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Tool edge honing
using shear jamming
abrasive media
Jason Chan & Philip Koshy
1/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
Belmont
The microgeometry of the
cutting tool edge influences
all machining responses
Tools edges are honed to a
radius of several µm to enhance
machining performance
2/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
Some of the abrasive processes available for honing tools are:
ctemag.com
brushing
Belmont
tool
slurry
magnetic honing
Karpuschewski et al. (2009)
drag honing
otec.de
graco.com
microblasting
3/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
mnn.com
amusingplanet.com
Inspired by rounded natural forms
sculpted through erosion …
… the present work explored
the use of non-Newtonian
abrasive slurries for edge honing
4/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
The slurry comprising an aqueous mixture of cornstarch and
abrasives can behave like a solid or a fluid …
… not unlike cats
Crawford et al. (2013)
5/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
exhibit
fracture-like
behavior
Roche et al. (2013)
Waitukaitis, Univ. Chicago
solidify on impact
Cornstarch-water system
can shear thicken
6/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
molding clay
Liuetal(2010)
indenter
jammed
domain
shear
front
static
Han et al (2019)
strain rate
axial
radial
velocity
Han et al (2016)
Peters & Jaeger (2014)
Han et al (2016)
dynamic jamming
indenter
jammed
domain
shear
front
7/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
slurry
tool
slurry
tool
experimental setup
8/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
cornstarch mixture
insert
holder
S1
S2
10 µm
leading edgecornstarch mixture
insert
holder
S1
S2
10 µm
leading edgecornstarch mixture
insert
holder
S1
S2
10 µm
leading edgecornstarch mixture
insert
holder
S1
S2
10 µm
leading edgecornstarch mixture
insert
holder
S1
S2
10 µm
leading edge
asymmetric edge
Edge rounding was realized only under combined rotary and
orbital motions, in the vicinity of a rigid boundary
9/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
Similar performance from single and double boundaries did but
indicate edge rounding due to shear thickening to be minimal, if at all
0 2 4 6 8 10 12
0
25
50
75
100
125
honing time (min.)
edgeradiusrß(µm)
double boundary
single boundary
It was hypothesized that edge rounding was due to shear thickening
10/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
jammed domain
before after before after
10µm
S2
S2
before after
Edge rounding depends also
on the relative directions of
rotational and orbital motions
This points to dynamic
jamming being the edge
rounding mechanism
jammed domain
before after before after
10µm
S2
S2
before after
Edge is rounded only when
the rotational and orbital
motions combine to sustain a
jammed domain against the
rigid boundaryjammed domain
10µm
after
jammed domain
before after before after
10µm
S2
S2
before after
jammed domain
jammed domain
before after before after
10µm
S2
S2
before after
11/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
That the trailing edge “sharpens” when
the leading edge gets rounded was
confirmed in an additional experiment
rß = 47 µm
rß = 11 µmjammed domain
ore after
10µm
before after
jammed domain
fore after
10µm
before after
S2
12/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
This is similar to the shape evolution of
erodible spheres in a water stream
P
S
Ristroph et al. (2012)
and the formation of
sharp edges in sand dunes
13/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
100 µm
trailing edge (T)
side face
top face
leading edge (L)
side face
top face
Grinding marks on an
insert were used as
markers to understand
sharpening of the
trailing edge
tool
LT
abrasive
before
after
trailing edge
14/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
An interesting application of the honing and sharpening
phenomena is the in-place refurbishment of worn solid tools
exit
rß = 2 µmworn edge
sharpening honing
rß = 14 µm
entry
15/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
distance d (mm)
edgeradiusrß(µm)
0 3 6 9
0
30
60
90
120
150
d
tool
0 3 6 9
68 µm
68 µm
(w/ additional mixing)
17 µm
30 µm
sharp
Brazil nut effect
Reverse
Brazil nut effect
Abrasive grit size
showed interesting,
counterintuitive behavior
Golick & Daniels (2009)van der Varrt (2015)
Brazil nut effect
17/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
17 + 68 µm
distance d (mm)
edgeradiusrß(µm)
0 3 6 90 3 6 9
0
30
60
90
120
150
d
tool
68 µm
68 µm
(w/ additional mixing)
17 µm
30 µm
sharp
Metzger, Remy & Glasser (2011)
Abrasive segregation was
minimized by mixing
17 µm and 68 µm abrasives
to obtain edges with a more
uniform radius distribution
BINARY TERNARY
18/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
S1
S2
leading edge
S1
S2
10 µm
leading edge
asymmetric edge
50 µm
Ɵ = 35
Ɵ
50 µm
Ɵ = 35
Ɵ
Ɵ = 35°
Symmetric edges may be
obtained by changing the
inclination of the insert in
the tool holder
Edges held radially in
the holder are inherently
asymmetric
19/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
2
3
rß = 11 µm
rß = 3 µm
(sharp)
1
rß = 6 µm
rß = 14 µm
Sα Sγ
The gradient in edge radius is
related to the increase in linear
speed along the edge length for
a given tool rotational speed
t
A gradient microgeometry
accommodates the variation
in uncut chip thickness in
ball-end milling
This translates into an increase
in the local kinetic energy of
abrasives and their sliding length
which corresponds to a higher
edge radius
The process can generate edges
with a gradient microgeometry
20/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
rß = 26 µm
rake face2 mm 1 mm
rß = 11 µm
rake face
Sα
Sγ
The process can hone edges of tools with a complex macrogeometry
Honing of end edges may be enhanced by tilting the tool against the
orbital motion to promote jamming at the bottom surface
21/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
Belmont
Conclusions
The novel application of non-Newtonian abrasive slurries
involving dense aqueous mixtures of cornstarch for edge
honing of cutting tools has been demonstrated
The process mechanism has been identified to be
dynamic shear jamming enhanced by the interaction of the
jammed domain with a rigid boundary
The process can generate symmetric/asymmetric edges,
hone tools with a complex macrogeometry, fabricate
edges with a gradient in microgeometry, and can refurbish
(sharpen & hone) worn solid tools in-place
22/22
CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media
J. Chan, P. Koshy
Belmont
Thank you
for your kind attention!
Natural Sciences & Engineering Research
Council of Canada
Canadian Network for
Research & Innovation in
Machining Technology

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Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media

  • 1. Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media Jason Chan & Philip Koshy
  • 2. 1/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy Belmont The microgeometry of the cutting tool edge influences all machining responses Tools edges are honed to a radius of several µm to enhance machining performance
  • 3. 2/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy Some of the abrasive processes available for honing tools are: ctemag.com brushing Belmont tool slurry magnetic honing Karpuschewski et al. (2009) drag honing otec.de graco.com microblasting
  • 4. 3/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy mnn.com amusingplanet.com Inspired by rounded natural forms sculpted through erosion … … the present work explored the use of non-Newtonian abrasive slurries for edge honing
  • 5. 4/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy The slurry comprising an aqueous mixture of cornstarch and abrasives can behave like a solid or a fluid … … not unlike cats
  • 6. Crawford et al. (2013) 5/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy exhibit fracture-like behavior Roche et al. (2013) Waitukaitis, Univ. Chicago solidify on impact Cornstarch-water system can shear thicken
  • 7. 6/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy molding clay Liuetal(2010) indenter jammed domain shear front static Han et al (2019) strain rate axial radial velocity Han et al (2016) Peters & Jaeger (2014) Han et al (2016) dynamic jamming indenter jammed domain shear front
  • 8. 7/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy slurry tool slurry tool experimental setup
  • 9. 8/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy cornstarch mixture insert holder S1 S2 10 µm leading edgecornstarch mixture insert holder S1 S2 10 µm leading edgecornstarch mixture insert holder S1 S2 10 µm leading edgecornstarch mixture insert holder S1 S2 10 µm leading edgecornstarch mixture insert holder S1 S2 10 µm leading edge asymmetric edge Edge rounding was realized only under combined rotary and orbital motions, in the vicinity of a rigid boundary
  • 10. 9/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy Similar performance from single and double boundaries did but indicate edge rounding due to shear thickening to be minimal, if at all 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 0 25 50 75 100 125 honing time (min.) edgeradiusrß(µm) double boundary single boundary It was hypothesized that edge rounding was due to shear thickening
  • 11. 10/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy jammed domain before after before after 10µm S2 S2 before after Edge rounding depends also on the relative directions of rotational and orbital motions This points to dynamic jamming being the edge rounding mechanism jammed domain before after before after 10µm S2 S2 before after Edge is rounded only when the rotational and orbital motions combine to sustain a jammed domain against the rigid boundaryjammed domain 10µm after jammed domain before after before after 10µm S2 S2 before after jammed domain jammed domain before after before after 10µm S2 S2 before after
  • 12. 11/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy That the trailing edge “sharpens” when the leading edge gets rounded was confirmed in an additional experiment rß = 47 µm rß = 11 µmjammed domain ore after 10µm before after jammed domain fore after 10µm before after S2
  • 13. 12/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy This is similar to the shape evolution of erodible spheres in a water stream P S Ristroph et al. (2012) and the formation of sharp edges in sand dunes
  • 14. 13/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy 100 µm trailing edge (T) side face top face leading edge (L) side face top face Grinding marks on an insert were used as markers to understand sharpening of the trailing edge tool LT abrasive before after trailing edge
  • 15. 14/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy An interesting application of the honing and sharpening phenomena is the in-place refurbishment of worn solid tools exit rß = 2 µmworn edge sharpening honing rß = 14 µm entry
  • 16. 15/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy distance d (mm) edgeradiusrß(µm) 0 3 6 9 0 30 60 90 120 150 d tool 0 3 6 9 68 µm 68 µm (w/ additional mixing) 17 µm 30 µm sharp Brazil nut effect Reverse Brazil nut effect Abrasive grit size showed interesting, counterintuitive behavior
  • 17. Golick & Daniels (2009)van der Varrt (2015) Brazil nut effect
  • 18. 17/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy 17 + 68 µm distance d (mm) edgeradiusrß(µm) 0 3 6 90 3 6 9 0 30 60 90 120 150 d tool 68 µm 68 µm (w/ additional mixing) 17 µm 30 µm sharp Metzger, Remy & Glasser (2011) Abrasive segregation was minimized by mixing 17 µm and 68 µm abrasives to obtain edges with a more uniform radius distribution BINARY TERNARY
  • 19. 18/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy S1 S2 leading edge S1 S2 10 µm leading edge asymmetric edge 50 µm Ɵ = 35 Ɵ 50 µm Ɵ = 35 Ɵ Ɵ = 35° Symmetric edges may be obtained by changing the inclination of the insert in the tool holder Edges held radially in the holder are inherently asymmetric
  • 20. 19/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy 2 3 rß = 11 µm rß = 3 µm (sharp) 1 rß = 6 µm rß = 14 µm Sα Sγ The gradient in edge radius is related to the increase in linear speed along the edge length for a given tool rotational speed t A gradient microgeometry accommodates the variation in uncut chip thickness in ball-end milling This translates into an increase in the local kinetic energy of abrasives and their sliding length which corresponds to a higher edge radius The process can generate edges with a gradient microgeometry
  • 21. 20/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy rß = 26 µm rake face2 mm 1 mm rß = 11 µm rake face Sα Sγ The process can hone edges of tools with a complex macrogeometry Honing of end edges may be enhanced by tilting the tool against the orbital motion to promote jamming at the bottom surface
  • 22. 21/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy Belmont Conclusions The novel application of non-Newtonian abrasive slurries involving dense aqueous mixtures of cornstarch for edge honing of cutting tools has been demonstrated The process mechanism has been identified to be dynamic shear jamming enhanced by the interaction of the jammed domain with a rigid boundary The process can generate symmetric/asymmetric edges, hone tools with a complex macrogeometry, fabricate edges with a gradient in microgeometry, and can refurbish (sharpen & hone) worn solid tools in-place
  • 23. 22/22 CIRP Annals, 2020Tool edge honing using shear jamming abrasive media J. Chan, P. Koshy Belmont Thank you for your kind attention! Natural Sciences & Engineering Research Council of Canada Canadian Network for Research & Innovation in Machining Technology

Editor's Notes

  1. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  2. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  3. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  4. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  5. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  6. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  7. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  8. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  9. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  10. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  11. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  12. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  13. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  14. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  15. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  16. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  17. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  18. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  19. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  20. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  21. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.
  22. This file is a template for making effective slides for scientific presentations.* Although much about the layout and typography contrasts sharply with the defaults of PowerPoint, these changes are done so to make the slides more effective at communicating technical information. The design advocated by this template arises from pages 113-152 of The Craft of Scientific Presentations (Springer, 2003). The homepage for this and other similar templates exist at the following web site: http://writing.eng.vt.edu/slides.html Right now you are viewing the notes pages. To work on the slides, click on “Slide” under “View.” Reference slide: Katrina Aspmo, Torunn Berg, and Grethe Wibetoe, “Atmospheric Mercury Depletion Events (AMDEs) in Polar Regions During Arctic Spring,” presentation (Oslo, Norway: University of Oslo, 16 June 2004). ___________________________________________ *You are more than welcome to use this template for your presentation slides. You may not, though, distribute this template for profit or distribute this template without giving credit to the source.