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JOSE JAVIER MONROY VESPERINAS



    Tourism for the
   physically disabled
         people




COMPARISON BETWEEN EU, NETHERLANDS AND SPAIN
C APÍTULO 1


INTRODUCTION
S ECCIÓN 1               In the European Union there are between 13 and 20
                    million handicapped. That represents between 5% and 9% of
OVERVIEW OF THE     the total population of the EU (Eurostat, 1995). One can

PROBLEM AND GOALS   understand the importance of this group for the whole
                    European society.

OF THE PROJECT
                          Handicapped is a wide concept with two synonyms:
                    Disabled and incapacitated. In fact Disabled is the union of
                    two words Dis- and -able. The meaning is a person who is not
                    able to do things on his/her own. He or she needs some sort of
                    help in normal life. We can apply this first definition to
                    working and leisure time. The handicapped are then a special
                    group with special needs. However, this interpretation can
                    guide us into a misunderstanding. "Special needs" are only
                    special when the environment makes them so (Baker, 1989).



                          On the other hand, Handicapped people are quite
                    different. Firstly, it is necessary to consider the different kind
                    of disabilities (without taking into account mix-disabilities):



                    • SENSORY: Deaf or blind.

                    • PHYSICAL: Wheel-chair.

                    • MENTAL: Autism, Down syndrome, mental retardation,
                     etc.

                                                                                    2
• TRANSNATIONAL: In our case the European level (EU)

For the purpose of this thesis we will consider only one kind of      • NATIONAL: Policies in Spain and the Netherlands.
disability: the Physically handicapped. The reason is that
different kind of disabilities build different kinds of social
groups. It is very difficult to compare them in a transnational            To get an idea the current expenditure on social
research. Nevertheless we will some times mention the other           protection per inhabitant is 4.348 ECUS per year: 5.387 in
groups to have a better idea about the real situation of the          The Netherlands and 2.555 in Spain (Eurostat 1992). That
disabled in Spain and the Netherlands.                                marks a big difference in possibilities and programmes.

                                                                           The tourist industry (& the market) has an important
                                                                      part to play in making holidays and tourism available to all.
     The goal of this research is a comparison between the
                                                                      However we should recognise that the private sector with its
tourism opportunities for physically handicapped in Spain
                                                                      commercial basis is not the largest provider of holidays
and the Netherlands: understand the relationships between
                                                                      programmes. Traditionally the National State represented by
tourism and handicapped. In our post-Fordist society, despite
                                                                      the ministry of Welfare and health, was responsible for policy
the crisis of the Welfare state, Holidays are still a social right.
                                                                      on care and other facilities for disabled people. Two parties
Holidays for handicapped is a social demand. The UN took
                                                                      are involved in the realisation of this policy: Government (at
this point into consideration (Resolution 48/96 based in the
                                                                      central, provincial and municipal level) and community
report A/48/627) which affirms that tourist organisations,
                                                                      organisations with a volunteer base. The three aspects draw
hotels and travel agencies should offer special services for
                                                                      up the framework of our research. Every study about tourism
handicapped (article 11,2). That is our starting point: Tourism
                                                                      opportunities for the handicapped should take into account
as a social right and tourism for handicapped as social
                                                                      three levels of intervention:
demand.

In most of the European countries the state or the
government is responsible for the disabled leisure (and               • STATE PROVISION
tourism) policies. Then we can distinguish two further aspects
of intervention from a political and governmental perspective:        • VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS

                                                                      • THE TOURIST MARKET

                                                                                                                                  3
The comparation of holiday's provision for handicapped
between The Netherlands and Spain should consider this first
statement. How the state arranges holidays programmes with
subventions to volunteer organizations. However the
comparation is difficult because both countries are quiete
different. The expenditure on social protection as percentage
of gross domestic products is 27,1 in the EU. in Spain 33,0
and in Nederlands 31,0 (Eurostat, 1992). The Position of the
EU give some indications about the subject.. In this United
Union how is "armonize" the holidays programmes or
packages for the phisically disabled? We will see this detail
furthermore. From this perspective we will analyze the
situation in both countries and finally the touristic offer and
supply. The provision offerted for the voluntary organisation
and tourism companies. The conclusions and
recommendations will finish this thesis.




                                                                  4
C APÍTULO 2


THEORETICAL
BACKGROUND
S ECCIÓN 1          Leisure has a wide field of meanings, related to time off.
                    What is in fact leisure? The answer is a philosophical
DEFINITION OF THE   question: Time and space. Time to take some days off. Place to

TERMS               go away. From this perspective leisure is tourism, following
                    the UN directives (Res. 48/49, 1993). Tourism has too a wide
                    field of meanings: Industries for pleasure travel, everything
                    that arises form travelling away from residence, journeys for
                    temporary stay for leisure and recreations purposes, etc. I
                    would like to reduce this and understand tourism only from a
 KEY POINTS         perspective: as travels or excursions out of home or living
                    place. The UN conference (Roma 1963) ”Tourism and
 1. Leisure
                    international travels” define tourist as the person who go
 2. Disabled        abroad for more as 24 hours for other purposes as work. That
                    is also a wide definition but enough for the purposes of this
                    research. Travel and leisure play an increasingly important
                    part in the life of the late twentieth century. Inability to
                    participate on holidays is an isolating factor and can also
                    undermine heath. As a social right, leisure and tourism are
                    also a social demand. There is an equilibrium between the
                    demand and the offer in the case of the physically disabled?



                    Disabled is synonym of incapacitate. He or she need some
                    sort of help in the Normal life, that mean dependency. Quite a
                    big number of social workers do not like the Word of disable
                    and prefer to call them handicapped. because what they have
                    is really a disability. "Handicap" is used in the context of this
                    thesis to assist in describing a basic congenital or acquired
                    mental or physical defect. Handicapped are then persons with
                                                                                   6
a disability (physical, sensory or mental) in his/her life. That
is in fact the same definition as this one of the Declaration of
the right of handicapped (Resolution 3447 (XXX) 9-12-1975).
However we can also accept the definition of the European
Commission in the foreword of the HELIOS programme. The
term "disabled people" means: "People with serious
impairments, disabilities or handicaps resulting from
physical, including sensory, or mental or psychological
impairments which restrict or make impossible the
performance of an activity or function consider normal for a
human being".




                                                                   7
S ECCIÓN 2                                     How has the issue been addressed in the past? We can
                                         begin the research in the last century. The Beginning of the
STATEMENT                                XX century the social policy and provision for the
                                         handicapped was largely paternalistic. The voluntary and
                                         religious sector was the only one involved. Religious groups
                                         (Catholic and Protestant in the Netherlands and only catholic
                                         in Spain) We will not consider the fact of the religion wars
                                         between Spain and Flanders. as a "previous tourism flows"
                                         that generate mutilate. This effect is clear in the two Word
 KEY POINTS                              Wars. Middle class organisations with religious connotations
                                         or origins were in charge of all kinds of provisions for
 1. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES
                                         handicapped (Hugo van der Poel, 1991). After World War I a
 2.   INTEGRATION                        new kind of physically handicapped people appear: veterans
                                         wounded and permanently disabled by war. Most of the
 3. INDEPENDENT LIVING                   provisions between the wars was oriented towards the
 4. MARKETING AND INFORMATION            re-insertion of this group. In England and Holland this case is
                                         very clear after World War II and, with special connotations,
 5. ATTITUDES AND STAFF TRAINING         in Spain after the civil war.
 6. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF TOURIST
    INSTALLATIONS AND SIGHTS; BUILDING
    REGULATIONS AND DESIGN                     The voluntary sector acquired a national dimension
                                         during the growth and maturing of the Welfare State
 7. TRANSPORT                            (1944-1976)with the help of the national State The Welfare
                                         State offer a paternalistic provision of services relating to
                                         holidays for handicapped. Here the development of The
                                         Netherlands and Spain are different because of their different
                                         political histories. The voluntary sector is independent when
                                         providing holidays for disabled people, but it needs of the
                                         State assistance to survive.
                                                                                                      8
policy changes in other European Union countries as we
                                                                  observe in the British and Dutch cases (Van der Poel, 1995).
     The Netherlands current policies are affected by the two
                                                                  Mild tatcher policies. There was a general turn to the right
World Wars and the post war period of reconstruction.
                                                                  and the Neo-liberal system. The social services are affected by
Consumption growth, with subsidy by social security was not
                                                                  cost cuttings. It is very interesting to compare this point with
known in the long Spanish post war period. The provision of
                                                                  the actual political situation in Spain. Change of government
social services was channelled thorough the “pillars” of the
                                                                  to the (probable) the right (PP). It is possible that Spain
Dutch society: Catholic, Protestant and non confessional (lay)
                                                                  follows this trend after a change of government. However the
volunteer associations. In Spain the pillar was the Church and
                                                                  state still as a source of financing for “leisure” and
the National Movement of Franco. The role of the Church in
                                                                  “recreation” for disabled. Politic, more as sociology, is the
the provision of Welfare for handicapped is one of the most
                                                                  main trend.
important but this is not widely recognised. In the
Netherlands in the mid 1960's the emblematic Ministry of
culture, recreation and Social Work was established. Other
                                                                       To compare both previous statements in The
North European countries also created similar ministries. The
                                                                  Netherlands and Spain one should find the criteria of the
impact of the economic crisis of the 1970's and 1980's on the
                                                                  actual situation. The first factor is the political one in a
Dutch society was considerable, provoking an unemployment
                                                                  transnational level.      Tourism opportunities for the
rate which peaked at approximately 20%. The same rate as
                                                                  handicapped people is not actually a clear issue in the policies
currently in Spain. The effect of the crisis also spread to the
                                                                  of the European countries. Other countries in the EU England
provision of “leisure” and tourism for disabled people.
                                                                  in the person of the Mary Baker for the Working Party has a
                                                                  clear programme about tourism for all. Most of the efforts of
                                                                  the European countries are oriented to accessibility. This
     The political transition occurred at he same time in
                                                                  point is very important. Our post modernist society has
Spain. The JOC (Juventudes obreras cristianas - Christian
                                                                  changed values. Values are the meanings of the society. The
youth workers) was like a new vision inside the Church, which
                                                                  new emergent values of our time demand new opportunities,
was traditionally related to the Regime. The transition was
                                                                  and handicapped people need integration into these
followed by the increasing intervention of the private market
                                                                  opportunities to achieve an independent living. We can
in the provision of leisure and tourism for handicapped
                                                                  summarise these values in the HELIOS programme of the
people. There are important similarities in the direction of
                                                                  Commission of the European Communities (Directorate
                                                                                                                                9
General "Employment, Industrial Relations, Social Affairs".                * INDEPENDENT LIVING: Whatever their disability, all
Division "Integration of disabled people, 1994):                     disabled people must be able to lead their lives, as far as
                                                                     possible, independently. How does this affect tourism? Travel
                                                                     can be a physical and also a psychological barrier. A
      * EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES: whatever their disability,              handicapped tourist normally needs one or two assistants.
all disabled people should have the same opportunities in life       However, the ideal is to overcome architectural barriers
as other citizens. Opportunities also in the tourism field.          without help. And psychologically, not all handicapped have
Tourism is a social right since 1936 (The Front populaire in         the confidence to travel abroad. The case of the physically
France). Most Europeans today think the same. The right to a         disabled is special. Some of them acquire the disability after
month's holidays is one of the most important issues of the          an accident and they remember their former independent
Welfare state. Disabled people should have the same                  living. That is another category of physically disabled to
opportunities to take holidays at least once per year. The           consider.
Human rights declaration (1948) affirm the same right. and
also the United Nations (Standard Rules on the Equalisation
of Opportunities for Person with Disabilities, 1992): In all               The common state regulation include the values or
societies of the world there are still obstacles preventing          orientations of the EU. But this directives are set up in
person with disabilities from exercising their rights (...). It is   different ways in Spain and Nederlands (Dutch name for
responsibility of states to take appropriate action to remove        Holland). We should then analyse this policies in the aspect
such obstacles.                                                      related to tourism for disable. There is a special department
                                                                     for this services in both Welfare Ministries?


     * INTEGRATION: A disability in itself should not be an
obstacle to participating in social and cultural life and to               Organising a tourist programme for handicapped people
access to transport and public services. The European Union          is a hard business. On one hand the political level and on the
recognise this but only from an accessibility perspective.           other the basis work. If we want to compare this kind of
Tourism include the increasing role of the transport and             provision in two countries we need some more according
public services.                                                     criteria. We can accept the document "Accessible tourism for
                                                                     handicapped people in the 90's" of the WTO (Buenos Aires,
                                                                     1991). The definition of handicapped is quite interesting,
                                                                                                                                 10
because it includes "elderly" and "other people who need          followed closely by kindness and friendliness. All tourist
special care" .Some countries accept the inclusion of elderly     businesses should develop customer care programmes as part
and disabled in the provision of “social tourism” despite both    of their in-service training and these should automatically
groups being different. This perspective is more oriented to      cover the full range of potential customers. The WTO doesn't
the private market and is related to the sustainability of        consider special kind of travel agencies run out only by
holidays for disabled without State intervention. The WTO         handicapped such “Accessible travel S.A.” in Madrid.
considers the right to holidays for all in society. Handicapped
people form a social group with growing importance. The
most important guide lines and recommendations to assure               C: GE NE RAL RE QU IRE M E NTS OF TOU RIST
the success of this special kind of provision are:                INSTALLATIONS AND SIGHTS; BUILDING REGULATIONS
                                                                  AND DESIGN: Most of the European countries have an
                                                                  Approved Document (AD) giving design guidance. Those
     A: MARKETING AND INFORMATION: A frequent                     guide lines stipulate that the entrance door to each bedroom
complaint from customers was that accommodation                   should be accessible for wheelchairs (which generally require
purporting was not suitable for their particular needs. Social    a clear minimum opening width of 75 cm) and that a
tourism (tourism for special groups) should always begin with     minimum of one bedroom in each hotel, etc. should be
publicity. Accommodation guides are especially important.         suitable, in terms of dimension and layout, for people who use
The second point is oriented to the information in the holiday    wheelchairs. Newly-built accommodation is required to be
place. A not uncommon remark from accommodation                   accessible to people in wheelchairs. The WTO recognises the
providers was that they had converted rooms suitable for use      importance of including the needs of all in the building
by disabled people “ but no-one has come to use them”. This       regulations and offers in the document the following
was often because they had not been marked in any way. In         indications:
both countries one can detect a lack in this problem.
                                                                  Adequate parking with a disabled symbol.

                                                                  Basic accessibility (Ramps, etc.)
     B: ATTITUDES AND STAFF TRAINING: The
                                                                  Each hotel should have one or more rooms adapted to
recommendations of the WTO are that the staff in the travel
                                                                  disabled (toilet, wide corridors, etc.).
agencies, hotels, etc. can deal with and provide a good service
for the disabled . Information is the main point in this case,
                                                                                                                              11
Displaying information of public notices in hotels, travel        England's tourism. The partner in the voluntary sector (the
agencies and transport enterprises.                               same model as in The Netherlands) is the Holiday care
                                                                  Service. This entity is the UK's central source of holiday
Elevators adapted for disabled and special toilets.
                                                                  information for people. The report was written by Mary
An adequate number of restaurants should be adapted to the        Becker as represent of the Working Party. That show us the
use of handicapped.                                               importance of the political side of the phenomena. The first
                                                                  recommendation is that the tourist industry should realise
                                                                  that the "special needs" of the "social tourism" are only
                                                                  "special" if the environment makes them so. The factors,
     D: TRANSPORT: The WTO take into consideration only
                                                                  which taken in isolation or together, make holidays-taking
buses. Some buses should be adapted to wheel-chair users. In
                                                                  difficult or impossible for the physically handicapped are the
other countries as the United States the main question in the
                                                                  follow:
actual debate is aerial accessibility. One should understand
the different role played for the aerial transport in this huge
country. The market is big enough and the competence arise.
In the State, groups of pressure change the legislation and       Problems of mobility experience: (wheel-chair)
accessibility is low right.
                                                                  Caring for a dependent relation (between the handicapped
                                                                  and the volunteer or member of the family. And the need of
                                                                  volunteers in all kind of excursion and tourist opportunities,
     We can find a syntheses with other political directives      exchanges, etc.).
oriented to the private market. It is important to contrast the
former guide lines (WTO) with other recommendations. One          Low income (The first problem facing the private market. The
of the questions of this research is to weigh the importance of   state is the only one able to fund tourist programmes)
the new right theories and the Neo liberalism in the provision
of holidays for disabled? We can look first at the English
regulation to understand the common points. The English                The private market is a new sector for this provision. The
tourist board published in 1989 the book "Tourism for All".       old dream of the New Right: Give responsibilities to private
The English Tourist Board is a statutory body created by the      organisations. The case of disabled organisations is special
Development of Tourism Act 1969, to develop the market            because they are “dependant" on the state despite the idea of

                                                                                                                               12
an "independent" existence. That is the problem. Is it possible
for private organisations (e.g. a travel agency) to provide these
kinds of services? The sector or market is not very commercial
and profitable. Most of the handicapped population in Spain
and the Netherlands depend of the family or State care. This
role of the “nanny state” (in Thatcher's words) would be
achieved through subsidies. A small part of the budget for
“social services” is oriented to holidays programmes. One
should also consider the personal role of holidays. The
provision in Spain (INSERSO) and in the Netherlands
(Ministry of Welfare) is basis of this thesis and the way to
fulfils this need at a reasonable price. The basic elements to
create a Market are set up and the next question is if the
private market could be interested in this business.




                                                                    13
C APÍTULO 3


METHODOLOGY
S ECCIÓN 1                     The objective of this research is the comparison of the
                         holidays provision for the physically disable people in The
METHODOLOGY              Netherlands and Spain. A quantitative research is difficult to
                         carry out. For this thesis I prefer to choose a qualitative
                         research. That means, to select different case studies of
                         holiday programmes for disabled people at both countries and
                         at European Union level. This selection should be according to
                         specific criteria. The general schema was mention in the first
                         part of this thesis. Every study about tourism opportunities
 KEY POINTS              for handicapped people should take into account three levels
                         of intervention:
 1. The European Union
                         • State provision.
 2.   The Netherlands
                         • Volunteer organisations.
 3. Spain
                         • The tourist market.

                              The case studies used was were restricted to Brussels
                         (Mobility International), Utrecht (SRG), Tilburg (Red Cross),
                         Bilbao (Coordinadora de Disminuidos Físicos de Bizkaia) and
                         Madrid (Accessible travel), cities visited during the PELS
                         programme. However one can get a good idea about the
                         holidays possibilities with these examples.



                         The cases studies presented in this thesis will follow this
                         scheme:




                                                                                     15
HELIOS I & II PROGRAMMS                 The basic information to describe the holidays
THE EUROPEAN UNION                                     programmes was provided by the organisations. themselves.
POLICY                                                 The direct source was written information and personal
                          Case Study: Mobility
                                                       interviews. To compare the provision of holidays and the
                             International             different programmes we need a model. The success of a
                                                       holiday programme depend of all the recommendation that I
                                                       mentioned before in the chapter "statement". In Nederlands
                                                       and Spain there are several tourist programmes for the
                     State: The Ministry of
THE NETHERLANDS                                        physically disabled. arranged traditionally for Voluntary or, in
                     Welfare
                                                       some cases, by private organisation or travel agencies. These
                     (case study: THE RED              organisations offer a product: A Voyage. That is what we will
                     CROSS)                            compare: a holiday package specially arranged for the
                     (case study: SRG Stichting        physically disabled. The success depend of the following
                     Recreatie Gehandicapten,          aspects:
                     Haarlem)


       SPAIN
                      STATE: MINISTERIO DE             1.- Type of product:
                       ASUNTOS SOCIALES

                      (INSERSO as state provision)
                                                       1.a.- Domestic or foreign holidays.
                        (case study: COCEMFE)
                                                       1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 1 or 2 weeks normally with
                      (case study: FEDERACION
                                                       some exceptions in case of special packages.
                        COORDINADORA DE
                      DISMINUIDOS FISICOS DE           1.c.- Funding: State or private funding. This aspect has an
                               VIZCAYA)
                                                       important impact on the ability for physically disabled people
                      (Case study: Accessible Travel   to take holidays. Traditionally the founding was mainly from
                               SA., Madrid)
                                                       the State. However, with the new political tendencies, funding
                                                       is becoming more privatised.

                                                                                                                     16
3.- Customers:
2.- Organisation:
                                                                    For this study just the physically disabled. However some
                                                                    organisations do not offer package just for the physically
2.a.- Real cost: Very important data, not always available for
                                                                    disabled and have programmes for disabled people in general
this study because some organisations consider this
                                                                    (SRG, Utrecht or Mobility International, Brussels)
information as secret.

2.b.- Cost to users: Aspect related logically to the funding
(state or private)                                                         That is the model to follow in all the case studies. But
                                                                    still another factor to consider: the psychological satisfaction
2.c.- Staff: Full-time and/or seasonal workers, voluntary
                                                                    of the customers. Aspect quite difficult to measure in a
worker, etc.
                                                                    qualitative research. Our target group of tourist is the
2.d.- Activities: Excursion, parties and other social events.       physically disabled people. Some of whom have previous
That is a key point for the success of the holidays from a          experiences of "normal holidays" (I refer to people who
psychological point of view.                                        became disabled after an accident) and other not. How
                                                                    valuable are holidays from a social and personal perspective
2.e.- Facilities: transport, hotel, etc. Accessibility is the key   for the European physically disabled? That is maybe the real
word of this point. The infrastructure for "normal" holidays        importance of this paper from a political point of view within
should be adapted to "special" holidays. That is what we call       the Social Europe.
accessibility. In fact the new regulations for hotel building
consider the accessibility for the physically disabled people.
Old hotels are normally not accessible at all and conversion is
very expensive and not affordable. Considering the transport,
most of the organisations recognise the problem to find
accessible buses to transport the group to hotels or on
excursions.




                                                                                                                                  17
C APÍTULO 4


RESEARCH'S
RESULTS




TOURISM PROVISION FOR THE
PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED IN THE
EUROPEAN UNION, SPAIN AND THE
NETHERLANDS.
S ECCIÓN 1                                POLICY ON DISABLED PEOPLE IN
THE EUROPEAN UNION                        THE EU
POLICY ON DISABLED                              The European Union understands the importance of
AND TOURISM FOR                           tourism for the European economy. Tourism industry is a big
                                          market but approximately 40% of the Europeans do not take
HANDICAPPED PEOPLE:                       holidays. The reasons for this fact are economical problems
                                          but also disabilities or health problems. Handicapped, elderly,
  KEY POINTS                              unemployed, etc. build a special group called social tourism.
                                          In building a united Europe, social cohesion must be
  1. Case study: Mobility International   encouraged. The Community is trying to ensure-harmonious
                                          development to avoid unfair gaps between regions or social
                                          groups. The treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty)
                                          includes this objective of social cohesion in the official text,
                                          whilst fully respecting the autonomy of the national
                                          authorities (the principle of subsidarity). That is the general
                                          political framework.



                                               In the decision of the council (92/421/CEE) the
                                          European Union offer a community action programme to
                                          assist disabled people. Some of this actions are directly related
                                          to tourism opportunities. The HELIOS programme in favour
                                          of integration and independent living of disabled people fall
                                          within the context of the construction of a Social Europe.
                                          Helios mean "Handicapped people in the European
                                          Community living independently in an open society." The

                                                                                                         19
HELIOS II programme covers the period from 1 January 1993           Europe, A) The national procedures and regulations which
to 31 December 1996. The budget is 37 millions of ecus. One         disabled people should follow to obtain theses technical
objective of the HELIOS programme is to encourage the               aids. This information is compiled in a data bank in nine
participation of disabled people in Community programmes            languages and supplied on CD-ROM, which is accessible in
in areas such as vocational training, studying abroad,              the centres designated by the 12 Member States.
language studies, etc. Some of this areas could be consider as      HANDYNET also includes a multilingual electronic journal
tourism. HELIOS II works around annual priority themes, so          and a electronic mail system.
all projects, seminars, meetings, training courses, exchanges
of experiences must be short term events involving at least 3
European Member States and be around the theme of:                      Three are the main ideas or values of the HELIOS
Accessibility, Transport, Sport, Leisure & Culture,                programme: Equal opportunities, integration and
Associations & Integration, Removal of Social & Psychological      independent living. On the basis of these principles, the
Barriers to Independence. HELIOS is the only community             HELIOS programme covers five top-priority areas:
programme exclusively dedicated to disabled people, but it
operates in synergy with other Community initiatives, e.g.:

                                                                   • Functional rehabilitation.

• HORIZON: an initiative which aims at improving access to         • Educational integration.
  employment for disabled people and for other disadvantage
                                                                   • Vocational training and rehabilitation.
  social groups such as the long-term unemployed.
                                                                   • Economic integration
• TIDE: A Research and Development initiative concerned
  with the use of technology in the rehabilitation of disabled     • Social integration.
  and elderly people.

• HANDYNET: A specialised, computerised information
  system which makes available tens of thousands of items of            Tourism opportunities for handicapped is not actually a
  information to disabled people and rehabilitation                clear issue in the policies of the EU. Most of the efforts are
  professionals. This information relates to: A) Technical aids,   oriented to accessibility in our information society. This point
  B) The manufacturers and distributors of theses products in      is very important. handicapped people need integration into
                                                                                                                                20
these opportunities to achieve an independent living. We can      equal opportunities. The theory of transfer was also a concern
summarise these values in the HELIOS programme of the             in the previous Community programmes for the integration of
Commission of the European Communities (Directorate               disabled people (HELIOS I, 1988-1991). The transfer to
General "Employment, Industrial Relations, Social Affairs".       colleagues in other European countries, normally in the
Division "Integration of disabled people, 1994):                  typical form of a tourist international seminar, is a form of
                                                                  tourism in another level. In some cases, HELIOS give
• EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES: whatever their disability, all             participants their first taste of travelling abroad. Practically
  disabled people should have the same opportunities in life
                                                                  everyone expressed enthusiasm for inter cultural exchange
  as other citizens. Opportunities also in the tourism field.
                                                                  and their experience of other countries and customs. It is
  Disabled people should have the same opportunities to take
                                                                  undoubtedly true that the Helios programme has contributed
  holidays at least once per year. The Human rights
                                                                  to improving communication and co-ordination between
  declaration (1948) affirm the same right.
                                                                  disability organisations and institutions in Europe. Disabled
• INTEGRATION: A disability in itself should not be an            workers of workers with disabilities represented for a national
  obstacle to participating in social and cultural life and to    or international organisation can share the benefits of this
  access to transport and public services. The European Union     exchanges. The organisation of this seminars is arranged for
  recognise this but only from an accessibility perspective.      Mobility International, taking the form of exchange tourist
  Tourism        involve different services: transport,           programmes: 1996 is the last year of the HELIOS II. The
  accommodation, activities and excursions, etc.                  criteria of selection remain the same as last year: you need to
                                                                  involve at least three European Union Member States, the
• INDEPENDENT LIVING: Whatever their disability, all              maximum amount which can be applied for 25.000 ecus per
  disabled people must be able to lead their lives, as far as     activity (funding at 50% of cost of the whole project). There
  possible, independently. How does this affect tourism? A        are certain priority themes which have to be respected in
  handicapped tourist normally needs one or two assistants.       1996, and these are: Sport, leisure and cultural Activities,
  The ideal is to overcome architectural barriers without help.   Elimination of Socio-Psychological barriers to independence,
  That is far away of the reality.                                etc. The Commission is particularly looking for proposals
                                                                  which show how to each activity relates to the United Nations
                                                                  Standard Rules, and would like to encourage applications
   Transfer is a valuable and effective means to achieve the      relating to the needs of disabled women.
HELIOS programme's aims of promoting integration and
                                                                                                                                21
physically disabled, is specially consider as a way of cultural
                                                                   exchange.
       Since 1995 there has been a lot of Commission activity in
the way of new programmes, proposals and papers which are
of interest to individuals and organisations in the disability
                                                                        Leonardo is the new European Union programme for
field. The Commission launched its Medium Term Action
                                                                   "vocational training" and runs from January 1995 to
Programme 1995-1997 following consultations after the Green
                                                                   December 1999, with a budget of 620 million ECU for five
and White Paper on the future of the European Social Policy.
                                                                   years. Leonardo now incorporates elements of the old PETRA,
Although not all social networks are happy with the
                                                                   FORCE, COMETT & EUROTECNET, as well as certain aspects
possibilities for action and travel (relating this point to our
                                                                   of LINGUA. So this, in a way, makes the programme quite
research) offered in the Medium Term Social Action
                                                                   complex but also quite broad-ranging in its possibilities and
Programme. The disability NGO's were actually very
                                                                   the so-called "strands" of the programme, such as measures to
encouraged by the intentions expressed in the programme
                                                                   support the training policies of the Member States; support
concerning future actions in the disability field.. However the
                                                                   for the improvement of vocational training measures and
new recommendation are related to the travel conditions of
                                                                   support for the development of language skills. Educational
workers with motor difficulties. Employment and not holidays
                                                                   tourism is a possibility of this Leonardo grants.
still the main trend.

                                                                   Case study: Mobility International
     Other programme: Youth for Europe III was adopted
early this year and offers plenty of scope for exchanges                It is interesting for our research the role played for The
between young people, particularly those with a                    EU in an international level. Most of the big European
"Disadvantage" as well as Youth workers actions, exchanges         voluntary organisation in a national level apply for subsidies
between European and non-European countries. One                   of the EU funds in form of European federation of local
objective encourage tourism indirectly: "enabling young            organisation. The European Disabled Forum and Mobility
people to view the European Community as an integral part of       International are designed as responsible of the actions
their historical, political, cultural and social                   related to tourism. (Dec. 92/421 CEE) The Funding is related
environment."(DG XXII, 1995). Tourism as exchange of               to another European programme: Horizon. Mobility
                                                                   International were designated the co-ordinating European

                                                                                                                               22
NGO for the Independent Living sector of HELIOS II, which           because the participants travel to another country; meet new
has as its remit the areas: independent living, transport,          people and enjoy the stay. One example could be the seminar
tourism, creativity, accessibility and sport. Mobility              of Intercultura Siciliana (27th May - 4th June 1994): Young
International were also chosen as the researchers for the two       people from France, England, Northern Ireland, Finland and
DGXXIII European guides: Making Europe Accessible to                Italy came together to sample the delights of Sicily in a project
Disabled Travellers and Accessible Europe: A Guide for              hosted by Mobility International’s member AIAS Caltagirone
Disabled Travellers, and participate in the DGXXIII - DGV           and subsidised by the European Youth Foundation (Council of
meetings on independent living and tourism.                         Europe). In only one week the group had a crash course in
                                                                    basic Italian, discussed different approaches to independent
                                                                    living in their country and learnt to cook typical Sicilian
      Mobility International is one of the biggest organisations    dishes. This stay is not really Tourism because the aim was to
in Europe for the physically disabled with branches in 15           participate in the seminar, but all the other activities are
different countries. Officially established as an international     typical of a tourist stay.
non-governmental organisation in 1982, since then they
organised over 260 different international projects, seminars,
exchanges, conferences and languages courses. The aim of                  Mobility International has produced a guide entitled :
this organisation is to promote the integration and                 We're not ready yet! for voluntary organisations and disabled
independence of people with all kind of disabilities through        people. Mobility International publish also a magazine (News)
the medium of international exchange. They provide people           twice a year marketing those holidays opportunities and
with disabilities the opportunity to meet, understand and           offering enough information about other tourism provision in
makes friends with others from different countries. Mobility        different countries. We refer to News Autumn 94 & Summer
International has representation all the European Union             95. Mobility International is the ideal vehicle to inform
countries except Spain and Portugal. This organisation is           handicapped people about different possibilities for travel
specially interesting for our research because it take full         abroad safe and find a accessible hotel.
advantage of all the operational programmes of the European
Union for disabled: Horizon, Helios, etc. Mobility
International organise different seminars around the year               We can take an example of a tourism programme of
about topics related to Disabled integration and leisure for all.   Mobility International to apply the model mentioned before.
That could be considered a special kind of “cultural tourism”       Most of the projects are aimed at young people (16-30 yr.)
                                                                                                                                  23
with any kind of disabilities. Other projects are more open to   1.a.- Foreign holidays. Linda Gartshore and her team organise
people over 30 years as well. Mobility International assist in   a English course (Holiday's course) in Lord Mayor Treolar
the setting up of networks based on common interest. They        College in Alton, south of England.
offer the rare opportunity to meet other people with and
                                                                 1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 17 - 31 July 1995, 11 days.
without special needs (Integration objective of Helios). New
networks have started this way. Mobility International has       1.c.- Funding: Private funding. The students pay the total
status with United Nations, Council of Europe and the            cours fees.Of course it is open the possibility to get a grant
Commission of European Union. The activities are funded          from the state or other private institution.
mainly by the EU's Measures for Disabled Persons Social
Action Programme: Helios. This organisation has a excellent
contacts to arrange tourism programmes. We can take one
                                                                 2.- Organisation:
example to use as case study to analyse: That could be the
Alton Linguability Language Course.

                                                                 2.a.- Real cost: Very important data but not available for this
                                                                 study.

                                                                 2.b.- Cost to users: 500 £
HOLIDAYS PROVISION PROGRAMME
                                                                 2.c.- Staff: Full-time seasonal workers fully trained.
ALTON LINGUABILITY COURSE                                        2.d.- Activities:The English classes are the main activity.
                                                                 There will also be a programme of visits to London and and
                                                                 Strandford upon Avon, and this is included in the cost of the
1.- Type of product: Cultural tourism. The formula is
                                                                 holiday course.Parties and social events are also arranged by
holidays + language course. That is the new trend of tourism
                                                                 the school.
as cultural tourism for the physically disabled.
                                                                 2.e.- Facilities: Lord Mayor is a residential college for students
                                                                 with disabilities, designed for wheelchair users and people
                                                                 with mobility problems. Accommodation is in single or double


                                                                                                                                24
rooms, and all personal assistants are fully trained. The
accessibility is total in all classrooms and swimming pool.

Flights are met at London's Heathrow airport, and adapted
coaches complete de Journey to Alton.



3.- Customers: In this case just physically disabled people
with mobility problems.




                                                              25
S ECCIÓN 2                                           POLICY ON DISABLED PEOPLE IN
TOURISM PROVISION                                    THE NETHERLANDS
FOR THE PHYSICALLY                                        It is difficult to five a clear indication of how many
DISABLED IN THE                                      disabled people are in Holland. 1.5 million of the 15 millions
                                                     inhabitants of the Netherlands are generally regarded as
NETHERLANDS                                          suffering from a physical disability (1 in 10 people), while
                                                     some 100,000 to 120,000 (1 in 150 to 125 people) are
                                                     mentally handicapped (Study conducted in 1986 by the Social
  KEY POINTS
                                                     Science Research Institute of the University of Brabant in
  1. POLICY ON DISABLED PEOPLE IN THE                Tilburg, Fact sheet W-2-E 1992). To give an impression of the
     NETHERLANDS                                     number of services available in 1990, approximately NLG
                                                     (Nederlands Gulden ) 4 billion were spent on these services.
  2. THE ROLE OF THE VOLUNTARY
                                                     Estimates for 1991 budget to approximately NLG 4.2 billions.
     ORGANISATIONS IN THE PROVISION OF
     HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY
     DISABLED.                                            The Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs is
  3. Case Study:. THE RED CROSS IN TILBURG           responsible of the disabled's policy in the Netherlands. In fact
                                                     in 1982 culture and recreation were separated out of the
  4. THE HOLIDAY'S MARKET FOR THE                    ministry responsible for social Welfare considering disable.
     PHYSICALLY DISABLED IN THE                      Outdoor recreation was placed under the Ministry of
     NETHERLANDS.                                    Agriculture and Fishery, while culture and groups with
                                                     "special needs" was divided off into a new Ministry of Health,
  5. Case Study: stichting recreatie gehandicapten
                                                     Well Being and Culture. The Ministry is responsible for policy
                                                     on care and other facilities for disabled people (including
                                                     indirectly tourism). Although two parties are involved in this


                                                                                                                  26
policy: The Government and the private, community based,       The Dutch Council for the Disabled, embracing national
organisations. To simplify:                                    organisations of disabled people, patients and parents.

    The government provides the regulations, FUNDS (most       The Netherlands Federation of Centres for the Physically
important aspect for tourism opportunities), plans,            Disabled, the umbrella organisation of activity centres and
monitors, advises and "co-ordination".                         housing schemes (aspect very related to the housing needs of
                                                               all tourist programmes).
The private organisations provide the services, the
infrastructure and the basis work; ensuring that the quality
is maintained. They have a non-profit making basis. The
                                                                     In fact is the same schema in Spain with COCEMFE &
private organisations are divided into:
                                                               COAMIFICOA. The Services for the Disabled Association, the
                                                               national network of care workers and social service
                                                               organisations need of the State to exist. The objectives of the
• Religious (Protestant and Catholic)                          disabled's policy in Netherlands are: integration, participation
• Non-confessional (The Red Cross for example).                and equal opportunities. The same as the HELIOS
                                                               programme of the European Union. Coming to the praxis, the
                                                               state policy encouraged that people in need of assistance can
                                                               play the fullest possible part in society. In the Last few
      The ministry has a separate department (The
                                                               decades existing facilities have changed radically and new
Inter-ministerial Steering Committee on the Disabled) but
                                                               types of services have emerged. One new trend is the
aspects such sport are responsibility of others departments.
                                                               Domiciliary care. It is very important this point because the
We can observe a dualism between State and Private
                                                               State pay the "Care" to the private organisations and the
Organisations. The relations between The Ministry and the
                                                               organisations them self determine which services they will
different organisations are regulated and conducted by a
                                                               offer. Anyway the cost of the services for the handicapped are
consultative committee (GOC - WVC) represented for
                                                               high but covered largely from social insurance funds. This
different organizations: Like in Spain exists two principal
                                                               social Welfare state (not in a big crisis at the moment) provide
Organisations of and for persons with a physical handicap:
                                                               the support for innovatory projects for work and leisure. The
                                                               innovatory services are introduce in the form of pilot projects
                                                               (the same way as in Spain as we will observe afterwards),

                                                                                                                            27
which provide the opportunity to examine how an idea works          FACILITIES FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED
in practice. Later on a consultative "body" analyses the            PEOPLE
projects. Targeting the social sector of this research, the
ministry is involved in providing the following facilities for          FACILITIES            NUMBER               PLACES
person with a physical and/or sensory handicap: Long-term
                                                                       Activity centres          33                  1.130
accommodation and guidance are provided in large housing
units. small housing units and housing units for young people.             Hostels                4                  800
Other option in the normal life are the Activity centres that
offer activities for people with disabilities. Many of the          Source: Netherlands Federation of Centres for the
participants suffer from a motor disorder. The most                 Physically Disabled (1990); Financial Overview of
important facilities for our research are the Holiday homes,        the Care Sector 1991.
which provide the opportunity for disabled persons and their
family to take a holiday. The Blauwe Guids is a good example
of the market generated. I speak about market because all
product has a target. Holidays for disabled his a product with
oriented to a specific social sector. The physically disabled are   THE ROLE OF THE VOLUNTARY
our target here.
                                                                    ORGANISATIONS IN THE PROVISION
                                                                    OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY
     In 1990 the Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS) and the        DISABLED.
Netherlands Institute for Social Work Research published
data from the 1986-1988 period. These data confirmed that
even more as 10% of the Dutch population suffer from a                   Voluntary organisations or NGO's (Non governmental
serious or very serious disability. The number of disabled          Organisations) are the basis of the Social work with the
people grow as the population age. The state finance                handicapped. It is not possible to sustain the provision of
programmes for disabled spending in 1990 NLG. 4 billion.            services for handicapped without this kind of benevolent
Estimating for 1991 amount to approximately NLG 4.2 billion.        organisations. This also affects the provision of holidays for
                                                                    disabled. A lot of disabled people could not go on holiday
                                                                    without the participation and contribution of volunteers.
                                                                                                                               28
The role of the volunteer who offers his/her time and work            The Red Cross was founded in Holland in 1863. By
without a salary is the key to maintain the organisations and    definition it is a non-profit organisation. The Red Cross is one
the services. The voluntary organisations use people who may     of the largest voluntary organisations in The Netherlands. We
or may not have medical training.                                analyse first the work of the Red Cross in general. Holland is a
                                                                 small country and the Red Cross is organise the same way in
Logically when the volunteers have a medical training they are
                                                                 every region. The Red cross has different programmes with
asked to use it. The volunteers accompany the handicapped
                                                                 the aim to aid people who are in difficulties. It organises a
people during excursions and shopping, trips, etc. They give
                                                                 variety of activities for people who are likely to become
some help during different recreational activities and assist
                                                                 socially isolated for any reason, etc. Concerning to our topic
people when there is a demand, by washing, dressing and
                                                                 the Red Cross organised holidays, both in the Netherlands
undressing, at meal times, going to the toilet, etc. To get an
                                                                 and abroad, for people who can not go on holiday on their
idea, the Red Cross provides services in The Netherlands for
                                                                 own because of a chronic disease or handicap.
5500 disabled per year, and for that need the help of 3700
volunteers (Vakanties 1994, Vrijwilligers. Het Nederlandse
Rode Kruis). The motivations of the volunteers are different
                                                                      The Red Cross in Tilburg was founded in 1910. The work
but generally they are young people who want to spend their
                                                                 is carried out by between 300 and 350 volunteers and only
free time doing something for others. Some volunteer
                                                                 one paid worker who is retired. All the members pay a annual
organisations are religious but that is not the main trend.
                                                                 fee of 25 NLG. The department of Mrs Kleyn in Tilburg is in
                                                                 charge to select the disabled participants for the holiday
                                                                 programmes in the Brabant Region.


Case Study:. THE RED CROSS IN
                                                                      The Red Cross in Holland has three holiday -
TILBURG                                                          accommodations; the holiday ship of J. Henry Dunant, the
                                                                 holiday houses: "Ijssel vliedt" and "De Valkenberg".

                                                                      These two houses "Ijssel vliedt" and "De Valkenberg" are
                                                                 situated in a pleasant environment. There are both adapted to
                                                                 the needs of handicapped people. These two houses offer
                                                                                                                              29
holidays to the disabled. In addition the Red Cross offers also   2.a.- Real cost: The total cost is 1.100 NLG per week
the possibility of taking holidays outside the country. As case
                                                                  2.b.- Cost to users: The participants need to pay just 325 NLG.
study we will consider the just holiday ship J. Henry Dunant
                                                                  2.c.- Staff: One payed doctor and several nurses (depending of
                                                                  the participant's level of disability). On the ship there is place
                                                                  for 68 participants (26 for people selected for the Tilburg's
                                                                  department) and 50 volunteers (including several nurses and
HOLIDAYS PROVISION PROGRAMME:
                                                                  one doctor).
THE HOLIDAY SHIP J. HENRY DUNANT
                                                                  2.d.- Activities: People have the possibility to go on land when
                                                                  the ship anchors. Each evening there is a programme
                                                                  organised on land or in the ship. Parties and other social
1.- Type of product:                                              events organized by the local Red Cross.

1.a.- Domestic holidays: The holiday ship J. Henry Dunant         2.e.- Facilities: Accessible transport to the ship arranged by
was built in 1970 thanks to the large income of money from        the Red Cross In the ship the accessibility is total (toilettes,
the Television charity show "Ship Ahoy". The ship travels by      furniture, etc).
day and gives the opportunity to people to see a constantly
changing landscape in The Netherlands.

1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 1 or 2 weeks.                     3.- Customers: 68 physically disabled.

1.c.- Funding: private funding. The Netherlands State do not      3. THE HOLIDAY'S MARKET FOR THE
support this association and the money comes from some
                                                                  PHYSICALLY DISABLED IN THE
campaigns to raise funds.
                                                                  NETHERLANDS.

2.- Organisation:
                                                                       The possible sustainability of holidays programmes for
                                                                  disabled without State intervention is the ideal solution
                                                                  according to the theory of the New Right. The experience in
                                                                                                                                 30
England points to the importance of the private market to          offered by SGR are in groups but each has an individual
ensure the provision. That is not that easy. The private           character. The opinion of each participant concerning
market, by definition, seeks profit. The sector of the disabled    excursions during their holidays is taken into account. The
do not offer huge benefits. The disabled sector is a field         participants choose the holiday best adapted to their personal
traditionally related to the voluntary sector.                     needs. The participants must not be bedridden nor mentally
                                                                   handicapped and they must be aged between 18 and 65 years,
Apart from this fact, some private enterprises work in the
                                                                   approximately. The helpers are all volunteers, although most
sector. In most of the cases the State or the Ministry in charge
                                                                   of them do not have any medical background. SGR provides
pays the holidays through the channel of a voluntary disabled
                                                                   some medical aid during the holiday. The volunteers have just
organisation which arranges the programme. That seems the
                                                                   one day's training which gives explanations about the trip and
ideal solution. The main question now is if the tourist industry
                                                                   the service to disabled people.
can take into account the wider profile of potential consumers
with special needs by preparing market profiles similar to
those already available for the retired market.
                                                                        They organised a total of 33 programmes for 1994: 20
                                                                   abroad and 13 in The Netherlands. To get a clear idea about
                                                                   the organisation we will mentione two of them.

                                                                     PLACE      COUNTRY      DAYS      FROM/TO         SERVICES

                                                                     GRAN
Case Study: stichting recreatie                                     CANARIA
                                                                                  SPAIN        15     16/10...30/10    Fly + hotel

gehandicapten                                                       TIETJERK    HOLLAND         8       1/7......8/7   Bungalows



     The Stichting Recreatie Gehandicapten (SGR) is a Travel
agency that provide services for disabled who can not go on        HOLIDAY PROGRAMME IN GRAN
holiday alone and need some kind of help. They offer travel
information and arrange programmes of holidays and                 CANARIA
excursions on the basis of an individual service. The holidays

                                                                                                                                     31
1.- Type of product:                                               2.d.- Activities: There are possibilities of excursions to the
                                                                   capital or elsewhere following the wishes of the holiday
                                                                   makers.Each evening, there is in the hotel a show or an
1.a.- Foreign holidays in the sunny Canarias island.               orchestra. The city is full of wonderful shops just for tourist.

1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 2 weeks (15 days).                 2.e.- Facilities: The hotel Buenaventura Playa is on the
                                                                   beach. It is a very big hotel with accessible accommodation
1.c.- Funding: Private funding. There are no subsidies             and facilities (14 lifts, 3 bars, 2 restaurants, a hairdresser, a
organised through the company, either for the holiday maker        sauna, etc.) The beach is too wide and varied in levels to allow
or for any helper's travel costs.                                  access for disabled people to the sea. Accessible transport
                                                                   from the airport to the hotel is also arranged

2.- Organisation:
                                                                   3.- Customers: 13 physically disabled.

2.a.- Real cost: Data not provided by the travel company.

2.b.- Cost to users:      Basic price:                 2,241 NLG   HOLIDAY PROGRAMME IN TIETJERK
                    Possible supplements       1,452 NLG
                                                                   1.- Type of product:
                    Total:                     5,693 NLG

     The prices include travelling, airport taxes, the holiday
cost, some excursions and the cancellation insurance. The          1.a.- Domestic holidays in Tietjerk (Friesland)
possible supplements are depending of the Degree of
                                                                   1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 8 days.
dependence. For foreign holidays, accident and luggage
insurance in included.                                             1.c.- Funding: Private funding. There are no subsidies
                                                                   organised through the company, but as domestic holidays, the
2.c.- Staff: The holidays in Gran Canaria made for 13
                                                                   holiday maker pay the helper's travel costs.
participants and 9 voluntary workers.

                                                                                                                                 32
participants may go outside, to the shop or the water side
                                                                     without any problems.
2.- Organisation:


                                                                     3.- Customers: 10 physically disabled.
2.a.- Real cost: Data not provided by the travel company.

2.b.- Cost to users:       Basic price:         502 NLG

                           Supplements:         439 NLG

                           Total:               941 NLG

     The prices include transport, , the holiday cost, some
excursions and the cancellation insurance. As in the case
mentioned before, possible supplements are depending of the
Degree of dependence. For all holidays within Holland,
accident and luggage insurance are excluded.

2.c.- Staff: The trip to Tietjerk in Friesland (The Netherlands)
is for 10 participants and 10 voluntary helpers.

2.d.- Activities: A lot of trips are organised through the typical
landscape of the country. Dinner is normally taken in the
bungalows with an occasional outing to a
restaurant.Entretainment programme is organized by "De
kleine Wielen"

2.e.- Facilities: The holidays take place in full accessible
bungalows for 5 people in the Bungalow park "De kleine
Wielen". Each bungalow has a roomy living room, a bathroom
completely adapted and the bedrooms for 2 to 3 people. The
                                                                                                                             33
S ECCIÓN 3                                    1. POLICY ON DISABLED IN SPAIN
TOURISM PROVISION
FOR THE PHYSICALLY                                  The policy on disabled in Spain does not follow same
                                              scheme as Nederlands. Spain is divided in 17 Autonomous

DISABLED IN SPAIN.                            Communities have legislative powers specific to their own
                                              territory. They have their own autonomous government, and
                                              jurisdictional powers in the application of laws approved by
                                              their parliaments. The Spanish State is, however, not a federal
 KEY POINTS                                   state, since power is delegated downwards, from the centre to
                                              the Autonomous Communities. The municipalities are
 1. POLICY ON DISABLED IN SPAIN
                                              perhaps the weakest element in this system, since their
 2. THE INSERSO.                              budgets are dependent on subvention from various higher
                                              levels of government, and there is a lack of definition as to
 3. THE ROLE OF THE NGO IN THE                their specific competences. In fact, the transference of power
    PROVISION OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE             to the different Autonomous.The main difference between
    PHYSICALLY DISABLED IN SPAIN.             The Netherlands and Spain is the structure of the government
                                              (at central, provincial and municipal level). The Netherlands
 4. Case Study: COCEMFE
                                              is a small country and these three levels are not a barrier for
 5. THE ROLE OF NGO IN THE PROVISION OF       the provision of holidays for disabled."Las Autonomías" are
    HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY               the autonomical regions in Spain. Euskadi, Catalunya, Galicia,
    DISABLED IN EUSKADI.                      Andalucía y Valencia are the most representatives During this
                                              research the responsibilities of the Central Social security
 6. Case Study: FDFB                          services are now concernant to the local Social security service
 7. THE HOLIDAY'S MARKET FOR DISABLED         with his own policy. This struggle for the power also in
    IN SPAIN. Case Study: ACCESSIBLE TRAVEL   Welfare benefits between the Central Government and the
                                              Autonomías is not really good for the provision of services for
    S.A. (Madrid)
                                              disabled in Spain. The Central government holidays
                                              programmes for handicapped started in 1986 with 212

                                                                                                           34
participants. The number increase since 1989 but only with         for managing Social Services which are supplementary to the
handicapped citizens from the areas where the INSERSO has          benefits available under the Social Security System. We can
responsibility. This situation is unfair for the rest of Spanish   call it: Welfare Ministry. Under the provisions of Royal Decree
disabled and in 1993 began a new directive open this               530/1985, INSERSO assumed all the Central Administration's
programme for all the disabled in Spain. Other problems            power in respect of managing Social Services. Under Royal
comme now because handicapped from Catalunya or Valencia           Decree 727/1988 INSERSO was brought under the scope of
has free access to programmes of the INSERSO and                   the Ministry of Social Affaires.
programmes of his own Autonomous Community. That mean
that they have more chances as other Spaniards from
Extremadura or Castilla.                                                The INSERSO has different areas related to groups with
                                                                   "special needs": Handicapped, elderly & Refugees. The
                                                                   "Responsibilities" most important for our research concerning
     Leisure policy for the elderly and handicapped take into      tourism for handicapped are:
consideration the social tourism (a small but increasing
supply of cheap holidays and trips), these are provided by
both public and private institutions to take responsibility for    Declaring handicapped individuals to meet Social Security
what started as private ventures, and the emergence of             eligibility requirements as well as examining and registering
voluntary sector centres for the elderly.                          the handicapped.

                                                                   Managing the social and income benefits foreseen in Title V of
                                                                   Act 13/1982, on Social Integration of the Handicapped.

                                                                   Setting up and running Residential Centres for the physically,
THE INSERSO.                                                       mentally and sensorial handicapped, offering them
                                                                   permanent attention and personal as well as other social
                                                                   services.
     The Instituto Nacional de Servicios Sociales (INSERSO)
was set up under Royal Decree-law 26/1987, of 16 November,
under the Institutional Management of Social Security, Health
and Employment, as the Social Security Agency responsible
                                                                                                                               35
This three responsibilities are quite important for our     directly-managed Basic Centres in operation. The INSERSO
topic. Physically Handicapped who want to take part in a          had 4 Centres for the Recuperation of the physically
programme of the INSERSO should have more as 50% of               handicapped in operation, located in Salamanca, Lardero (La
disability (Responsibility one). Secondly the "Residential        Rioja), Albacete and San Fernando (Cádiz). This kind of
Centres" oriented to insertion in society through a productive    centres are ideal to provide accommodation and services for a
work, could be use as Residential Hostel in the Summer. In        holidays programme for physically handicapped. The
fact last 1994 they did.                                          accessibility is optimal and also the occupational training can
                                                                  make unforgettable holidays. In fact the INSERSO use this
                                                                  centre in the Summer, when the "residents" take holidays in
     The organisational structure of the Instituto Nacional de    another part.
Servicios Sociales (INSERSO) was set forth in Royal Decree
1433/1985. The institute's human resources in 1993 have
been: 1,934 staff and 9,076 workers under labour contracts as          The social protection system in Spain for the
well as 350 casual workers. The managerial structure is of a      handicapped administrated by INSERSO includes various
functional nature, aimed at achieving the social integration of   financial protection programmes which take the form or
the groups for which INSERSO is responsible as well as            regular benefits. Retirement and disability pensions are paid
ensuring participation of the handicapped in managing the         in fourteen regular payments, the total for 1993 being 441,420
relevant services through the Boards for the handicapped.         pesetas. The disability pension carries a supplement of 50% of
That is the same structure as in The Netherlands:                 the annual amount when the beneficiary is affected by a
Government and private and voluntary organizations. The           chronic handicap of 75% or more and needs another person to
private organization and normally also volunteer , which          help with basic daily chores. In 1993, the amount has been
operate on a non-profit making basis, are responsible for         220,710 pesetas broken down into fourteen regular payments.
providing services.


                                                                       The first experience of holidays for disabled organized by
      Besides its Central Services and Provincial Directorates,   INSERSO was in 1986 with the “Jornadas de convivencia para
INSERSO, works through an infrastructure of Care Centres          minusvalidos fisicos”. Those programmes were arranged for
for the elderly and the handicapped. The basic centres for the    periods of 15 days and were quite successfull. The
handicapped . As of December 1993, INSERSO had 32                 programmes consist of leisure activities in places of “touristic
                                                                                                                               36
interest”. INSERSO continued with it fo the next two years.
To understand the growing of this holidays programas one
                                                                          The first programme started in 1986.with 212 physically
can consult this table:
                                                                    disabled. Since 1989 the INSERSO enlarged the target group
                                                                    with the inclusion of mentally disabled. The participation in
            YEAR                   PHYSICALLY DISABLED
                                                                    this second periods was a test with excellent results. 1992 was
            1986                                  212               an important year in the programme. Until this year the
                                                                    INSERSO programmes were valid only in the Spanish
            1987                                400
                                                                    territory where INSERSO has responsibilities (27 provinces).
            1988                                281                 Disabled people from Euskadi or Catalunya for example
                                                                    (where the transference of the national health service
             PHYSICALLY     MENTALLY               TOTAL            responsibilities to the Autonomical health service is total)
   YEAR                                                             were not able to participate in the programme. In 1993 the
              DISABLED      DISABLED            PARTICIPANTS
                                                                    programmes were on offer for all the Spanish territory. The
    1989           414             2.150                2.564
                                                                    participation in the last two years with the inclusion of a new
    1990           569             2.500                3.069       group (mentally patientes) increase the target.

    1991           309             3.228                3.537

    1992           383             3.479                3.876       One can compare the increasing figures with the 360.000
                                                                    elderly who participate in the holidays programmes of
                                                                    INSERSO. The Earderly holidays programme of the
           PHYSICALLY     MENTAL        MENTAL           TOTAL      INSERSO: "Programa de vacaciones para la Tercera Edad".
  YEAR
            DISABLED     DISABLED      PATIENTS         PARTICIP.   The peak in participation has not yet achieved but however
  1993         329         6.306           ----           6.635
                                                                    the progress in the provisions is clear (Annual Report 1994.
                                                                    INSERSO’s holidays programme for disabled)
  1994         656         6.371           54             7.081


SOURCE: Annual Report 1994. INSERSO’s holidays                           The financial sources of the programmes came from the
programme for disabled                                              0,5 if the NGP dedicated to Social Services. The amount for
                                                                                                                                37
the disabled holidays programmes was 145.000 m Pts in 1994.      physically disabled persons in Spain is COCEMFE
The budget for 1995 is increase to 155.000 m Pts. Holidays for   (Confederación Coordinadora Estatal de Minusválidos físicos
disabled (BOE of 20th Mars 1995 (n.67; Point 4).                 de España).

                                                                  They began their holiday programmes during the low season
                                                                 of 1987 and during the high season of 1988. After this date
                                                                 they provided 9 annual holidays tours, each one for 45
                                                                 persons. Holidays for disabled people is a new concept in
                                                                 Spain which is very successful. Normally the disabled people
                                                                 who thake these holidays whish to repeat them.

                                                                 At the present the demand excede the provision, as explain
                                                                 Jesús Tamayo, director of the holiday programme of the
                                                                 COCEMFE. We will analyse one of their packages as a case
                                                                 study:




THE ROLE OF THE VOLUNTARY                                        Case Study: COCEMFE
ORGANISATIONS IN THE PROVISION                                   (Confederación Coordinadora Estatal de Minusválidos físicos
                                                                 de España).
OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY
DISABLED IN SPAIN.
                                                                 1.- Type of product:

     Voluntary organisations form the base of the Social work
with the handicapped. It is not possible to sustain the
                                                                 1.a.- Domestic holidays in Cubellas (Barcelona). The majority
provision of holidays for handicapped without these types of
                                                                 of the holidays organaised by COCEMFE take place in Spain.
benevolent organisations. This is the same situation in The
                                                                 However in the 1990 together with the INSERSO they
Netherlands and in Spain. The largest charity organization for

                                                                                                                           38
organized a holiday in Portugal and in 1988 and 1999 also to       2.e.- Facilities: The COCEMFE has their own accustomised
Italy.                                                             bus with capacity for 50 persons and as well as a mini bus
                                                                   with capacity for 10 persons. The choice of hotels is made
1.b.- Duration of the holidays:15 days, from 16 to 29 August
                                                                   according to the criteria of quality and cost. They generally
1996
                                                                   look for three starts hotels adapted without barriers and
1.c.- Funding: Partial state funding. The COCEMFE recognize        which offer serviced tailored to the group.
that their programmes could be a little more expensive than
other partially state funded projects however they feel that the
quality is better.                                                 3.- Customers: the COCEMFE provided 9 annual holidays
                                                                   tours, each one for 45 persons, between 18 and 65 years old.
                                                                   They organized special separate programmes for children in
2.- Organisation:                                                  Granada, Madrid and Segovia.



2.a.- Real cost: Information not available.

2.b.- Cost to users: The cost for the handicapped travellers is
partially subsidised by the state. If they wish travel
accompanied by a friend or able bodied helper this                 THE ROLE OF THE VOLUNTARY
organisation endevour to arrange a special price. The normal       ORGANISATIONS IN THE PROVISION
price of this holiday programme is 28.500 Pts
                                                                   OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY
2.c.- Staff: 4 Full-time helpers per group and a driver.           DISABLED IN EUSKADI.
2.d.- Activities: Excursions are arranged. They use an
accustomised bus that makes possible to visit the surronding
                                                                            Before to study one voluntary organization in
area. The group also takes part in parties and other social
                                                                   Euskadi we should consider the special political structure of
events.
                                                                   Spain and its division into Autonomies. This fact makes
                                                                   necessary to understand the policy on disabled in Euskadi

                                                                                                                             39
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled
Tourism for the physically disabled

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Tourism for the physically disabled

  • 1. JOSE JAVIER MONROY VESPERINAS Tourism for the physically disabled people COMPARISON BETWEEN EU, NETHERLANDS AND SPAIN
  • 3. S ECCIÓN 1 In the European Union there are between 13 and 20 million handicapped. That represents between 5% and 9% of OVERVIEW OF THE the total population of the EU (Eurostat, 1995). One can PROBLEM AND GOALS understand the importance of this group for the whole European society. OF THE PROJECT Handicapped is a wide concept with two synonyms: Disabled and incapacitated. In fact Disabled is the union of two words Dis- and -able. The meaning is a person who is not able to do things on his/her own. He or she needs some sort of help in normal life. We can apply this first definition to working and leisure time. The handicapped are then a special group with special needs. However, this interpretation can guide us into a misunderstanding. "Special needs" are only special when the environment makes them so (Baker, 1989). On the other hand, Handicapped people are quite different. Firstly, it is necessary to consider the different kind of disabilities (without taking into account mix-disabilities): • SENSORY: Deaf or blind. • PHYSICAL: Wheel-chair. • MENTAL: Autism, Down syndrome, mental retardation, etc. 2
  • 4. • TRANSNATIONAL: In our case the European level (EU) For the purpose of this thesis we will consider only one kind of • NATIONAL: Policies in Spain and the Netherlands. disability: the Physically handicapped. The reason is that different kind of disabilities build different kinds of social groups. It is very difficult to compare them in a transnational To get an idea the current expenditure on social research. Nevertheless we will some times mention the other protection per inhabitant is 4.348 ECUS per year: 5.387 in groups to have a better idea about the real situation of the The Netherlands and 2.555 in Spain (Eurostat 1992). That disabled in Spain and the Netherlands. marks a big difference in possibilities and programmes. The tourist industry (& the market) has an important part to play in making holidays and tourism available to all. The goal of this research is a comparison between the However we should recognise that the private sector with its tourism opportunities for physically handicapped in Spain commercial basis is not the largest provider of holidays and the Netherlands: understand the relationships between programmes. Traditionally the National State represented by tourism and handicapped. In our post-Fordist society, despite the ministry of Welfare and health, was responsible for policy the crisis of the Welfare state, Holidays are still a social right. on care and other facilities for disabled people. Two parties Holidays for handicapped is a social demand. The UN took are involved in the realisation of this policy: Government (at this point into consideration (Resolution 48/96 based in the central, provincial and municipal level) and community report A/48/627) which affirms that tourist organisations, organisations with a volunteer base. The three aspects draw hotels and travel agencies should offer special services for up the framework of our research. Every study about tourism handicapped (article 11,2). That is our starting point: Tourism opportunities for the handicapped should take into account as a social right and tourism for handicapped as social three levels of intervention: demand. In most of the European countries the state or the government is responsible for the disabled leisure (and • STATE PROVISION tourism) policies. Then we can distinguish two further aspects of intervention from a political and governmental perspective: • VOLUNTEER ORGANISATIONS • THE TOURIST MARKET 3
  • 5. The comparation of holiday's provision for handicapped between The Netherlands and Spain should consider this first statement. How the state arranges holidays programmes with subventions to volunteer organizations. However the comparation is difficult because both countries are quiete different. The expenditure on social protection as percentage of gross domestic products is 27,1 in the EU. in Spain 33,0 and in Nederlands 31,0 (Eurostat, 1992). The Position of the EU give some indications about the subject.. In this United Union how is "armonize" the holidays programmes or packages for the phisically disabled? We will see this detail furthermore. From this perspective we will analyze the situation in both countries and finally the touristic offer and supply. The provision offerted for the voluntary organisation and tourism companies. The conclusions and recommendations will finish this thesis. 4
  • 7. S ECCIÓN 1 Leisure has a wide field of meanings, related to time off. What is in fact leisure? The answer is a philosophical DEFINITION OF THE question: Time and space. Time to take some days off. Place to TERMS go away. From this perspective leisure is tourism, following the UN directives (Res. 48/49, 1993). Tourism has too a wide field of meanings: Industries for pleasure travel, everything that arises form travelling away from residence, journeys for temporary stay for leisure and recreations purposes, etc. I would like to reduce this and understand tourism only from a KEY POINTS perspective: as travels or excursions out of home or living place. The UN conference (Roma 1963) ”Tourism and 1. Leisure international travels” define tourist as the person who go 2. Disabled abroad for more as 24 hours for other purposes as work. That is also a wide definition but enough for the purposes of this research. Travel and leisure play an increasingly important part in the life of the late twentieth century. Inability to participate on holidays is an isolating factor and can also undermine heath. As a social right, leisure and tourism are also a social demand. There is an equilibrium between the demand and the offer in the case of the physically disabled? Disabled is synonym of incapacitate. He or she need some sort of help in the Normal life, that mean dependency. Quite a big number of social workers do not like the Word of disable and prefer to call them handicapped. because what they have is really a disability. "Handicap" is used in the context of this thesis to assist in describing a basic congenital or acquired mental or physical defect. Handicapped are then persons with 6
  • 8. a disability (physical, sensory or mental) in his/her life. That is in fact the same definition as this one of the Declaration of the right of handicapped (Resolution 3447 (XXX) 9-12-1975). However we can also accept the definition of the European Commission in the foreword of the HELIOS programme. The term "disabled people" means: "People with serious impairments, disabilities or handicaps resulting from physical, including sensory, or mental or psychological impairments which restrict or make impossible the performance of an activity or function consider normal for a human being". 7
  • 9. S ECCIÓN 2 How has the issue been addressed in the past? We can begin the research in the last century. The Beginning of the STATEMENT XX century the social policy and provision for the handicapped was largely paternalistic. The voluntary and religious sector was the only one involved. Religious groups (Catholic and Protestant in the Netherlands and only catholic in Spain) We will not consider the fact of the religion wars between Spain and Flanders. as a "previous tourism flows" that generate mutilate. This effect is clear in the two Word KEY POINTS Wars. Middle class organisations with religious connotations or origins were in charge of all kinds of provisions for 1. EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES handicapped (Hugo van der Poel, 1991). After World War I a 2. INTEGRATION new kind of physically handicapped people appear: veterans wounded and permanently disabled by war. Most of the 3. INDEPENDENT LIVING provisions between the wars was oriented towards the 4. MARKETING AND INFORMATION re-insertion of this group. In England and Holland this case is very clear after World War II and, with special connotations, 5. ATTITUDES AND STAFF TRAINING in Spain after the civil war. 6. GENERAL REQUIREMENTS OF TOURIST INSTALLATIONS AND SIGHTS; BUILDING REGULATIONS AND DESIGN The voluntary sector acquired a national dimension during the growth and maturing of the Welfare State 7. TRANSPORT (1944-1976)with the help of the national State The Welfare State offer a paternalistic provision of services relating to holidays for handicapped. Here the development of The Netherlands and Spain are different because of their different political histories. The voluntary sector is independent when providing holidays for disabled people, but it needs of the State assistance to survive. 8
  • 10. policy changes in other European Union countries as we observe in the British and Dutch cases (Van der Poel, 1995). The Netherlands current policies are affected by the two Mild tatcher policies. There was a general turn to the right World Wars and the post war period of reconstruction. and the Neo-liberal system. The social services are affected by Consumption growth, with subsidy by social security was not cost cuttings. It is very interesting to compare this point with known in the long Spanish post war period. The provision of the actual political situation in Spain. Change of government social services was channelled thorough the “pillars” of the to the (probable) the right (PP). It is possible that Spain Dutch society: Catholic, Protestant and non confessional (lay) follows this trend after a change of government. However the volunteer associations. In Spain the pillar was the Church and state still as a source of financing for “leisure” and the National Movement of Franco. The role of the Church in “recreation” for disabled. Politic, more as sociology, is the the provision of Welfare for handicapped is one of the most main trend. important but this is not widely recognised. In the Netherlands in the mid 1960's the emblematic Ministry of culture, recreation and Social Work was established. Other To compare both previous statements in The North European countries also created similar ministries. The Netherlands and Spain one should find the criteria of the impact of the economic crisis of the 1970's and 1980's on the actual situation. The first factor is the political one in a Dutch society was considerable, provoking an unemployment transnational level. Tourism opportunities for the rate which peaked at approximately 20%. The same rate as handicapped people is not actually a clear issue in the policies currently in Spain. The effect of the crisis also spread to the of the European countries. Other countries in the EU England provision of “leisure” and tourism for disabled people. in the person of the Mary Baker for the Working Party has a clear programme about tourism for all. Most of the efforts of the European countries are oriented to accessibility. This The political transition occurred at he same time in point is very important. Our post modernist society has Spain. The JOC (Juventudes obreras cristianas - Christian changed values. Values are the meanings of the society. The youth workers) was like a new vision inside the Church, which new emergent values of our time demand new opportunities, was traditionally related to the Regime. The transition was and handicapped people need integration into these followed by the increasing intervention of the private market opportunities to achieve an independent living. We can in the provision of leisure and tourism for handicapped summarise these values in the HELIOS programme of the people. There are important similarities in the direction of Commission of the European Communities (Directorate 9
  • 11. General "Employment, Industrial Relations, Social Affairs". * INDEPENDENT LIVING: Whatever their disability, all Division "Integration of disabled people, 1994): disabled people must be able to lead their lives, as far as possible, independently. How does this affect tourism? Travel can be a physical and also a psychological barrier. A * EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES: whatever their disability, handicapped tourist normally needs one or two assistants. all disabled people should have the same opportunities in life However, the ideal is to overcome architectural barriers as other citizens. Opportunities also in the tourism field. without help. And psychologically, not all handicapped have Tourism is a social right since 1936 (The Front populaire in the confidence to travel abroad. The case of the physically France). Most Europeans today think the same. The right to a disabled is special. Some of them acquire the disability after month's holidays is one of the most important issues of the an accident and they remember their former independent Welfare state. Disabled people should have the same living. That is another category of physically disabled to opportunities to take holidays at least once per year. The consider. Human rights declaration (1948) affirm the same right. and also the United Nations (Standard Rules on the Equalisation of Opportunities for Person with Disabilities, 1992): In all The common state regulation include the values or societies of the world there are still obstacles preventing orientations of the EU. But this directives are set up in person with disabilities from exercising their rights (...). It is different ways in Spain and Nederlands (Dutch name for responsibility of states to take appropriate action to remove Holland). We should then analyse this policies in the aspect such obstacles. related to tourism for disable. There is a special department for this services in both Welfare Ministries? * INTEGRATION: A disability in itself should not be an obstacle to participating in social and cultural life and to Organising a tourist programme for handicapped people access to transport and public services. The European Union is a hard business. On one hand the political level and on the recognise this but only from an accessibility perspective. other the basis work. If we want to compare this kind of Tourism include the increasing role of the transport and provision in two countries we need some more according public services. criteria. We can accept the document "Accessible tourism for handicapped people in the 90's" of the WTO (Buenos Aires, 1991). The definition of handicapped is quite interesting, 10
  • 12. because it includes "elderly" and "other people who need followed closely by kindness and friendliness. All tourist special care" .Some countries accept the inclusion of elderly businesses should develop customer care programmes as part and disabled in the provision of “social tourism” despite both of their in-service training and these should automatically groups being different. This perspective is more oriented to cover the full range of potential customers. The WTO doesn't the private market and is related to the sustainability of consider special kind of travel agencies run out only by holidays for disabled without State intervention. The WTO handicapped such “Accessible travel S.A.” in Madrid. considers the right to holidays for all in society. Handicapped people form a social group with growing importance. The most important guide lines and recommendations to assure C: GE NE RAL RE QU IRE M E NTS OF TOU RIST the success of this special kind of provision are: INSTALLATIONS AND SIGHTS; BUILDING REGULATIONS AND DESIGN: Most of the European countries have an Approved Document (AD) giving design guidance. Those A: MARKETING AND INFORMATION: A frequent guide lines stipulate that the entrance door to each bedroom complaint from customers was that accommodation should be accessible for wheelchairs (which generally require purporting was not suitable for their particular needs. Social a clear minimum opening width of 75 cm) and that a tourism (tourism for special groups) should always begin with minimum of one bedroom in each hotel, etc. should be publicity. Accommodation guides are especially important. suitable, in terms of dimension and layout, for people who use The second point is oriented to the information in the holiday wheelchairs. Newly-built accommodation is required to be place. A not uncommon remark from accommodation accessible to people in wheelchairs. The WTO recognises the providers was that they had converted rooms suitable for use importance of including the needs of all in the building by disabled people “ but no-one has come to use them”. This regulations and offers in the document the following was often because they had not been marked in any way. In indications: both countries one can detect a lack in this problem. Adequate parking with a disabled symbol. Basic accessibility (Ramps, etc.) B: ATTITUDES AND STAFF TRAINING: The Each hotel should have one or more rooms adapted to recommendations of the WTO are that the staff in the travel disabled (toilet, wide corridors, etc.). agencies, hotels, etc. can deal with and provide a good service for the disabled . Information is the main point in this case, 11
  • 13. Displaying information of public notices in hotels, travel England's tourism. The partner in the voluntary sector (the agencies and transport enterprises. same model as in The Netherlands) is the Holiday care Service. This entity is the UK's central source of holiday Elevators adapted for disabled and special toilets. information for people. The report was written by Mary An adequate number of restaurants should be adapted to the Becker as represent of the Working Party. That show us the use of handicapped. importance of the political side of the phenomena. The first recommendation is that the tourist industry should realise that the "special needs" of the "social tourism" are only "special" if the environment makes them so. The factors, D: TRANSPORT: The WTO take into consideration only which taken in isolation or together, make holidays-taking buses. Some buses should be adapted to wheel-chair users. In difficult or impossible for the physically handicapped are the other countries as the United States the main question in the follow: actual debate is aerial accessibility. One should understand the different role played for the aerial transport in this huge country. The market is big enough and the competence arise. In the State, groups of pressure change the legislation and Problems of mobility experience: (wheel-chair) accessibility is low right. Caring for a dependent relation (between the handicapped and the volunteer or member of the family. And the need of volunteers in all kind of excursion and tourist opportunities, We can find a syntheses with other political directives exchanges, etc.). oriented to the private market. It is important to contrast the former guide lines (WTO) with other recommendations. One Low income (The first problem facing the private market. The of the questions of this research is to weigh the importance of state is the only one able to fund tourist programmes) the new right theories and the Neo liberalism in the provision of holidays for disabled? We can look first at the English regulation to understand the common points. The English The private market is a new sector for this provision. The tourist board published in 1989 the book "Tourism for All". old dream of the New Right: Give responsibilities to private The English Tourist Board is a statutory body created by the organisations. The case of disabled organisations is special Development of Tourism Act 1969, to develop the market because they are “dependant" on the state despite the idea of 12
  • 14. an "independent" existence. That is the problem. Is it possible for private organisations (e.g. a travel agency) to provide these kinds of services? The sector or market is not very commercial and profitable. Most of the handicapped population in Spain and the Netherlands depend of the family or State care. This role of the “nanny state” (in Thatcher's words) would be achieved through subsidies. A small part of the budget for “social services” is oriented to holidays programmes. One should also consider the personal role of holidays. The provision in Spain (INSERSO) and in the Netherlands (Ministry of Welfare) is basis of this thesis and the way to fulfils this need at a reasonable price. The basic elements to create a Market are set up and the next question is if the private market could be interested in this business. 13
  • 16. S ECCIÓN 1 The objective of this research is the comparison of the holidays provision for the physically disable people in The METHODOLOGY Netherlands and Spain. A quantitative research is difficult to carry out. For this thesis I prefer to choose a qualitative research. That means, to select different case studies of holiday programmes for disabled people at both countries and at European Union level. This selection should be according to specific criteria. The general schema was mention in the first part of this thesis. Every study about tourism opportunities KEY POINTS for handicapped people should take into account three levels of intervention: 1. The European Union • State provision. 2. The Netherlands • Volunteer organisations. 3. Spain • The tourist market. The case studies used was were restricted to Brussels (Mobility International), Utrecht (SRG), Tilburg (Red Cross), Bilbao (Coordinadora de Disminuidos Físicos de Bizkaia) and Madrid (Accessible travel), cities visited during the PELS programme. However one can get a good idea about the holidays possibilities with these examples. The cases studies presented in this thesis will follow this scheme: 15
  • 17. HELIOS I & II PROGRAMMS The basic information to describe the holidays THE EUROPEAN UNION programmes was provided by the organisations. themselves. POLICY The direct source was written information and personal Case Study: Mobility interviews. To compare the provision of holidays and the International different programmes we need a model. The success of a holiday programme depend of all the recommendation that I mentioned before in the chapter "statement". In Nederlands and Spain there are several tourist programmes for the State: The Ministry of THE NETHERLANDS physically disabled. arranged traditionally for Voluntary or, in Welfare some cases, by private organisation or travel agencies. These (case study: THE RED organisations offer a product: A Voyage. That is what we will CROSS) compare: a holiday package specially arranged for the (case study: SRG Stichting physically disabled. The success depend of the following Recreatie Gehandicapten, aspects: Haarlem) SPAIN STATE: MINISTERIO DE 1.- Type of product: ASUNTOS SOCIALES (INSERSO as state provision) 1.a.- Domestic or foreign holidays. (case study: COCEMFE) 1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 1 or 2 weeks normally with (case study: FEDERACION some exceptions in case of special packages. COORDINADORA DE DISMINUIDOS FISICOS DE 1.c.- Funding: State or private funding. This aspect has an VIZCAYA) important impact on the ability for physically disabled people (Case study: Accessible Travel to take holidays. Traditionally the founding was mainly from SA., Madrid) the State. However, with the new political tendencies, funding is becoming more privatised. 16
  • 18. 3.- Customers: 2.- Organisation: For this study just the physically disabled. However some organisations do not offer package just for the physically 2.a.- Real cost: Very important data, not always available for disabled and have programmes for disabled people in general this study because some organisations consider this (SRG, Utrecht or Mobility International, Brussels) information as secret. 2.b.- Cost to users: Aspect related logically to the funding (state or private) That is the model to follow in all the case studies. But still another factor to consider: the psychological satisfaction 2.c.- Staff: Full-time and/or seasonal workers, voluntary of the customers. Aspect quite difficult to measure in a worker, etc. qualitative research. Our target group of tourist is the 2.d.- Activities: Excursion, parties and other social events. physically disabled people. Some of whom have previous That is a key point for the success of the holidays from a experiences of "normal holidays" (I refer to people who psychological point of view. became disabled after an accident) and other not. How valuable are holidays from a social and personal perspective 2.e.- Facilities: transport, hotel, etc. Accessibility is the key for the European physically disabled? That is maybe the real word of this point. The infrastructure for "normal" holidays importance of this paper from a political point of view within should be adapted to "special" holidays. That is what we call the Social Europe. accessibility. In fact the new regulations for hotel building consider the accessibility for the physically disabled people. Old hotels are normally not accessible at all and conversion is very expensive and not affordable. Considering the transport, most of the organisations recognise the problem to find accessible buses to transport the group to hotels or on excursions. 17
  • 19. C APÍTULO 4 RESEARCH'S RESULTS TOURISM PROVISION FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED IN THE EUROPEAN UNION, SPAIN AND THE NETHERLANDS.
  • 20. S ECCIÓN 1 POLICY ON DISABLED PEOPLE IN THE EUROPEAN UNION THE EU POLICY ON DISABLED The European Union understands the importance of AND TOURISM FOR tourism for the European economy. Tourism industry is a big market but approximately 40% of the Europeans do not take HANDICAPPED PEOPLE: holidays. The reasons for this fact are economical problems but also disabilities or health problems. Handicapped, elderly, KEY POINTS unemployed, etc. build a special group called social tourism. In building a united Europe, social cohesion must be 1. Case study: Mobility International encouraged. The Community is trying to ensure-harmonious development to avoid unfair gaps between regions or social groups. The treaty on European Union (Maastricht Treaty) includes this objective of social cohesion in the official text, whilst fully respecting the autonomy of the national authorities (the principle of subsidarity). That is the general political framework. In the decision of the council (92/421/CEE) the European Union offer a community action programme to assist disabled people. Some of this actions are directly related to tourism opportunities. The HELIOS programme in favour of integration and independent living of disabled people fall within the context of the construction of a Social Europe. Helios mean "Handicapped people in the European Community living independently in an open society." The 19
  • 21. HELIOS II programme covers the period from 1 January 1993 Europe, A) The national procedures and regulations which to 31 December 1996. The budget is 37 millions of ecus. One disabled people should follow to obtain theses technical objective of the HELIOS programme is to encourage the aids. This information is compiled in a data bank in nine participation of disabled people in Community programmes languages and supplied on CD-ROM, which is accessible in in areas such as vocational training, studying abroad, the centres designated by the 12 Member States. language studies, etc. Some of this areas could be consider as HANDYNET also includes a multilingual electronic journal tourism. HELIOS II works around annual priority themes, so and a electronic mail system. all projects, seminars, meetings, training courses, exchanges of experiences must be short term events involving at least 3 European Member States and be around the theme of: Three are the main ideas or values of the HELIOS Accessibility, Transport, Sport, Leisure & Culture, programme: Equal opportunities, integration and Associations & Integration, Removal of Social & Psychological independent living. On the basis of these principles, the Barriers to Independence. HELIOS is the only community HELIOS programme covers five top-priority areas: programme exclusively dedicated to disabled people, but it operates in synergy with other Community initiatives, e.g.: • Functional rehabilitation. • HORIZON: an initiative which aims at improving access to • Educational integration. employment for disabled people and for other disadvantage • Vocational training and rehabilitation. social groups such as the long-term unemployed. • Economic integration • TIDE: A Research and Development initiative concerned with the use of technology in the rehabilitation of disabled • Social integration. and elderly people. • HANDYNET: A specialised, computerised information system which makes available tens of thousands of items of Tourism opportunities for handicapped is not actually a information to disabled people and rehabilitation clear issue in the policies of the EU. Most of the efforts are professionals. This information relates to: A) Technical aids, oriented to accessibility in our information society. This point B) The manufacturers and distributors of theses products in is very important. handicapped people need integration into 20
  • 22. these opportunities to achieve an independent living. We can equal opportunities. The theory of transfer was also a concern summarise these values in the HELIOS programme of the in the previous Community programmes for the integration of Commission of the European Communities (Directorate disabled people (HELIOS I, 1988-1991). The transfer to General "Employment, Industrial Relations, Social Affairs". colleagues in other European countries, normally in the Division "Integration of disabled people, 1994): typical form of a tourist international seminar, is a form of tourism in another level. In some cases, HELIOS give • EQUAL OPPORTUNITIES: whatever their disability, all participants their first taste of travelling abroad. Practically disabled people should have the same opportunities in life everyone expressed enthusiasm for inter cultural exchange as other citizens. Opportunities also in the tourism field. and their experience of other countries and customs. It is Disabled people should have the same opportunities to take undoubtedly true that the Helios programme has contributed holidays at least once per year. The Human rights to improving communication and co-ordination between declaration (1948) affirm the same right. disability organisations and institutions in Europe. Disabled • INTEGRATION: A disability in itself should not be an workers of workers with disabilities represented for a national obstacle to participating in social and cultural life and to or international organisation can share the benefits of this access to transport and public services. The European Union exchanges. The organisation of this seminars is arranged for recognise this but only from an accessibility perspective. Mobility International, taking the form of exchange tourist Tourism involve different services: transport, programmes: 1996 is the last year of the HELIOS II. The accommodation, activities and excursions, etc. criteria of selection remain the same as last year: you need to involve at least three European Union Member States, the • INDEPENDENT LIVING: Whatever their disability, all maximum amount which can be applied for 25.000 ecus per disabled people must be able to lead their lives, as far as activity (funding at 50% of cost of the whole project). There possible, independently. How does this affect tourism? A are certain priority themes which have to be respected in handicapped tourist normally needs one or two assistants. 1996, and these are: Sport, leisure and cultural Activities, The ideal is to overcome architectural barriers without help. Elimination of Socio-Psychological barriers to independence, That is far away of the reality. etc. The Commission is particularly looking for proposals which show how to each activity relates to the United Nations Standard Rules, and would like to encourage applications Transfer is a valuable and effective means to achieve the relating to the needs of disabled women. HELIOS programme's aims of promoting integration and 21
  • 23. physically disabled, is specially consider as a way of cultural exchange. Since 1995 there has been a lot of Commission activity in the way of new programmes, proposals and papers which are of interest to individuals and organisations in the disability Leonardo is the new European Union programme for field. The Commission launched its Medium Term Action "vocational training" and runs from January 1995 to Programme 1995-1997 following consultations after the Green December 1999, with a budget of 620 million ECU for five and White Paper on the future of the European Social Policy. years. Leonardo now incorporates elements of the old PETRA, Although not all social networks are happy with the FORCE, COMETT & EUROTECNET, as well as certain aspects possibilities for action and travel (relating this point to our of LINGUA. So this, in a way, makes the programme quite research) offered in the Medium Term Social Action complex but also quite broad-ranging in its possibilities and Programme. The disability NGO's were actually very the so-called "strands" of the programme, such as measures to encouraged by the intentions expressed in the programme support the training policies of the Member States; support concerning future actions in the disability field.. However the for the improvement of vocational training measures and new recommendation are related to the travel conditions of support for the development of language skills. Educational workers with motor difficulties. Employment and not holidays tourism is a possibility of this Leonardo grants. still the main trend. Case study: Mobility International Other programme: Youth for Europe III was adopted early this year and offers plenty of scope for exchanges It is interesting for our research the role played for The between young people, particularly those with a EU in an international level. Most of the big European "Disadvantage" as well as Youth workers actions, exchanges voluntary organisation in a national level apply for subsidies between European and non-European countries. One of the EU funds in form of European federation of local objective encourage tourism indirectly: "enabling young organisation. The European Disabled Forum and Mobility people to view the European Community as an integral part of International are designed as responsible of the actions their historical, political, cultural and social related to tourism. (Dec. 92/421 CEE) The Funding is related environment."(DG XXII, 1995). Tourism as exchange of to another European programme: Horizon. Mobility International were designated the co-ordinating European 22
  • 24. NGO for the Independent Living sector of HELIOS II, which because the participants travel to another country; meet new has as its remit the areas: independent living, transport, people and enjoy the stay. One example could be the seminar tourism, creativity, accessibility and sport. Mobility of Intercultura Siciliana (27th May - 4th June 1994): Young International were also chosen as the researchers for the two people from France, England, Northern Ireland, Finland and DGXXIII European guides: Making Europe Accessible to Italy came together to sample the delights of Sicily in a project Disabled Travellers and Accessible Europe: A Guide for hosted by Mobility International’s member AIAS Caltagirone Disabled Travellers, and participate in the DGXXIII - DGV and subsidised by the European Youth Foundation (Council of meetings on independent living and tourism. Europe). In only one week the group had a crash course in basic Italian, discussed different approaches to independent living in their country and learnt to cook typical Sicilian Mobility International is one of the biggest organisations dishes. This stay is not really Tourism because the aim was to in Europe for the physically disabled with branches in 15 participate in the seminar, but all the other activities are different countries. Officially established as an international typical of a tourist stay. non-governmental organisation in 1982, since then they organised over 260 different international projects, seminars, exchanges, conferences and languages courses. The aim of Mobility International has produced a guide entitled : this organisation is to promote the integration and We're not ready yet! for voluntary organisations and disabled independence of people with all kind of disabilities through people. Mobility International publish also a magazine (News) the medium of international exchange. They provide people twice a year marketing those holidays opportunities and with disabilities the opportunity to meet, understand and offering enough information about other tourism provision in makes friends with others from different countries. Mobility different countries. We refer to News Autumn 94 & Summer International has representation all the European Union 95. Mobility International is the ideal vehicle to inform countries except Spain and Portugal. This organisation is handicapped people about different possibilities for travel specially interesting for our research because it take full abroad safe and find a accessible hotel. advantage of all the operational programmes of the European Union for disabled: Horizon, Helios, etc. Mobility International organise different seminars around the year We can take an example of a tourism programme of about topics related to Disabled integration and leisure for all. Mobility International to apply the model mentioned before. That could be considered a special kind of “cultural tourism” Most of the projects are aimed at young people (16-30 yr.) 23
  • 25. with any kind of disabilities. Other projects are more open to 1.a.- Foreign holidays. Linda Gartshore and her team organise people over 30 years as well. Mobility International assist in a English course (Holiday's course) in Lord Mayor Treolar the setting up of networks based on common interest. They College in Alton, south of England. offer the rare opportunity to meet other people with and 1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 17 - 31 July 1995, 11 days. without special needs (Integration objective of Helios). New networks have started this way. Mobility International has 1.c.- Funding: Private funding. The students pay the total status with United Nations, Council of Europe and the cours fees.Of course it is open the possibility to get a grant Commission of European Union. The activities are funded from the state or other private institution. mainly by the EU's Measures for Disabled Persons Social Action Programme: Helios. This organisation has a excellent contacts to arrange tourism programmes. We can take one 2.- Organisation: example to use as case study to analyse: That could be the Alton Linguability Language Course. 2.a.- Real cost: Very important data but not available for this study. 2.b.- Cost to users: 500 £ HOLIDAYS PROVISION PROGRAMME 2.c.- Staff: Full-time seasonal workers fully trained. ALTON LINGUABILITY COURSE 2.d.- Activities:The English classes are the main activity. There will also be a programme of visits to London and and Strandford upon Avon, and this is included in the cost of the 1.- Type of product: Cultural tourism. The formula is holiday course.Parties and social events are also arranged by holidays + language course. That is the new trend of tourism the school. as cultural tourism for the physically disabled. 2.e.- Facilities: Lord Mayor is a residential college for students with disabilities, designed for wheelchair users and people with mobility problems. Accommodation is in single or double 24
  • 26. rooms, and all personal assistants are fully trained. The accessibility is total in all classrooms and swimming pool. Flights are met at London's Heathrow airport, and adapted coaches complete de Journey to Alton. 3.- Customers: In this case just physically disabled people with mobility problems. 25
  • 27. S ECCIÓN 2 POLICY ON DISABLED PEOPLE IN TOURISM PROVISION THE NETHERLANDS FOR THE PHYSICALLY It is difficult to five a clear indication of how many DISABLED IN THE disabled people are in Holland. 1.5 million of the 15 millions inhabitants of the Netherlands are generally regarded as NETHERLANDS suffering from a physical disability (1 in 10 people), while some 100,000 to 120,000 (1 in 150 to 125 people) are mentally handicapped (Study conducted in 1986 by the Social KEY POINTS Science Research Institute of the University of Brabant in 1. POLICY ON DISABLED PEOPLE IN THE Tilburg, Fact sheet W-2-E 1992). To give an impression of the NETHERLANDS number of services available in 1990, approximately NLG (Nederlands Gulden ) 4 billion were spent on these services. 2. THE ROLE OF THE VOLUNTARY Estimates for 1991 budget to approximately NLG 4.2 billions. ORGANISATIONS IN THE PROVISION OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY DISABLED. The Ministry of Welfare, Health and Cultural Affairs is 3. Case Study:. THE RED CROSS IN TILBURG responsible of the disabled's policy in the Netherlands. In fact in 1982 culture and recreation were separated out of the 4. THE HOLIDAY'S MARKET FOR THE ministry responsible for social Welfare considering disable. PHYSICALLY DISABLED IN THE Outdoor recreation was placed under the Ministry of NETHERLANDS. Agriculture and Fishery, while culture and groups with "special needs" was divided off into a new Ministry of Health, 5. Case Study: stichting recreatie gehandicapten Well Being and Culture. The Ministry is responsible for policy on care and other facilities for disabled people (including indirectly tourism). Although two parties are involved in this 26
  • 28. policy: The Government and the private, community based, The Dutch Council for the Disabled, embracing national organisations. To simplify: organisations of disabled people, patients and parents. The government provides the regulations, FUNDS (most The Netherlands Federation of Centres for the Physically important aspect for tourism opportunities), plans, Disabled, the umbrella organisation of activity centres and monitors, advises and "co-ordination". housing schemes (aspect very related to the housing needs of all tourist programmes). The private organisations provide the services, the infrastructure and the basis work; ensuring that the quality is maintained. They have a non-profit making basis. The In fact is the same schema in Spain with COCEMFE & private organisations are divided into: COAMIFICOA. The Services for the Disabled Association, the national network of care workers and social service organisations need of the State to exist. The objectives of the • Religious (Protestant and Catholic) disabled's policy in Netherlands are: integration, participation • Non-confessional (The Red Cross for example). and equal opportunities. The same as the HELIOS programme of the European Union. Coming to the praxis, the state policy encouraged that people in need of assistance can play the fullest possible part in society. In the Last few The ministry has a separate department (The decades existing facilities have changed radically and new Inter-ministerial Steering Committee on the Disabled) but types of services have emerged. One new trend is the aspects such sport are responsibility of others departments. Domiciliary care. It is very important this point because the We can observe a dualism between State and Private State pay the "Care" to the private organisations and the Organisations. The relations between The Ministry and the organisations them self determine which services they will different organisations are regulated and conducted by a offer. Anyway the cost of the services for the handicapped are consultative committee (GOC - WVC) represented for high but covered largely from social insurance funds. This different organizations: Like in Spain exists two principal social Welfare state (not in a big crisis at the moment) provide Organisations of and for persons with a physical handicap: the support for innovatory projects for work and leisure. The innovatory services are introduce in the form of pilot projects (the same way as in Spain as we will observe afterwards), 27
  • 29. which provide the opportunity to examine how an idea works FACILITIES FOR THE PHYSICALLY HANDICAPPED in practice. Later on a consultative "body" analyses the PEOPLE projects. Targeting the social sector of this research, the ministry is involved in providing the following facilities for FACILITIES NUMBER PLACES person with a physical and/or sensory handicap: Long-term Activity centres 33 1.130 accommodation and guidance are provided in large housing units. small housing units and housing units for young people. Hostels 4 800 Other option in the normal life are the Activity centres that offer activities for people with disabilities. Many of the Source: Netherlands Federation of Centres for the participants suffer from a motor disorder. The most Physically Disabled (1990); Financial Overview of important facilities for our research are the Holiday homes, the Care Sector 1991. which provide the opportunity for disabled persons and their family to take a holiday. The Blauwe Guids is a good example of the market generated. I speak about market because all product has a target. Holidays for disabled his a product with oriented to a specific social sector. The physically disabled are THE ROLE OF THE VOLUNTARY our target here. ORGANISATIONS IN THE PROVISION OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY In 1990 the Central Bureau for Statistics (CBS) and the DISABLED. Netherlands Institute for Social Work Research published data from the 1986-1988 period. These data confirmed that even more as 10% of the Dutch population suffer from a Voluntary organisations or NGO's (Non governmental serious or very serious disability. The number of disabled Organisations) are the basis of the Social work with the people grow as the population age. The state finance handicapped. It is not possible to sustain the provision of programmes for disabled spending in 1990 NLG. 4 billion. services for handicapped without this kind of benevolent Estimating for 1991 amount to approximately NLG 4.2 billion. organisations. This also affects the provision of holidays for disabled. A lot of disabled people could not go on holiday without the participation and contribution of volunteers. 28
  • 30. The role of the volunteer who offers his/her time and work The Red Cross was founded in Holland in 1863. By without a salary is the key to maintain the organisations and definition it is a non-profit organisation. The Red Cross is one the services. The voluntary organisations use people who may of the largest voluntary organisations in The Netherlands. We or may not have medical training. analyse first the work of the Red Cross in general. Holland is a small country and the Red Cross is organise the same way in Logically when the volunteers have a medical training they are every region. The Red cross has different programmes with asked to use it. The volunteers accompany the handicapped the aim to aid people who are in difficulties. It organises a people during excursions and shopping, trips, etc. They give variety of activities for people who are likely to become some help during different recreational activities and assist socially isolated for any reason, etc. Concerning to our topic people when there is a demand, by washing, dressing and the Red Cross organised holidays, both in the Netherlands undressing, at meal times, going to the toilet, etc. To get an and abroad, for people who can not go on holiday on their idea, the Red Cross provides services in The Netherlands for own because of a chronic disease or handicap. 5500 disabled per year, and for that need the help of 3700 volunteers (Vakanties 1994, Vrijwilligers. Het Nederlandse Rode Kruis). The motivations of the volunteers are different The Red Cross in Tilburg was founded in 1910. The work but generally they are young people who want to spend their is carried out by between 300 and 350 volunteers and only free time doing something for others. Some volunteer one paid worker who is retired. All the members pay a annual organisations are religious but that is not the main trend. fee of 25 NLG. The department of Mrs Kleyn in Tilburg is in charge to select the disabled participants for the holiday programmes in the Brabant Region. Case Study:. THE RED CROSS IN The Red Cross in Holland has three holiday - TILBURG accommodations; the holiday ship of J. Henry Dunant, the holiday houses: "Ijssel vliedt" and "De Valkenberg". These two houses "Ijssel vliedt" and "De Valkenberg" are situated in a pleasant environment. There are both adapted to the needs of handicapped people. These two houses offer 29
  • 31. holidays to the disabled. In addition the Red Cross offers also 2.a.- Real cost: The total cost is 1.100 NLG per week the possibility of taking holidays outside the country. As case 2.b.- Cost to users: The participants need to pay just 325 NLG. study we will consider the just holiday ship J. Henry Dunant 2.c.- Staff: One payed doctor and several nurses (depending of the participant's level of disability). On the ship there is place for 68 participants (26 for people selected for the Tilburg's department) and 50 volunteers (including several nurses and HOLIDAYS PROVISION PROGRAMME: one doctor). THE HOLIDAY SHIP J. HENRY DUNANT 2.d.- Activities: People have the possibility to go on land when the ship anchors. Each evening there is a programme organised on land or in the ship. Parties and other social 1.- Type of product: events organized by the local Red Cross. 1.a.- Domestic holidays: The holiday ship J. Henry Dunant 2.e.- Facilities: Accessible transport to the ship arranged by was built in 1970 thanks to the large income of money from the Red Cross In the ship the accessibility is total (toilettes, the Television charity show "Ship Ahoy". The ship travels by furniture, etc). day and gives the opportunity to people to see a constantly changing landscape in The Netherlands. 1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 1 or 2 weeks. 3.- Customers: 68 physically disabled. 1.c.- Funding: private funding. The Netherlands State do not 3. THE HOLIDAY'S MARKET FOR THE support this association and the money comes from some PHYSICALLY DISABLED IN THE campaigns to raise funds. NETHERLANDS. 2.- Organisation: The possible sustainability of holidays programmes for disabled without State intervention is the ideal solution according to the theory of the New Right. The experience in 30
  • 32. England points to the importance of the private market to offered by SGR are in groups but each has an individual ensure the provision. That is not that easy. The private character. The opinion of each participant concerning market, by definition, seeks profit. The sector of the disabled excursions during their holidays is taken into account. The do not offer huge benefits. The disabled sector is a field participants choose the holiday best adapted to their personal traditionally related to the voluntary sector. needs. The participants must not be bedridden nor mentally handicapped and they must be aged between 18 and 65 years, Apart from this fact, some private enterprises work in the approximately. The helpers are all volunteers, although most sector. In most of the cases the State or the Ministry in charge of them do not have any medical background. SGR provides pays the holidays through the channel of a voluntary disabled some medical aid during the holiday. The volunteers have just organisation which arranges the programme. That seems the one day's training which gives explanations about the trip and ideal solution. The main question now is if the tourist industry the service to disabled people. can take into account the wider profile of potential consumers with special needs by preparing market profiles similar to those already available for the retired market. They organised a total of 33 programmes for 1994: 20 abroad and 13 in The Netherlands. To get a clear idea about the organisation we will mentione two of them. PLACE COUNTRY DAYS FROM/TO SERVICES GRAN Case Study: stichting recreatie CANARIA SPAIN 15 16/10...30/10 Fly + hotel gehandicapten TIETJERK HOLLAND 8 1/7......8/7 Bungalows The Stichting Recreatie Gehandicapten (SGR) is a Travel agency that provide services for disabled who can not go on HOLIDAY PROGRAMME IN GRAN holiday alone and need some kind of help. They offer travel information and arrange programmes of holidays and CANARIA excursions on the basis of an individual service. The holidays 31
  • 33. 1.- Type of product: 2.d.- Activities: There are possibilities of excursions to the capital or elsewhere following the wishes of the holiday makers.Each evening, there is in the hotel a show or an 1.a.- Foreign holidays in the sunny Canarias island. orchestra. The city is full of wonderful shops just for tourist. 1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 2 weeks (15 days). 2.e.- Facilities: The hotel Buenaventura Playa is on the beach. It is a very big hotel with accessible accommodation 1.c.- Funding: Private funding. There are no subsidies and facilities (14 lifts, 3 bars, 2 restaurants, a hairdresser, a organised through the company, either for the holiday maker sauna, etc.) The beach is too wide and varied in levels to allow or for any helper's travel costs. access for disabled people to the sea. Accessible transport from the airport to the hotel is also arranged 2.- Organisation: 3.- Customers: 13 physically disabled. 2.a.- Real cost: Data not provided by the travel company. 2.b.- Cost to users: Basic price: 2,241 NLG HOLIDAY PROGRAMME IN TIETJERK Possible supplements 1,452 NLG 1.- Type of product: Total: 5,693 NLG The prices include travelling, airport taxes, the holiday cost, some excursions and the cancellation insurance. The 1.a.- Domestic holidays in Tietjerk (Friesland) possible supplements are depending of the Degree of 1.b.- Duration of the holidays: 8 days. dependence. For foreign holidays, accident and luggage insurance in included. 1.c.- Funding: Private funding. There are no subsidies organised through the company, but as domestic holidays, the 2.c.- Staff: The holidays in Gran Canaria made for 13 holiday maker pay the helper's travel costs. participants and 9 voluntary workers. 32
  • 34. participants may go outside, to the shop or the water side without any problems. 2.- Organisation: 3.- Customers: 10 physically disabled. 2.a.- Real cost: Data not provided by the travel company. 2.b.- Cost to users: Basic price: 502 NLG Supplements: 439 NLG Total: 941 NLG The prices include transport, , the holiday cost, some excursions and the cancellation insurance. As in the case mentioned before, possible supplements are depending of the Degree of dependence. For all holidays within Holland, accident and luggage insurance are excluded. 2.c.- Staff: The trip to Tietjerk in Friesland (The Netherlands) is for 10 participants and 10 voluntary helpers. 2.d.- Activities: A lot of trips are organised through the typical landscape of the country. Dinner is normally taken in the bungalows with an occasional outing to a restaurant.Entretainment programme is organized by "De kleine Wielen" 2.e.- Facilities: The holidays take place in full accessible bungalows for 5 people in the Bungalow park "De kleine Wielen". Each bungalow has a roomy living room, a bathroom completely adapted and the bedrooms for 2 to 3 people. The 33
  • 35. S ECCIÓN 3 1. POLICY ON DISABLED IN SPAIN TOURISM PROVISION FOR THE PHYSICALLY The policy on disabled in Spain does not follow same scheme as Nederlands. Spain is divided in 17 Autonomous DISABLED IN SPAIN. Communities have legislative powers specific to their own territory. They have their own autonomous government, and jurisdictional powers in the application of laws approved by their parliaments. The Spanish State is, however, not a federal KEY POINTS state, since power is delegated downwards, from the centre to the Autonomous Communities. The municipalities are 1. POLICY ON DISABLED IN SPAIN perhaps the weakest element in this system, since their 2. THE INSERSO. budgets are dependent on subvention from various higher levels of government, and there is a lack of definition as to 3. THE ROLE OF THE NGO IN THE their specific competences. In fact, the transference of power PROVISION OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE to the different Autonomous.The main difference between PHYSICALLY DISABLED IN SPAIN. The Netherlands and Spain is the structure of the government (at central, provincial and municipal level). The Netherlands 4. Case Study: COCEMFE is a small country and these three levels are not a barrier for 5. THE ROLE OF NGO IN THE PROVISION OF the provision of holidays for disabled."Las Autonomías" are HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY the autonomical regions in Spain. Euskadi, Catalunya, Galicia, DISABLED IN EUSKADI. Andalucía y Valencia are the most representatives During this research the responsibilities of the Central Social security 6. Case Study: FDFB services are now concernant to the local Social security service 7. THE HOLIDAY'S MARKET FOR DISABLED with his own policy. This struggle for the power also in IN SPAIN. Case Study: ACCESSIBLE TRAVEL Welfare benefits between the Central Government and the Autonomías is not really good for the provision of services for S.A. (Madrid) disabled in Spain. The Central government holidays programmes for handicapped started in 1986 with 212 34
  • 36. participants. The number increase since 1989 but only with for managing Social Services which are supplementary to the handicapped citizens from the areas where the INSERSO has benefits available under the Social Security System. We can responsibility. This situation is unfair for the rest of Spanish call it: Welfare Ministry. Under the provisions of Royal Decree disabled and in 1993 began a new directive open this 530/1985, INSERSO assumed all the Central Administration's programme for all the disabled in Spain. Other problems power in respect of managing Social Services. Under Royal comme now because handicapped from Catalunya or Valencia Decree 727/1988 INSERSO was brought under the scope of has free access to programmes of the INSERSO and the Ministry of Social Affaires. programmes of his own Autonomous Community. That mean that they have more chances as other Spaniards from Extremadura or Castilla. The INSERSO has different areas related to groups with "special needs": Handicapped, elderly & Refugees. The "Responsibilities" most important for our research concerning Leisure policy for the elderly and handicapped take into tourism for handicapped are: consideration the social tourism (a small but increasing supply of cheap holidays and trips), these are provided by both public and private institutions to take responsibility for Declaring handicapped individuals to meet Social Security what started as private ventures, and the emergence of eligibility requirements as well as examining and registering voluntary sector centres for the elderly. the handicapped. Managing the social and income benefits foreseen in Title V of Act 13/1982, on Social Integration of the Handicapped. Setting up and running Residential Centres for the physically, THE INSERSO. mentally and sensorial handicapped, offering them permanent attention and personal as well as other social services. The Instituto Nacional de Servicios Sociales (INSERSO) was set up under Royal Decree-law 26/1987, of 16 November, under the Institutional Management of Social Security, Health and Employment, as the Social Security Agency responsible 35
  • 37. This three responsibilities are quite important for our directly-managed Basic Centres in operation. The INSERSO topic. Physically Handicapped who want to take part in a had 4 Centres for the Recuperation of the physically programme of the INSERSO should have more as 50% of handicapped in operation, located in Salamanca, Lardero (La disability (Responsibility one). Secondly the "Residential Rioja), Albacete and San Fernando (Cádiz). This kind of Centres" oriented to insertion in society through a productive centres are ideal to provide accommodation and services for a work, could be use as Residential Hostel in the Summer. In holidays programme for physically handicapped. The fact last 1994 they did. accessibility is optimal and also the occupational training can make unforgettable holidays. In fact the INSERSO use this centre in the Summer, when the "residents" take holidays in The organisational structure of the Instituto Nacional de another part. Servicios Sociales (INSERSO) was set forth in Royal Decree 1433/1985. The institute's human resources in 1993 have been: 1,934 staff and 9,076 workers under labour contracts as The social protection system in Spain for the well as 350 casual workers. The managerial structure is of a handicapped administrated by INSERSO includes various functional nature, aimed at achieving the social integration of financial protection programmes which take the form or the groups for which INSERSO is responsible as well as regular benefits. Retirement and disability pensions are paid ensuring participation of the handicapped in managing the in fourteen regular payments, the total for 1993 being 441,420 relevant services through the Boards for the handicapped. pesetas. The disability pension carries a supplement of 50% of That is the same structure as in The Netherlands: the annual amount when the beneficiary is affected by a Government and private and voluntary organizations. The chronic handicap of 75% or more and needs another person to private organization and normally also volunteer , which help with basic daily chores. In 1993, the amount has been operate on a non-profit making basis, are responsible for 220,710 pesetas broken down into fourteen regular payments. providing services. The first experience of holidays for disabled organized by Besides its Central Services and Provincial Directorates, INSERSO was in 1986 with the “Jornadas de convivencia para INSERSO, works through an infrastructure of Care Centres minusvalidos fisicos”. Those programmes were arranged for for the elderly and the handicapped. The basic centres for the periods of 15 days and were quite successfull. The handicapped . As of December 1993, INSERSO had 32 programmes consist of leisure activities in places of “touristic 36
  • 38. interest”. INSERSO continued with it fo the next two years. To understand the growing of this holidays programas one The first programme started in 1986.with 212 physically can consult this table: disabled. Since 1989 the INSERSO enlarged the target group with the inclusion of mentally disabled. The participation in YEAR PHYSICALLY DISABLED this second periods was a test with excellent results. 1992 was 1986 212 an important year in the programme. Until this year the INSERSO programmes were valid only in the Spanish 1987 400 territory where INSERSO has responsibilities (27 provinces). 1988 281 Disabled people from Euskadi or Catalunya for example (where the transference of the national health service PHYSICALLY MENTALLY TOTAL responsibilities to the Autonomical health service is total) YEAR were not able to participate in the programme. In 1993 the DISABLED DISABLED PARTICIPANTS programmes were on offer for all the Spanish territory. The 1989 414 2.150 2.564 participation in the last two years with the inclusion of a new 1990 569 2.500 3.069 group (mentally patientes) increase the target. 1991 309 3.228 3.537 1992 383 3.479 3.876 One can compare the increasing figures with the 360.000 elderly who participate in the holidays programmes of INSERSO. The Earderly holidays programme of the PHYSICALLY MENTAL MENTAL TOTAL INSERSO: "Programa de vacaciones para la Tercera Edad". YEAR DISABLED DISABLED PATIENTS PARTICIP. The peak in participation has not yet achieved but however 1993 329 6.306 ---- 6.635 the progress in the provisions is clear (Annual Report 1994. INSERSO’s holidays programme for disabled) 1994 656 6.371 54 7.081 SOURCE: Annual Report 1994. INSERSO’s holidays The financial sources of the programmes came from the programme for disabled 0,5 if the NGP dedicated to Social Services. The amount for 37
  • 39. the disabled holidays programmes was 145.000 m Pts in 1994. physically disabled persons in Spain is COCEMFE The budget for 1995 is increase to 155.000 m Pts. Holidays for (Confederación Coordinadora Estatal de Minusválidos físicos disabled (BOE of 20th Mars 1995 (n.67; Point 4). de España). They began their holiday programmes during the low season of 1987 and during the high season of 1988. After this date they provided 9 annual holidays tours, each one for 45 persons. Holidays for disabled people is a new concept in Spain which is very successful. Normally the disabled people who thake these holidays whish to repeat them. At the present the demand excede the provision, as explain Jesús Tamayo, director of the holiday programme of the COCEMFE. We will analyse one of their packages as a case study: THE ROLE OF THE VOLUNTARY Case Study: COCEMFE ORGANISATIONS IN THE PROVISION (Confederación Coordinadora Estatal de Minusválidos físicos de España). OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY DISABLED IN SPAIN. 1.- Type of product: Voluntary organisations form the base of the Social work with the handicapped. It is not possible to sustain the 1.a.- Domestic holidays in Cubellas (Barcelona). The majority provision of holidays for handicapped without these types of of the holidays organaised by COCEMFE take place in Spain. benevolent organisations. This is the same situation in The However in the 1990 together with the INSERSO they Netherlands and in Spain. The largest charity organization for 38
  • 40. organized a holiday in Portugal and in 1988 and 1999 also to 2.e.- Facilities: The COCEMFE has their own accustomised Italy. bus with capacity for 50 persons and as well as a mini bus with capacity for 10 persons. The choice of hotels is made 1.b.- Duration of the holidays:15 days, from 16 to 29 August according to the criteria of quality and cost. They generally 1996 look for three starts hotels adapted without barriers and 1.c.- Funding: Partial state funding. The COCEMFE recognize which offer serviced tailored to the group. that their programmes could be a little more expensive than other partially state funded projects however they feel that the quality is better. 3.- Customers: the COCEMFE provided 9 annual holidays tours, each one for 45 persons, between 18 and 65 years old. They organized special separate programmes for children in 2.- Organisation: Granada, Madrid and Segovia. 2.a.- Real cost: Information not available. 2.b.- Cost to users: The cost for the handicapped travellers is partially subsidised by the state. If they wish travel accompanied by a friend or able bodied helper this THE ROLE OF THE VOLUNTARY organisation endevour to arrange a special price. The normal ORGANISATIONS IN THE PROVISION price of this holiday programme is 28.500 Pts OF HOLIDAYS FOR THE PHYSICALLY 2.c.- Staff: 4 Full-time helpers per group and a driver. DISABLED IN EUSKADI. 2.d.- Activities: Excursions are arranged. They use an accustomised bus that makes possible to visit the surronding Before to study one voluntary organization in area. The group also takes part in parties and other social Euskadi we should consider the special political structure of events. Spain and its division into Autonomies. This fact makes necessary to understand the policy on disabled in Euskadi 39