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TOURISM AND TRANSPORTATION
CHAPTER - 1
INTRODUCTION
1
Chapter
Objectives &
Contents
 Global changes are
affecting travel for
tourism and critical
role in modern society
 Oil, travel and transport
 Tourism studies and
tourist transport
 The nature and scope of
tourist transport: modes
of travel
 Tourism and destination
development:
a critical role for
transportation
2
Global
changes
affecting
travel for
tourism and
critical role
in modern
society
 Since the late 1990s, the world has
experienced many major trends
affecting both the economic and social
life of many countries and probably one
of the most profound is the growing
importance of globalization.
 Transport has been a key element in
achieving the greater global
interconnectedness of different areas
and regions as transport connects
different places and destinations: put
simply, transport connects the origin
and destination.
3
Global
changes
affecting
travel for
tourism
4
This is particularly the case for tourism, as
broadly speaking nowhere on the globe is more
than 24 hours' travel from anywhere else and
technology has enabled companies and people
to interact on a global scale.
But in a globalised world where space and
distance no longer act as the major constraint
on economic activity, and repeated that in many
subsequent geographical analyses of transport,
technology and transport have had a profound
impact on making our globalised world work
effectively.
Three eras of Globalisation can be
discerned:
1. The first relates to when Columbus set sail in 1492 and
ended in the early 1800s and is largely associated with
growing exploration and discovery of other places.
2. The second dates from the early 1800s and is explained by
the development of a critical mass of global trade so that
companies expanded into global entities, often related to
the Imperial ambitions of their host country to exploit
underdeveloped resources as well as new markets.
3. The third dates from the late 1990s with the rise of web
technologies to allow people and businesses to collaborate
on a global scale.
5
6
Several profound changes, events, trends or innovations that changed
the world have had a major impact on the role of transport in relation to
tourism, as the following points suggest;
 The rise of the personal computer, software and networks has allowed
the technological connectedness to occur between people and
countries. For example, the introduction of new technology has led to
online booking, online check-in for air travel and other transportation
means.
 Workflow software has allowed businesses to collaborate on a global
scale and has meant global supply chains have emerged creating a
greater international dimension to work activity generating a greater
demand for international business travel.
7
 Outsourcing has allowed organizations to manage business processes
with technology at a distance irrespective of location. For example, this
generated the demand for call centre location especially in India.
 The growth of China as a global economic power which has completely
overtaken the tourism sector as a leading outbound market and
destination, was reflected in the massive growth rates in the demand
for air travel..
8
The rise of 'in-forming‘ via PC has created
a generation which is web-enabled and
more aware of how to access the
opportunities to travel.
The rise of the wireless society, where the desk of the worker
now goes anywhere with them via the PC or laptop (or growing
numbers of personal devices) so that workers are mobile and
able to work while they travel, creating new opportunities for
combining travel and work in a more flexible manner.
9
These trends contributed to the flattening of the globe, meaning that as these
trends / innovations converge (combine), there has been a revolution in the market
for travel and tourism:
 the rise of new industrialized countries has seen a redefinition of the economic
power base on a global scale.
 These new economic realities also shape the pattern of travel and tourism
 This has meant that globalization has made the world more open to more
people to travel
Oil, travel
and
transport
 Most forms of transport for tourism are
dependent upon oil as the basis for
energy and this has seen sharp rises
and fluctuations in recent years to over
US $100 a barrel (nowadays around $
107).
 Much of the growth in in the post-war
period in transport and tourism has
been predicated on relatively cheap oil,
since between 1947 and 2007, US$ 19.04
per barrel (average).
 However, in the period since 1970,
prices averaged US $ 32 a barrel as
demand increased from developing
economies and due to a weak US dollar
10
 Consequently, with transport still largely dependent upon fossil fuels for
energy, there are potential concerns about the future provision of
cheap transport, particularly air travel.
 So the previous growth in transport and tourism is not as readily
assured as in the era of cheap travel, although the tourism sector is
well known for its innovative behaviour to develop new models of
production
 But energy is a dominant element for transportation.
11
Oil, travel and transport
What do we
understand by
the term
tourism?
 Even though tourism can be
defined as both an industry and a
service activity, it is widely
recognized that tourism combines
a broad range of economic
activities and services designed to
meet the needs of tourists.
 It is evident that the tourism
sector is a broad, all-encompassing
term which includes
accommodation, catering,
transport and ancillary services.
 tourism can tend to obscure (dark)
the wider significance of the
transport sector in tourist travel
12
What do we
understand by the
term tourism?
 Likewise, if one then considers the
interrelationship between air transport and
tourism from an economic perspective the
wider significance of direct tourist spending
on transport and the indirect benefits in
terms of employment and other spin-offs (by
products) is self-evident.
 Consequently, transport provides the
essential link between tourism origin and
destination areas and facilitates the
movement of holidaymakers, business
travellers, people visiting friends and
relatives and those undertaking educational
and health tourism
13
What do we understand
by the term tourism?
 Transport can also form the focal point for tourist
activity in the case of cruising and holidays that
contain a significant component of travel
 Here the mode of transport forms a context and
controlled environment for tourists' movement
between destinations and attractions, often
through the medium of a 'tour'.
 Without transportation, most forms of tourism could
not exist.
 In some cases, the transportation experience is
the tourism experience itself (e.g. cruises, scenic
and heritage rail trips, and motor coach,
automobiles and bicycle tours).
14
Tourism studies and tourist
transport
15
There are three needs to fulfill
transporting the tourist from the
generating to the host area (destination)
transport between host destinations
transport within host destinations
Tourist transport also classified on several
bases as;
public or private sector transport
water/land/air transport
domestic and international transport
Tourism studies and tourist transport
The shrinking of distance by modern forms of international
transport and four major phases can be realised in the
evolution of transport technology:
 the transition from horse and windpower
 the introduction of the steam engine
 the development of the combustion engine
 the use of the jet engine
Global shrinkage has occurred with reduced journey times,
cost reductions and improved capacity
16
The nature and
scope of tourist
transport:
modes of travel
 During any recreational or tourist trip, tourists
may encounter and use different forms of
transport.
 Although this may seem self-evident, it is
useful to briefly outline some of the key
characteristics of tourist transport, which can
be divided into a simple classification Tourist
transport is dependent upon the available
disposable income to purchase travel options,
which varies by social groups and in and
between countries.
 Cost becomes a key factor in many travel
choices and highlights how important the
developed-less developed world differences
are in tourist transport options, where income
levels, affluence and patterns of consumption
are markedly different.
 Competition between different forms of tourist
transport is also important, which highlights
the significance of substitutability in transport
for tourism, where price, demand, supply and
relative cost become critical components.
17
 Tourist destinations are a mix of tourism products, experiences
and other intangible items promoted to consumers.
 At a general level, this concept of a destination can be
developed to represent geographically defined entities such
as groups of countries, individual countries, regions in a
country, a rural area, a resort or a wide range of experiences
created by tourism marketers.
From a tourist's perspective, a destination may usually be classified
into:
 conventional resorts
 environmental destinations
 business tourism centres
 places one stops at en route to another place
 a short-break destination and day-trip destinations
In essence, destinations are places which tourists visit and stay at.
18
Tourism and
destination
development:
a critical role
for
transportation
Tourism and
destination
development:
a critical role
for
transportation
19
There are six interrelated components which comprise
a destination, often refereed to as an amalgam of the
six As:
Available packages
Accessibility
Attractions & Amenities
Activities, and
Ancillary Services
20
End of Chapter slides

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Tourism and transportation

  • 2. Chapter Objectives & Contents  Global changes are affecting travel for tourism and critical role in modern society  Oil, travel and transport  Tourism studies and tourist transport  The nature and scope of tourist transport: modes of travel  Tourism and destination development: a critical role for transportation 2
  • 3. Global changes affecting travel for tourism and critical role in modern society  Since the late 1990s, the world has experienced many major trends affecting both the economic and social life of many countries and probably one of the most profound is the growing importance of globalization.  Transport has been a key element in achieving the greater global interconnectedness of different areas and regions as transport connects different places and destinations: put simply, transport connects the origin and destination. 3
  • 4. Global changes affecting travel for tourism 4 This is particularly the case for tourism, as broadly speaking nowhere on the globe is more than 24 hours' travel from anywhere else and technology has enabled companies and people to interact on a global scale. But in a globalised world where space and distance no longer act as the major constraint on economic activity, and repeated that in many subsequent geographical analyses of transport, technology and transport have had a profound impact on making our globalised world work effectively.
  • 5. Three eras of Globalisation can be discerned: 1. The first relates to when Columbus set sail in 1492 and ended in the early 1800s and is largely associated with growing exploration and discovery of other places. 2. The second dates from the early 1800s and is explained by the development of a critical mass of global trade so that companies expanded into global entities, often related to the Imperial ambitions of their host country to exploit underdeveloped resources as well as new markets. 3. The third dates from the late 1990s with the rise of web technologies to allow people and businesses to collaborate on a global scale. 5
  • 6. 6 Several profound changes, events, trends or innovations that changed the world have had a major impact on the role of transport in relation to tourism, as the following points suggest;  The rise of the personal computer, software and networks has allowed the technological connectedness to occur between people and countries. For example, the introduction of new technology has led to online booking, online check-in for air travel and other transportation means.  Workflow software has allowed businesses to collaborate on a global scale and has meant global supply chains have emerged creating a greater international dimension to work activity generating a greater demand for international business travel.
  • 7. 7  Outsourcing has allowed organizations to manage business processes with technology at a distance irrespective of location. For example, this generated the demand for call centre location especially in India.  The growth of China as a global economic power which has completely overtaken the tourism sector as a leading outbound market and destination, was reflected in the massive growth rates in the demand for air travel..
  • 8. 8 The rise of 'in-forming‘ via PC has created a generation which is web-enabled and more aware of how to access the opportunities to travel. The rise of the wireless society, where the desk of the worker now goes anywhere with them via the PC or laptop (or growing numbers of personal devices) so that workers are mobile and able to work while they travel, creating new opportunities for combining travel and work in a more flexible manner.
  • 9. 9 These trends contributed to the flattening of the globe, meaning that as these trends / innovations converge (combine), there has been a revolution in the market for travel and tourism:  the rise of new industrialized countries has seen a redefinition of the economic power base on a global scale.  These new economic realities also shape the pattern of travel and tourism  This has meant that globalization has made the world more open to more people to travel
  • 10. Oil, travel and transport  Most forms of transport for tourism are dependent upon oil as the basis for energy and this has seen sharp rises and fluctuations in recent years to over US $100 a barrel (nowadays around $ 107).  Much of the growth in in the post-war period in transport and tourism has been predicated on relatively cheap oil, since between 1947 and 2007, US$ 19.04 per barrel (average).  However, in the period since 1970, prices averaged US $ 32 a barrel as demand increased from developing economies and due to a weak US dollar 10
  • 11.  Consequently, with transport still largely dependent upon fossil fuels for energy, there are potential concerns about the future provision of cheap transport, particularly air travel.  So the previous growth in transport and tourism is not as readily assured as in the era of cheap travel, although the tourism sector is well known for its innovative behaviour to develop new models of production  But energy is a dominant element for transportation. 11 Oil, travel and transport
  • 12. What do we understand by the term tourism?  Even though tourism can be defined as both an industry and a service activity, it is widely recognized that tourism combines a broad range of economic activities and services designed to meet the needs of tourists.  It is evident that the tourism sector is a broad, all-encompassing term which includes accommodation, catering, transport and ancillary services.  tourism can tend to obscure (dark) the wider significance of the transport sector in tourist travel 12
  • 13. What do we understand by the term tourism?  Likewise, if one then considers the interrelationship between air transport and tourism from an economic perspective the wider significance of direct tourist spending on transport and the indirect benefits in terms of employment and other spin-offs (by products) is self-evident.  Consequently, transport provides the essential link between tourism origin and destination areas and facilitates the movement of holidaymakers, business travellers, people visiting friends and relatives and those undertaking educational and health tourism 13
  • 14. What do we understand by the term tourism?  Transport can also form the focal point for tourist activity in the case of cruising and holidays that contain a significant component of travel  Here the mode of transport forms a context and controlled environment for tourists' movement between destinations and attractions, often through the medium of a 'tour'.  Without transportation, most forms of tourism could not exist.  In some cases, the transportation experience is the tourism experience itself (e.g. cruises, scenic and heritage rail trips, and motor coach, automobiles and bicycle tours). 14
  • 15. Tourism studies and tourist transport 15 There are three needs to fulfill transporting the tourist from the generating to the host area (destination) transport between host destinations transport within host destinations Tourist transport also classified on several bases as; public or private sector transport water/land/air transport domestic and international transport
  • 16. Tourism studies and tourist transport The shrinking of distance by modern forms of international transport and four major phases can be realised in the evolution of transport technology:  the transition from horse and windpower  the introduction of the steam engine  the development of the combustion engine  the use of the jet engine Global shrinkage has occurred with reduced journey times, cost reductions and improved capacity 16
  • 17. The nature and scope of tourist transport: modes of travel  During any recreational or tourist trip, tourists may encounter and use different forms of transport.  Although this may seem self-evident, it is useful to briefly outline some of the key characteristics of tourist transport, which can be divided into a simple classification Tourist transport is dependent upon the available disposable income to purchase travel options, which varies by social groups and in and between countries.  Cost becomes a key factor in many travel choices and highlights how important the developed-less developed world differences are in tourist transport options, where income levels, affluence and patterns of consumption are markedly different.  Competition between different forms of tourist transport is also important, which highlights the significance of substitutability in transport for tourism, where price, demand, supply and relative cost become critical components. 17
  • 18.  Tourist destinations are a mix of tourism products, experiences and other intangible items promoted to consumers.  At a general level, this concept of a destination can be developed to represent geographically defined entities such as groups of countries, individual countries, regions in a country, a rural area, a resort or a wide range of experiences created by tourism marketers. From a tourist's perspective, a destination may usually be classified into:  conventional resorts  environmental destinations  business tourism centres  places one stops at en route to another place  a short-break destination and day-trip destinations In essence, destinations are places which tourists visit and stay at. 18 Tourism and destination development: a critical role for transportation
  • 19. Tourism and destination development: a critical role for transportation 19 There are six interrelated components which comprise a destination, often refereed to as an amalgam of the six As: Available packages Accessibility Attractions & Amenities Activities, and Ancillary Services