview of moral philosophies and in decisions making-processes that encourage people working in the fields of leadership in order to benefit from decisions based on ethical behaviors. Researchers suggest here to train employees and managers to reach ethical approaches that strengthen appropriate behaviors, like to encourage campaigns against gender and racial discriminations in the work place. Ferrell and Fraedrich (2012) in their book Business ethics: ethical decision making 2012- provide moral philosophies that contribute to help employees and managers
  • 11. Teaching and learning ethical issues Teaching tools and international policies provide information that recognize ethical dilemma and help to resolve ethical business challenges. Guidelines of conduct use a range of analysis disciplines that allow students to face business challenges and suggest to him many role-play simulations that provide sequential behaviors of business reality. Role-play case exposes a realistic and suitable business ethics situation. In addition that suggested role-play case increases conventional concepts to business learning
  • 12. Business vision and organization mission statement Business must be adapted to its competitive environment and must link directly to the decision-making. The mission statement joins the organization’s goals that comprehend: The cores standards to which the firm is committed, The core drive of the organization & the company visionary goals that follow mission; The cores values constitute the idea on which organization is created and the mission express the thought. Consequently the idea can be developed according to the environment change. Cores values will don’t change even if the organization activates in other sectors. While innovations and new change will be appreciated by the community or direct customers, and gains will be productive. Accordingly values maintain customer service with advanced technology, integrity and social responsibility.
  • 13. HOW DO INDIVIDUALS INCREASE THEIR ABILITY TO ADAPT SUCCESSFULLY ACROSS CULTURES? Developing the cultural strategic thinking requires the understanding and the respect of the traditions of others cultures. The authors Eaerly and Joo Seng cited in example the case of an airline that offered white carnations during operations in Honk Gong, without knowing that white carnations symbolize death and bad luck for many Asians. Sociological theories emphasizes that ethical behavior and social responsibility are the basis of the healthy global business. And it's essential for global decision makers to recognize the ethical issues in business and to apply ethical reforms that prevent inequities and allow all sector populations to participate in the national economic assets. And ethics in business continues to be the public concern in the poor countries and it’s important to understand that unethical conduct hurt the business world and promotes larger inequality among communities. In addition that leadership in these countries is showed as a political merit that enhances disparities and angry of communities.
  • 14. REASONS TO INCREASE LEVEL OF KNOWLEDGE IN POOR COUNTRIES Populations of poor countries register lack of knowledge and illiteracy concerning their basic rights, and the ways to request a living standard of life that respond to their needs. The technology in the last 3 years broke barriers among populations beyond borders, and enhanced communication between young people and make populations of poor countries understanding the reasons that place differences between them and the other young people. The example of Tunisian young people before revolution discovered that they are moving mountains to obtain jobs without success. While German young people are trusting their norms of employment and laws are clear and fair to all. Consequently the Tunisian young people are seeing that employment is destined to families of powers or their followers who exist to protect their interests. Finally German people are improving their life and reaching their basic needs, while Tunisian from the poorest communities are struggling to survive each day and are encountering risks to migrate in illegally ways in other countries looking for jobs.
  • 15. HOW CULTURAL AND PERSONAL ENVIRONMENT DEFINE HUMAN CONDITIONS? Humanities are the academic disciplines that study the human condition in a social, cultural, and personal context. And human condition is observed as a discipline that comprehends the humanities and the study of history, philosophy, literature and art which help us to understand how the human condition was arranged and how broader culture coalesces with social life of human?.
  • 16. BEHAVIORAL GENETICS Knowledge, skills and research are the branches of anthropology that reveal about learned societies and through intellectual journals over the history. Anthropology explores results of researches on cultures and societies work on grounds that appreciate cultural difference and its implications. Anthropology explores societies to gain knowledge about human beings and their activities and helps us understand differences in fundamental values, attitudes and behavior between people in different regions and organizations. And cultures organized create a unique ethnicity that influences the way of organizational thinking and human behaviors. The other social sciences as psychology, sociology and anthropology associated contributed to our understanding of organizational behavior in economics, political science and history. Economic models contribute to provide us better understanding of individual and organizational assessment.
  • 17. HISTORY OF THE FEMINIST ANTHROPOLOGY The feminist anthropology refers to the first feminist suffrage between 1850 and 1920s. And ethnographies researches were created by men and have defined individual’s roles in society according to biological sex. Consequently women unity was created to raise women’s voices and allow them to express about their experiences and their concerns. The famous Elsie Parsons (1875-1941), an American sociologist began her movement and as social activist, she used her ethnographic skills to promote the individual free thinking and to encourage people to talk about their experiences and fears, in order to promote social reform and to look at anthropology as a part of all liberal education. Her notion of feminism and of socio- cultural norms are today still in debate. In other part, the second union of feminists appeared between 1920 and 1980s. They argued that sex and gender are defined respectively to sex by biology and to gender by culture.
  • 18. IMPACT ON GENERAL CULTURES ON HUMAN FREEDOM: CRITICAL THINKING The philosophers Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855) and Jean Paul Sartre (1905-1980) were the figures of the most influential philosophical movement in the Mid-Twentieth century. Kierkegaard explored the immediate experience of the particular individual exposed to eternity, while Sartre focused on human individual experiences in the environmental social work. In fact their philosophies enhance theoretical totalizations that distort the true individual decisions. The historical relevance of existentialism was identified the two past centuries in an effort to explain our present existence. And existentialism is concentrated on modern stress that impact directly on general cultures. The important factors in the existentialism show a large independence of human freedom that allows them to create and to surpass themselves in creativity, responsibility and in their personal integrity. Critical thinking is relevant to principles of reasoning and link to logic and scientific disciplines that study arguments as results of reasoning and a large communication. Critical thinking evaluates judgments and analyzes the particular historic and social environment. And human ideas are organized in manner that improves cognitive skills through effective logic and intellectual
  • 19. SOCIOLOGICAL THEORIES Social activities are defined by achieving tasks that involve mental and physical efforts in objective to develop the production of goods and services that respond to the society's needs. Jobs or the creation of jobs is the legal concept that making people gaining income in exchange of their work. And industry and economic institutions are seen as the main part of social impact on societies and social living being in general. And the economic distribution is in fact the economic system that impact on societies and on their daily life. Jobs are closely monopolized through structured processes that emphasize social inequality. Furthermore sociology theory emerged social behaviors that help us to understand societies and its diversity. And understanding sociology’s past and today trends make us gaining knowledge in the development of social interactions
  • 20. CULTURAL ANTHROPOLOGY AND HUMAN DIVERSITY Cultural anthropology is defined through a range of human, social and cultural experiences that explore the human nature in its diversity. Anthropologists explored diversities within human societies and their different ways of living, speaking and understanding. These individual characteristics permitted to distinguish cultures, politics, economies and environments. Furthermore cultural anthropology introduced fundamental concepts that extend the investigation of societal attitudes and the various cultural patterns across generations through lectures, discussions, reading and arts.
  • 21. THE PHILOSOPHICAL PERSPECTIVE: UNITY AND PLURALITY The academic discipline is defined as a problem in the organization of knowledge and how knowledge corresponds to reality? Plato (424/423 BC – 348/347 BC) and the other philosophers state that:” the oneness of the world could be matched by the unity of knowledge about the world.” (Wikipedia) And philosophers often had preference for the creation of a concept that embraces reality and knowledge. The academic discipline here reproduces the problem that our knowledge of the world is divided in to diverse branches. The logical positivists tried to re-establish the unity of knowledge by calling to fundamental principles of logic.
  • 22. PRIMITIVE CULTURES AND ITS IMPACT ON CIVILIZATIONS Modern anthropology is the study of human nature as it’s seen in culture and civilization. And modern anthropology explores preciously “primitive” and “civilized” societies that make cultural anthropology as a distinct academic discipline in the late of the 19s century. Anthropologists have demonstrated that modern and primitive cultures may be differ extensively but their recent research have modified their vision, and they are now focusing on globalization and increased contact between societies and cultures, in order to have better understanding of cultural practices in modern-societies.
  • 23. Fried’s and Dole’s (1968) surveys of the literature in the abstract “The Tribe as a Unit of Subsistence: Nomadic Pastoralism in the Middle East”2009- reveal two dominant factors that define tribes, such us the tribe system function through cultural and linguistic entity, and The exploitation of ground and water in an area of subsistence requires negotiations and regulations that make tribal system dominating talks. Discussions are here achieved through tribal networks of personal relationships that have power with the central leadership of tribes. In fact the authors of surveys make us understanding here how much tribesmen are implicated in their cultural beliefs and that tribal structure is dependent of self-interests and regulations are articulated according to profits and gain to tribes. It’s the case in Middle East, and the Palestinian Territories are a great example of political and tribal culture. This hypothesis gives reason to the most power people and discriminates weak people who are generally poor people. Palestinian authority has difficulties to apply law, and decisions of Legal court are sometimes not applied while tribal communities continue to solve their problems through selected family committee. And the tribal committees usually try to link problems to solutions in disregard of their unfairness sometimes.
  • 24. Furthermore tribal culture reveals strong decisions that may lead to physical violence and social dislocation, like for example killing for saving honor. And what we are seeing today by Palestinian political groups the same practices of power and self-interests at point that all politics refuse the idea to the general elections in despite of the dangerous decline in the Palestinian status. And leadership here is seen as an autocratic style that has poor leadership
  • 25. THE DIVISION OF LABOR IN SOCIETY: THE EPISTEMIC CULTURE The French sociologist Emile Durkheim (1893) described how “social order” was maintained in societies with different beliefs of solidarity (mechanical and organic), and the transition for more “primitive” societies to advanced societies. Durkheim states that: “primitive society and mechanical solidarity with people sharing the same values, contribute to maintain the social order”. He argued that crime is an act that:” offends strong and defined states of the collective conscience”. “The Division of Labor in Society”(Emile Durkheim 1997). In a capitalist society, the division of labor means that people are allocated in society in function to merit and reward social inequality that reflect natural inequality. Durkheim argued that:” moral regulation was needed to regulate economy and to maintain order in society with people able” to compose their differences peaceably” (Rock Paul- sociological theories of crime 2002).
  • 26. ETHICAL BEHAVIOR THAT CONTRIBUTE TO THE HUMAN DEVELOPMENT Corporations demonstrate that industries have cultural effect on populations. And business request morals that provide fairness and integrities. Ethics is seen by our ancestries as applying values that make us and others people happy. Societal elements tend to control the initiative of businesses that affect our community space. Corporations want in fact to show their legitimacy in their decisions while their actions have great influence on society. But the truth demonstrates that industries have cultural effect on populations. Consequently trade management reveals inconsistent judgment that makes its integrity in distrust.
  • 27. MORAL PHILOSOPHY Ethics is seen as moral philosophy that separates the right and the wrong things. Ethics is applied to principles values. And if happiness aims to make one person in one society happy, it means that certain actions are not good for the society. And is it right to lie for a good cause? , and it’s true that many people around the globe live in lavishness while other people are dying due to famine in other regions of the world.
  • 28. ANTHROPOLOGY AND ANCIENT ETHICS The Darwinian theory of human nature states that the human instinct is mostly strongly and expresses the basic human instincts. This notion is in fact traduced in the worldwide culture that dominates human feelings. And passion, love and envy are rooted by humans and can lead to irresponsible acts. This applies to animals which live on instinct and are not able to think, like is stipulated by Descartes (1595-1650). And according to Mary Shelley (1797-1851) , humans and animals grow in the same manner and instinct define the existence. The instinct stimulate humans to face the monster and skill them to hate. Furthermore the Locke’s theory of empiricism described humans as learning through their experiences.
  • 29. DEONTOLOGICAL ETHICS The deontological ethics states that our acts traduce our maturity level in the design of right and wrong acts. Consequently the theory of divine law describes our right decisions toward certain actions as duty. And those humans are born to apply the divine command of law.
  • 30. THE ETHICAL APPROACH IN GOVERNANCE: MALE AND FEMALE MORALITY Moral principles are considered as depending of the divine law in the modern world. Thinkers see that male dominion is accentuated on classes of rules at the cost of understanding feminine ethics. According to Aristotle, moral virtue is the result of convention and affirms that humans are not born with moral values and that anything contrary to its nature is different from humans. He gave the example of stones that move naturally in descending and not in mounting. Finally humans acquire things naturally and later display them through activities. And human senses are showed as innate and exercise them will learn to us to moderate them exactly like in the case of arts practices. The ethical approach in governance is defined as corporate ethics. It’s ensuring a healthy governance of a structural system that allows corporations to attain their objectives and to gain resources. Ethical business in the code of conduct contributes to recognize the general corruption and briberies.
  • 31. THE ETHICAL APPROACH IN GOVERNANCE: MALE AND FEMALE MORALITY Moral principles are considered as depending of the divine law in the modern world. Thinkers see that male dominion is accentuated on classes of rules at the cost of understanding feminine ethics. According to Aristotle, moral virtue is the result of convention and affirms that humans are not born with moral values and that anything contrary to its nature is different from humans. He gave the example of stones that move naturally in descending and not in mounting.
  • 32. Finally humans acquire things naturally and later display them through activities. And human senses are showed as innate and exercise them will learn to us to moderate them exactly like in the case of arts practices. The ethical approach in governance is defined as corporate ethics. It’s ensuring a healthy governance of a structural system that allows corporations to attain their objectives and to gain resources. Ethical business in the code of conduct contributes to recognize the general corruption and briberies. The Austrian Abram Maslow, Psychologist conceived in 1954 a hierarchy of human needs that constitutes 1- Physiological needs (Food, and human well-being) 2- Safety needs (Security and protection from eventual dangers) 3- Love and belonging needs (Friends, families, followers) 4- Esteem needs (respect and good opinion of others) 5- Self-actualization needs (Develop potential, create good actions and promote justice)
  • 33. 1- Maslow’s hierarchy (fig. 1) The Maslow’s hierarchy is a psychological study that influences attitudes to the media. Advertisers are rapidly interested in what attract people as product and market research among the market place. http://psychology.about.com
  • 34. ADVERTISING: CREATING NEEDS Fig.2. Basic appeals of advertising (listed by Jib Fowles in Mass Advertising as Social Forecast) http://venturaenglish02fall09.wordpress.com/advertizings-15- basic-appeals-by-jib-fowles/Fowles
  • 35. LEGITIMATE WOMEN BUSINESS OWNERS: INCREASING FAIR OPPORTUNITIES The example of the American Ana Harvey, Assistant, and Administrator for Women’s business ownership had motivated women business owners for a long time. Her office offers to women loan programs, which facilitate to women to start their business and to develop gradually a successful business. Ana Harvey told that training and counseling support are performing women skills and establishing a favorable modern business that contribute to effective social and professional relationship. She gave some advices to women, who start a business for the first time. Women should a priory begin from her home, and they need to plan a framework plan for their business with a potential of expansion and socio-economic growth.
  • 36. The idea of women owned- business, was exploited before by our ancestors, while women was a fructuous partner in the family income. While it’s contribute to improve the social protection of the less favored communities, and offer basic rights , health insurance, right to education and finally a prosperous life to modest families. Negash (2006) in her article on economic empowerment of women ,published by the Markula Center for Applied Ethics in 2006, states that women today is more emancipated than before , but they are still considered passing in the second plan in the developing countries . Effectively women are reported has no equal access to education, health care, business sector and in positions of decision making.
  • 37. More and more women of the Southeast Asian countries are still understated in government and face no equal education and jobs. It’s clear that women investment in the economic empowerment is a real defy to countries of inequities. Therefore, women with regular income are reported have strong personality and seems more sure of themselves. They contribute to the family decisions in food, education and health. And women workers are reported having fewer children and organized in their life. Furthermore women farmers have tendency to use safe and sustainable environmental practices.
  • 38. MORALITY OF ETHICS: ADOPTING A PHILANTROPIC CULTURE ACROSS POPULATIONS Muhammad Yunus, in his book “Building Social Business: The New Kind of Capitalism that Serves Humanity’s Most Pressing Needs”- Published in 2010, describes social business as a powerful technology that grow securely in the welfare activities. Consequently, it’s imperative to implement business women centers in poor countries to help poor women to launch their own enterprise, and encouraging other women in needs to take advantage and to allow them to live in secure position. I remember my mother, when I was 12 years, who created a knitting small business; she enrolled five women from areas of high concerns, who are benefited from monthly Income, and economic stability. They provided for many years the one’s family and had taken in charge their personal expenses. Curiously, I just notify that women of this époque were more active, and were satisfied to live with the basics of life.
  • 39. This kind of entrepreneurship creates the autonomy of women first, and contributes to accomplish their duties successfully. Women with owned-business, have essentially a high sense of responsibility and organized comportment, it’s come from their determination to launch their project. Their rebellion is so strong, that strict traditions can’t stop them. Women picture has really changed since 25 years ago. Women don’t accept anymore the design of fertility symbol or submissiveness. And women have now in many countries equal rights than men, in education, job access and income. Girls are outnumbering than boys in secondary schools, and women are reported attend universities in 60 countries according to the report of the world bank of 2011 “Gender Equality and Development”. The problem is still persisting in the developing countries, where men are still dominating women.
  • 40. “The true value of a human being can be found in the degree to which he has attained liberation from the self”. Albert Einstein (1879-1955). POLICY FORMULATION IS THE RESPONSIBILITY OF THE HIGHEST MANAGEMENT LEVEL The solidity of the policy leads to the organization orientation and to distinct between policy and strategy. Furthermore policy formulation is the responsibility of the highest management level. While policy deals with the daily activities and link to considerations and activities. Policy is in fact the formulation of the methodology through activities and is used to achieve strategy. The frequent evolutions in the business environment are the consequences of the marketing development and the policies are formulated according to corporate strategy and it’s evaluation. It’s focuses on basic policies that provide a deep understanding of the corporate management and a know how on how to deal with the environmental change and reshape alternatives that face the highly competitive business environment.
  • 41. TECHNOLOGICAL DETERMINISM EXPLORES THE SOCIAL SIDE OF HUMAN ACTIVITY Rosalind Williams (2002) , Merit Roe Smith, Leo Max (1994) In the book "gender and technology 2003, define gender as a way that analyze the social side of human activity, and technology as a physical world that associate gender and technology in techno-logical change. Consequently the social change interact with the material world, and technology investigations according to gender views and technology studies and history. Thinking about technology surpasses age instruments such as sewing, cooking, driving cars etc. And cultural studies are today the technologies that are explored through social techniques and institutions. The book of "gender and technology" compares historical technology and concerns of social facts in trade, industry, transportation and energy systems. Societies here have their ways to create their material world and to perceive the social organization. Authors understand technology and social aspects according to cultures and the awareness of people in knowledge. Finally the technological changes must ensure human technological activities and creating new ways in designing, producing and recycling.
  • 42. Furthermore, philosophers link the social development to the cultural values. But technical development, media and technology remain the social change in history such us: Development of technology that go beyond cultural and political influence Technologies effects on societies that continue to develop a technology in Function of society desires. In fact, technological determinism has been summarized by Meritt Roe Smith(1994) as "the belief in technology as a key governing force in society". Effectively the social change here is determined by the technological progress in communication, logistics and new trade strategies that liberate markets and make all access to profits.
  • 43. Technology determines history I agree strongly Williams in her believe of technology while we can measure the solidity or the weaknesses of countries through their access to technology progress and communication. It's the everlasting race to discover and to create more and more. While human development progress in harmony with technological progress must evolve together to acclimatize societies to the social change and make them access to improvement. Technological determinists believe that progress can stop, and that progress tends to allow technology to change our life. But if technology becomes stable, it’s contributes to decrease subsequently human development.
  • 44. In the book "Anthropological inquiry and education 2010", anthropology is observed as a social life that carry a vision of a better world. Margaret Mead (1901-1078) Humans are born to create environment adaptable to their needs ; Technological changes are inevitable while human development requests to upgrade societies and populations to access their basic needs and the information ; Technology makes people more aware about their needs and their rights ; Daniel Chandler (2000) in "technological or Media determinism states that "once technology is introduced in to a culture that what follows is the inevitable development of that technology".
  • 45. Technology in the history signifies developments in human needs and policies That protects societies, human values and ecology. The environment change grows with the human development and the restructured cultures. Furthermore overpopulation is an indicator that reveals how much Populations live in social justice and equities? Technology here is new workings in our life that develops business and creates opportunities for all in condition that companies develop strategic policies with the intention of protect team work from abused rights and business from breakdown.
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