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TOO4TO MODULE
Sustainable Resource
Management (SRM)
PART 1
2
NATURAL RESOURCES AND
SOCIO-INDUSTRIAL METABOLISM
Resource use, trends and examples
3
PART 1 CONTENTS
Natural resources
• Definition
• Classification
Socio-industrial metabolism
• General idea
• Overconsumption, resource depletion
and criticality of raw materials
• Tendencies and trends
Analysis of the additional literature
and case studies and preassignment
for the group coaching session
4
5
Humans cannot produce more natural
resources, but a significant part of them
is renewable
Natural resources – resources, which we obtain
from nature / environment
6
• The backbone of every economy is
resources:
• Natural
• Human
• Capital
This course will mostly deal with
Sustainable management of natural
resources
- ensuring that the consumption of
resources and their associated impacts do
not exceed the carrying capacity of the
environment.
Natural resources
7
Reproduced from diagram by Marcia Mihotich in Raworth “Doughnut Economics”
Society is eembedded within Earth system,
and embedded within both society and the
environment is the economy.
In this way, the economy is conceptualized as
an open system, dependent on and shaped by
environmental and social factors.
The economy itself is subdivided into four
different provisioning systems:
• the market,
• state,
• household, and
• commons.
These systems are all different ways of
obtaining, using, and distributing the
Earth's resources.
The Embedded
Economy model
8
Biotic resources are obtained from living and organic material (flora and fauna, and the materials that can be obtained from
them: grains and beans, but also fossil fuels).
Abiotic resources come from non-living, non-organic material (fresh water, gold, silver, land)
Ubiquitous natural resources can be found everywhere (sunlight, wind)
Most resources are localized they only exist in specific areas.
Renewables: elements that can be replenished naturally - these elements are constantly available and their quantity is not
noticeably affected by human consumption. Moreover, their recovery exceeds human consumption. (sunlight, wind and
geothermal energy)
Non-renewable resources are resources that form extremely slowly and those that do not naturally form in the environment.
(minerals such as petroleum and uranium). These minerals can be re-used by recycling, while fossil fuels cannot be recycled.
Actual resources are those that are at a further stage of development. They are currently actually being produced
and used.
Technology and costs are extremely relevant for production. If the costs of producing a resource are currently too
high, but may be attractive in the future, then it is referred to as a reserve resource.
Potential resources are those that exist and are known of, but which are not being produced (yet).
Stock resources are those that have been identified, but cannot be used (yet) due to lack of technology.
Biotic vs abiotic
Ubiquitous vs
localized
Renewable vs
non-renewable
Actual, potential
& stock
Various classification of natural resources exist:
9
Increasing
level
of
cost
effectiveness
Reserves
Economic
Non-economic
Marginal
Submarginal
Transition area –
conditional resources
Undiscovered resources
Theoretical
Undiscovered
Anticipated
Identified
Proven
Measured Indexe
d
Hypo-
thetical
Increasing level of geological probability
Visualization and description of a natural resource,
based on the geologic certainty of its presence and
its economic potential for recovery.
It helps to estimate the uncertainty and the risk
associated with availability of a natural
resource:
- As geological assurance of a resource's
occurrence decreases, the risk increases.
- As economic recoverability of a resource
decreases, the risk also increases.
Reserves - are already discovered and
commercially-viable mineral deposits.
Transition area defines conditional resources,
whose existence is known but which are not
commercially viable at present.
Undiscovered resources that might exist but have
not been found.
McKelvey-diagram (1967) for classifying resources
10
Anthroposphera
„human created“
Environment
“created by nature”
M, E, GO, I
M – materials,
E – energy,
GO – organisms,
I - information
Anthropogenic metabolism
Exchange of materials, energy, organisms and information within
Environment and Anthropospher
11
Global Material Resources Outlook to 2060.
Economic drivers and environmental
consequences
Brunner, P.H., & Rechberger, H. (2016). Handbook of
Material Flow Analysis: For Environmental, Resource,
and Waste Engineers, Second Edition (2nd ed.). CRC
Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315313450
Anthropogenic metabolism
trends and main changes in consumption patterns
12
Source: Bringezu, 2009
Using the concept of the socio-industrial
metabolism allows for a more
comprehensive analysis and helps to
detect shifts between material flows and
related environmental pressures between
countries, environmental media, over time.
Analysis of the socio-industrial metabolism
can be used for revealing problems of
unsustainability, which may be related to the
quality or the quantity of material flows.
• This sets the basis for developing strategies for
healing of unhealthy metabolism
• The concept can be used in support of preparing
adequate policy measures for sustaining the
metabolism, and
• to evaluate the effectiveness of these.
The socio-industrial metabolism
13
ISO 14052:2017
Environmental management
— Material flow cost
accounting — Guidance for
practical implementation in a
supply chain
Material loss through the supply chain
14
The flow of natural resources into cities and
the waste produced (recovering waste
streams) represents one of the largest
challenges to urban sustainability.
Circular, looping metabolisms are more
sustainable, compared to linear ones. This also
has economic advantages. Recycling will
continue to be an essential part of responsible
materials management, and the greater the
shift from a ‚river‘ economy (linear
throughput of materials), towards a ‚lake‘
economy (stock of continuously circulating
materials), the greater both the material gains
and greenhouse gas reductions are.
The metabolism of cities
15
Roland Clift, University of Surrey
1. Resource
extraction
2. Processing &
Refining
3. Manufacturing
4. Retail and
distribution
5. Recovery
6. Dismantling
7. Remanufacturing
Different stages of the value chains (see figure) and related activities
contribute to the environmental impact and added value, with the different
share.
It describes very well the situation that countries rich in natural resources,
but oriented to low added value activities, have a negative environmental,
social and economic impacts.
The European economy is based on global
resource use. Material commodities are sourced
from various regions in the world. At the same
time, European resources – raw materials and
know-how – are used to supply other countries
with products and services.
In a globalized world, process chains from
resource extraction and refining to manufacturing,
use, recycling and final disposal are becoming
increasingly complex.
At the same time, all material flows constitute the
physical basis of our societies – called the ‘socio-
industrial metabolism’.
Sustainable Resource Management: Global Trends,
Visions and Policies 1st Edition, 2009. by S.
Bringezu, R. Bleischwitz
Socio-industrial
metabolism
16
Various benefits can result from
the wise usage of resources:
• Economic growth
• Ethical consumerism
• Prosperity
• Quality of life
• Sustainability
• Wealth
Various problems relate to the
usage of resources:
• Environmental degradation
• Over-consumption
• Resource curse
• Resource depletion
• Tragedy of the commons
• Myth of superabundance
Socio-industrial metabolism
Rapid growth of resources use
17
18
Great acceleration defines unsustainable usage of resources (1)
19
• All economies depend
on using natural
resources in intelligent
ways that maximize
well-being without
hampering the
capacities of life
supporting ecosystems.
• Understanding the
multifaceted roots of the
current crisis is a key to
turning it into
opportunities.
Great acceleration defines unsustainable usage
of resources (2)
Global consumption of resources and decoupling
Global economic development has come along with a steady increase in global material
use reaching a level that threatens the sustainable functioning of the earth’s
ecosystems.
Contradictory, societies keep on striving for economic growth as the main driver for
development. A discussion about this momentous issue has begun on various political
levels and has also been taken up into the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs)
calling for a harmonization of economic and environmental goals (e.g. SDG 8).
The most prominent concept to harmonize economic and environmental goals is to
decrease the requirement of natural resources for ongoing economic performance. In
other words, to break the link between “environmental bad” and the “economic good”
(OECD, 2015).
This “decoupling” process would allow economic prosperity while reducing
environmental pressures and impacts and, furthermore, would enable human
development in accordance with planetary restrictions.
20
21
The concept of decoupling is
differentiated into:
• resource decoupling -
breaking the link between
economic growth and
resource use
• impact decoupling -
breaking the link between
economic growth and
environmental pressure.
Resource and Environmental Decoupling
The planetary boundaries
• Proposed in 2009 by 28 earth system and environmental scientists led by Johan Rockström
(Stockholm Resilience Centre) and Will Steffen (Australian National University)
• to define a "safe operating space for humanity“
• for the international community, including governments at all levels, international organizations,
civil society, the scientific community and the private sector, as a precondition for sustainable
development
The framework is based on scientific evidence that human actions since the Industrial
Revolution have become the main driver of global environmental change.
22
23
Ambitious resource efficiency strategies leads to a
significant reduction of material consumption, in
order to avoid trespassing “Planetary Boundaries”:
1. Stratospheric ozone depletion
2. Loss of biosphere integrity (biodiversity loss and
extinctions)
3. Chemical pollution and the release of novel
entities
4. Climate Change
5. Ocean acidification
6. Freshwater consumption and the global
hydrological cycle
7. Land system change
8. Nitrogen and phosphorus flows to the biosphere
and oceans
9. Atmospheric aerosol loading
Resource Use within 9 planetary boundaries
Exchange of materials, energy, organisms and
information within Environment and Antroposphera
24
Today, more than 80 percent of the world’s
population lives in countries that are running
ecological deficits, using more resources than
what their ecosystems can regenerate.
Is your country operating in the red?
Passionate about data?
Check out Ecological Footprint Explorer open data platform.
Humans use as much
ecological resources as if
we lived on 1.7 Earths.
The Ecological
Footprint is the only
metric that compares
the resource demand of
individuals, governments,
and businesses against
the Earth's capacity for
biological regeneration.
Ecological footprint
To determine the date of Earth
Overshoot Day for each year, Global
Footprint Network calculates the number
of days of that year that the Earth’s
biocapacity suffices to provide for
humanity’s Ecological Footprint. The
remainder of the year corresponds to
global overshoot.
Earth over shoot day demonstrates the human behavior and impact in time of the
Anthropocene.
The Earth Overshoot Day marks the date when the humanity’s demand for ecological
resources and services in a given year exceeds what Earth can regenerate in that year. In
2021, it fell on July 29. (check for annual updates and Explore Solutions to #MoveTheDate
@ the website of Earth over shoot day
Earth over shoot day –
Ecological footprint
Earth Overshoot Day is computed by
dividing the planet’s biocapacity (the amount
of ecological resources Earth is able to
generate that year), by humanity’s
Ecological Footprint (humanity’s demand for
that year), and multiplying by 365, the
number of days in a year:
(Planet’s Biocapacity
/
Humanity’s Ecological Footprint)
x
365
=
Earth Overshoot Day
Earth over shoot day
27
Source: Ecological Rucksacks and Material Flows
Source: Global Development Research Centre
• An Ecological Rucksack is the total quantity (in kg) of
materials moved from nature to create a product or service,
minus the actual weight of the product. That is, ecological
rucksacks look at hidden material flows. Ecological rucksacks
take a life cycle approach and signify the environmental
strain or resource efficiency of the product or service.
• Ecological rucksacks measure the amount of materials not
directly used in the product, but displaced because of the
product. That is, ecological rucksacks represent the materials
necessary for production, use, recycling and disposal of a
product, but not the materials used in the product.
• The ecological rucksack of some materials will change over
time as they become rarer or as technology makes extraction
or processing more efficient. For example, copper has moved
from an ecological rucksack of 1:1 when copper nuggets
were easy to find to 500:1 where copper is being extracted
from sulphide ores.
Resource Rucksack
28
© BRGM, 2019
Mineral raw
material
consumption
grows much
faster than
global
population
The increasing
use of mineral
raw materials
29
Source : McKinsey and BRGM; World Materials Forum, June 2016
population growth +
emergence of
consuming class
Consuming classes
defined as - people
with daily disposable
income above $10 at
Power Purchasing
Parity (PPP).
Population below
consuming class
defined as individuals
with disposable
income below $10 at
PPP
The increasing use of mineral raw materials
Other drivers for increase of consumption and
resource scarcity
• Chinese metal consumption. China has been a major driver of the
World’s economy and has consumed enormous amounts of
mineral raw materials to fuel its growth
• Diversification of elements in products:
• during the 18th century, energy-producing technology used about 6
elements of the Mendeleyev Table,
• in the 21st century the technology uses about 50 elements.
• Currently nearly all the elements of Mendeleyev's Table are involved in the
production of energy.
• Not only the amount is necessary but the critically of some rare
elements, which have a tendency to be depleted and the supply
risk increase … Critical Raw Materials
30
31
A critical mineral or raw material is important for one or several
industrial sectors and is at risk of supply shortage.
In 2000 the term “Mineral Criticality” mentioned in US documents; e.g.:
National Research Council report 2007 “Minerals, Critical Minerals and
the U.S. Economy”
In the latter, criticality assessment is performed in a 2-dimensional
(2D) matrix:
• Supply risk
• Impact of Supply Restriction
A mineral is considered “critical” if it scores high in this matrix in a
relative sense: mineral A is considered more critical than mineral B
Most methods adopt a 2-D matrix
Critical Raw Materials
32
Critical raw
materials
factsheets,
September 2020
Suppliers of Critical Raw Materials for Europe
33
Economic importance
Supply
risk
Non-critical MRM Critical MRM
Non-critical MRM Non-critical MRM
High supply risk, low
economic importance
High supply risk, high
economic importance
Low supply risk, low
economic importance
Low supply risk, high
economic importance
EU method tends to be dichotomous:
a Mineral Raw Materials (MRM) is either
“critical” or “non-critical”, according to a
threshold.
EU list of Critical Materials is reviewed
periodically:
1st in 2011 – 14 Critical raw materials
2nd in 2014 – 20 CRM
3rd in 2017 – 27 CRM
4th in 2020 – 30 CRM
Critical Raw Materials
34
The risk for
increase of Critical
Raw Materials list
and relevance of
(un)sustainability
in resource flows
The assessment
of Critical Raw
Materials 2020,
Raw materials
information
system.
35
Review the report
Natural Resource Nexuses in the ECE
region, UNECE, 2021
Prepare for the discussion:
• What are the main regional
megatrends for (un)sustainable
resource use?
• Why is the nexus of natural
resources important?
• Which of SDGs are closely related
to sustainable resource use?
The students who have already seen film
Anthropocene - prepare for the discussion
and share your insights regarding
• Facts and trends of recourses’ (un)sustainability
• Waste ≠ Resources ?
• The message which you would share with your
colleagues
• Any other recommendations for the film preview,
related to Sustainable Resource Management
• What are critical raw materials? What is their
impact for the
• Environment
• Economy
• Society
Resource use – trends and tendencies
Preparation for Coaching session
2 options:

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TOO4TO Module 5 / Sustainable Resource Management: Part 1

  • 1.
  • 3. NATURAL RESOURCES AND SOCIO-INDUSTRIAL METABOLISM Resource use, trends and examples 3
  • 4. PART 1 CONTENTS Natural resources • Definition • Classification Socio-industrial metabolism • General idea • Overconsumption, resource depletion and criticality of raw materials • Tendencies and trends Analysis of the additional literature and case studies and preassignment for the group coaching session 4
  • 5. 5 Humans cannot produce more natural resources, but a significant part of them is renewable Natural resources – resources, which we obtain from nature / environment
  • 6. 6 • The backbone of every economy is resources: • Natural • Human • Capital This course will mostly deal with Sustainable management of natural resources - ensuring that the consumption of resources and their associated impacts do not exceed the carrying capacity of the environment. Natural resources
  • 7. 7 Reproduced from diagram by Marcia Mihotich in Raworth “Doughnut Economics” Society is eembedded within Earth system, and embedded within both society and the environment is the economy. In this way, the economy is conceptualized as an open system, dependent on and shaped by environmental and social factors. The economy itself is subdivided into four different provisioning systems: • the market, • state, • household, and • commons. These systems are all different ways of obtaining, using, and distributing the Earth's resources. The Embedded Economy model
  • 8. 8 Biotic resources are obtained from living and organic material (flora and fauna, and the materials that can be obtained from them: grains and beans, but also fossil fuels). Abiotic resources come from non-living, non-organic material (fresh water, gold, silver, land) Ubiquitous natural resources can be found everywhere (sunlight, wind) Most resources are localized they only exist in specific areas. Renewables: elements that can be replenished naturally - these elements are constantly available and their quantity is not noticeably affected by human consumption. Moreover, their recovery exceeds human consumption. (sunlight, wind and geothermal energy) Non-renewable resources are resources that form extremely slowly and those that do not naturally form in the environment. (minerals such as petroleum and uranium). These minerals can be re-used by recycling, while fossil fuels cannot be recycled. Actual resources are those that are at a further stage of development. They are currently actually being produced and used. Technology and costs are extremely relevant for production. If the costs of producing a resource are currently too high, but may be attractive in the future, then it is referred to as a reserve resource. Potential resources are those that exist and are known of, but which are not being produced (yet). Stock resources are those that have been identified, but cannot be used (yet) due to lack of technology. Biotic vs abiotic Ubiquitous vs localized Renewable vs non-renewable Actual, potential & stock Various classification of natural resources exist:
  • 9. 9 Increasing level of cost effectiveness Reserves Economic Non-economic Marginal Submarginal Transition area – conditional resources Undiscovered resources Theoretical Undiscovered Anticipated Identified Proven Measured Indexe d Hypo- thetical Increasing level of geological probability Visualization and description of a natural resource, based on the geologic certainty of its presence and its economic potential for recovery. It helps to estimate the uncertainty and the risk associated with availability of a natural resource: - As geological assurance of a resource's occurrence decreases, the risk increases. - As economic recoverability of a resource decreases, the risk also increases. Reserves - are already discovered and commercially-viable mineral deposits. Transition area defines conditional resources, whose existence is known but which are not commercially viable at present. Undiscovered resources that might exist but have not been found. McKelvey-diagram (1967) for classifying resources
  • 10. 10 Anthroposphera „human created“ Environment “created by nature” M, E, GO, I M – materials, E – energy, GO – organisms, I - information Anthropogenic metabolism Exchange of materials, energy, organisms and information within Environment and Anthropospher
  • 11. 11 Global Material Resources Outlook to 2060. Economic drivers and environmental consequences Brunner, P.H., & Rechberger, H. (2016). Handbook of Material Flow Analysis: For Environmental, Resource, and Waste Engineers, Second Edition (2nd ed.). CRC Press. https://doi.org/10.1201/9781315313450 Anthropogenic metabolism trends and main changes in consumption patterns
  • 12. 12 Source: Bringezu, 2009 Using the concept of the socio-industrial metabolism allows for a more comprehensive analysis and helps to detect shifts between material flows and related environmental pressures between countries, environmental media, over time. Analysis of the socio-industrial metabolism can be used for revealing problems of unsustainability, which may be related to the quality or the quantity of material flows. • This sets the basis for developing strategies for healing of unhealthy metabolism • The concept can be used in support of preparing adequate policy measures for sustaining the metabolism, and • to evaluate the effectiveness of these. The socio-industrial metabolism
  • 13. 13 ISO 14052:2017 Environmental management — Material flow cost accounting — Guidance for practical implementation in a supply chain Material loss through the supply chain
  • 14. 14 The flow of natural resources into cities and the waste produced (recovering waste streams) represents one of the largest challenges to urban sustainability. Circular, looping metabolisms are more sustainable, compared to linear ones. This also has economic advantages. Recycling will continue to be an essential part of responsible materials management, and the greater the shift from a ‚river‘ economy (linear throughput of materials), towards a ‚lake‘ economy (stock of continuously circulating materials), the greater both the material gains and greenhouse gas reductions are. The metabolism of cities
  • 15. 15 Roland Clift, University of Surrey 1. Resource extraction 2. Processing & Refining 3. Manufacturing 4. Retail and distribution 5. Recovery 6. Dismantling 7. Remanufacturing Different stages of the value chains (see figure) and related activities contribute to the environmental impact and added value, with the different share. It describes very well the situation that countries rich in natural resources, but oriented to low added value activities, have a negative environmental, social and economic impacts. The European economy is based on global resource use. Material commodities are sourced from various regions in the world. At the same time, European resources – raw materials and know-how – are used to supply other countries with products and services. In a globalized world, process chains from resource extraction and refining to manufacturing, use, recycling and final disposal are becoming increasingly complex. At the same time, all material flows constitute the physical basis of our societies – called the ‘socio- industrial metabolism’. Sustainable Resource Management: Global Trends, Visions and Policies 1st Edition, 2009. by S. Bringezu, R. Bleischwitz Socio-industrial metabolism
  • 16. 16 Various benefits can result from the wise usage of resources: • Economic growth • Ethical consumerism • Prosperity • Quality of life • Sustainability • Wealth Various problems relate to the usage of resources: • Environmental degradation • Over-consumption • Resource curse • Resource depletion • Tragedy of the commons • Myth of superabundance Socio-industrial metabolism
  • 17. Rapid growth of resources use 17
  • 18. 18 Great acceleration defines unsustainable usage of resources (1)
  • 19. 19 • All economies depend on using natural resources in intelligent ways that maximize well-being without hampering the capacities of life supporting ecosystems. • Understanding the multifaceted roots of the current crisis is a key to turning it into opportunities. Great acceleration defines unsustainable usage of resources (2)
  • 20. Global consumption of resources and decoupling Global economic development has come along with a steady increase in global material use reaching a level that threatens the sustainable functioning of the earth’s ecosystems. Contradictory, societies keep on striving for economic growth as the main driver for development. A discussion about this momentous issue has begun on various political levels and has also been taken up into the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) calling for a harmonization of economic and environmental goals (e.g. SDG 8). The most prominent concept to harmonize economic and environmental goals is to decrease the requirement of natural resources for ongoing economic performance. In other words, to break the link between “environmental bad” and the “economic good” (OECD, 2015). This “decoupling” process would allow economic prosperity while reducing environmental pressures and impacts and, furthermore, would enable human development in accordance with planetary restrictions. 20
  • 21. 21 The concept of decoupling is differentiated into: • resource decoupling - breaking the link between economic growth and resource use • impact decoupling - breaking the link between economic growth and environmental pressure. Resource and Environmental Decoupling
  • 22. The planetary boundaries • Proposed in 2009 by 28 earth system and environmental scientists led by Johan Rockström (Stockholm Resilience Centre) and Will Steffen (Australian National University) • to define a "safe operating space for humanity“ • for the international community, including governments at all levels, international organizations, civil society, the scientific community and the private sector, as a precondition for sustainable development The framework is based on scientific evidence that human actions since the Industrial Revolution have become the main driver of global environmental change. 22
  • 23. 23 Ambitious resource efficiency strategies leads to a significant reduction of material consumption, in order to avoid trespassing “Planetary Boundaries”: 1. Stratospheric ozone depletion 2. Loss of biosphere integrity (biodiversity loss and extinctions) 3. Chemical pollution and the release of novel entities 4. Climate Change 5. Ocean acidification 6. Freshwater consumption and the global hydrological cycle 7. Land system change 8. Nitrogen and phosphorus flows to the biosphere and oceans 9. Atmospheric aerosol loading Resource Use within 9 planetary boundaries Exchange of materials, energy, organisms and information within Environment and Antroposphera
  • 24. 24 Today, more than 80 percent of the world’s population lives in countries that are running ecological deficits, using more resources than what their ecosystems can regenerate. Is your country operating in the red? Passionate about data? Check out Ecological Footprint Explorer open data platform. Humans use as much ecological resources as if we lived on 1.7 Earths. The Ecological Footprint is the only metric that compares the resource demand of individuals, governments, and businesses against the Earth's capacity for biological regeneration. Ecological footprint
  • 25. To determine the date of Earth Overshoot Day for each year, Global Footprint Network calculates the number of days of that year that the Earth’s biocapacity suffices to provide for humanity’s Ecological Footprint. The remainder of the year corresponds to global overshoot. Earth over shoot day demonstrates the human behavior and impact in time of the Anthropocene. The Earth Overshoot Day marks the date when the humanity’s demand for ecological resources and services in a given year exceeds what Earth can regenerate in that year. In 2021, it fell on July 29. (check for annual updates and Explore Solutions to #MoveTheDate @ the website of Earth over shoot day Earth over shoot day – Ecological footprint
  • 26. Earth Overshoot Day is computed by dividing the planet’s biocapacity (the amount of ecological resources Earth is able to generate that year), by humanity’s Ecological Footprint (humanity’s demand for that year), and multiplying by 365, the number of days in a year: (Planet’s Biocapacity / Humanity’s Ecological Footprint) x 365 = Earth Overshoot Day Earth over shoot day
  • 27. 27 Source: Ecological Rucksacks and Material Flows Source: Global Development Research Centre • An Ecological Rucksack is the total quantity (in kg) of materials moved from nature to create a product or service, minus the actual weight of the product. That is, ecological rucksacks look at hidden material flows. Ecological rucksacks take a life cycle approach and signify the environmental strain or resource efficiency of the product or service. • Ecological rucksacks measure the amount of materials not directly used in the product, but displaced because of the product. That is, ecological rucksacks represent the materials necessary for production, use, recycling and disposal of a product, but not the materials used in the product. • The ecological rucksack of some materials will change over time as they become rarer or as technology makes extraction or processing more efficient. For example, copper has moved from an ecological rucksack of 1:1 when copper nuggets were easy to find to 500:1 where copper is being extracted from sulphide ores. Resource Rucksack
  • 28. 28 © BRGM, 2019 Mineral raw material consumption grows much faster than global population The increasing use of mineral raw materials
  • 29. 29 Source : McKinsey and BRGM; World Materials Forum, June 2016 population growth + emergence of consuming class Consuming classes defined as - people with daily disposable income above $10 at Power Purchasing Parity (PPP). Population below consuming class defined as individuals with disposable income below $10 at PPP The increasing use of mineral raw materials
  • 30. Other drivers for increase of consumption and resource scarcity • Chinese metal consumption. China has been a major driver of the World’s economy and has consumed enormous amounts of mineral raw materials to fuel its growth • Diversification of elements in products: • during the 18th century, energy-producing technology used about 6 elements of the Mendeleyev Table, • in the 21st century the technology uses about 50 elements. • Currently nearly all the elements of Mendeleyev's Table are involved in the production of energy. • Not only the amount is necessary but the critically of some rare elements, which have a tendency to be depleted and the supply risk increase … Critical Raw Materials 30
  • 31. 31 A critical mineral or raw material is important for one or several industrial sectors and is at risk of supply shortage. In 2000 the term “Mineral Criticality” mentioned in US documents; e.g.: National Research Council report 2007 “Minerals, Critical Minerals and the U.S. Economy” In the latter, criticality assessment is performed in a 2-dimensional (2D) matrix: • Supply risk • Impact of Supply Restriction A mineral is considered “critical” if it scores high in this matrix in a relative sense: mineral A is considered more critical than mineral B Most methods adopt a 2-D matrix Critical Raw Materials
  • 33. 33 Economic importance Supply risk Non-critical MRM Critical MRM Non-critical MRM Non-critical MRM High supply risk, low economic importance High supply risk, high economic importance Low supply risk, low economic importance Low supply risk, high economic importance EU method tends to be dichotomous: a Mineral Raw Materials (MRM) is either “critical” or “non-critical”, according to a threshold. EU list of Critical Materials is reviewed periodically: 1st in 2011 – 14 Critical raw materials 2nd in 2014 – 20 CRM 3rd in 2017 – 27 CRM 4th in 2020 – 30 CRM Critical Raw Materials
  • 34. 34 The risk for increase of Critical Raw Materials list and relevance of (un)sustainability in resource flows The assessment of Critical Raw Materials 2020, Raw materials information system.
  • 35. 35 Review the report Natural Resource Nexuses in the ECE region, UNECE, 2021 Prepare for the discussion: • What are the main regional megatrends for (un)sustainable resource use? • Why is the nexus of natural resources important? • Which of SDGs are closely related to sustainable resource use? The students who have already seen film Anthropocene - prepare for the discussion and share your insights regarding • Facts and trends of recourses’ (un)sustainability • Waste ≠ Resources ? • The message which you would share with your colleagues • Any other recommendations for the film preview, related to Sustainable Resource Management • What are critical raw materials? What is their impact for the • Environment • Economy • Society Resource use – trends and tendencies Preparation for Coaching session 2 options: