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Building Complete Communities
Transit Oriented Development in India
November, 2013

Rejeet Mathews
Project Manager
Urban Development and Accessibility
EMBARQ India
rmathews@embarqindia.org

LIVABLE CITIES SYMPOSIUM
Building Complete Communities
Transit Oriented Development in India

 Transit Oriented Development and Transit Adjacent Development
 Opportunities and Challenges for TOD in India
 Interpreting the Principles of TOD in the Indian context
 Case studies: Building Complete Communities through TOD

 Way Forward
Transit Oriented Development and
Transit Adjacent Development
Source: Fabio Duarte, TOD in Curitiba, www.pucpr.br/ppgtu

Transit Oriented Development
TOD is a matter of transforming the city, not only the transportation
Transit Adjacent Development

Simulation sketch: Sudeept Maiti, EMBARQ India
Opportunities and Challenges for
TOD in India
Weak Frameworks to integrate TOD into Statutory Documents

National level guidelines (UDPFI), State Level Acts (TCPA), and
city master plans do not acknowledge the need to integrate land
use and transportation

Urban form controls and local area plans are not mandated

Automobile oriented transport planning which is single use based
and promotes the use of private vehicles dominates new areas

and redevelopments
Challenges for TOD in India

Buildings enroute to Elphinstone Railway Station in Mumbai

Photo credit: Lubaina Rangwala, EMBARQ India
Challenges for TOD in India

Maze of flyovers at Hebbal, Bangalore -

Photo credit: http://www.legalcrystal.com

Neither practical nor desirable in emerging economies
Challenges for TOD in India

• In cities, it is the pedestrian, NMT and small vehicle users that are the most vulnerable
• Improvements that focus on making fast travel safe do not necessarily improve net safety
within cities
Data Source: ncrb.nic.in / Analysis: EMBARQ India/ Binoy Mascarenhas
Opportunities for TOD in India

bus waiting

parking

walking
seating
Ingredients for TOD are everywhere

Density of people is high and mixed land uses are abundant in
city centres

Walking is the dominant mode of movement in most Indian cities
especially for economically weaker sections

Vehicular ownership is gradually increasing, but is not yet an

indispensable habit, and needs to be protected while making
sustainable transport modes attractive and easily accessed.
Opportunities for TOD
Over Rs 100,000 crore of investments being made in India

currently in the transport sector and should not result in poorly
translated projects on ground

Over 7+ cities are opting for metro rail and another 7+ opting for
BRT hence accessibility around these transit stations is key

Post the census 2011, several master plans and developmental
projects are under review and is an opportunity to introduce land
use and transport integration
Interpreting the Principles of TOD in
the Indian context
Compact, Walkable, Liveable Communities…

www.embarqindia.org
Principles of TOD in the Indian context

Complete Streets

Transit Supportive Land uses
Public Spaces

Cultural Landscapes
Integrated Transport
Travel Demand Management
Compact Development
Complete Communities Through Better Design

Source: IBI Group Report, Task 1 Report, NRDA, Naya Raipur
Complete Communities Through Better Design

Source: IBI Group Report, Task 1 Report, NRDA, Naya Raipur
Case studies: Building Complete
Communities through TOD
Impact of Urban Codes in
Mumbai City
What moves Mumbai City?
Excerpt from the current parking norms (DP 1991)
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

For plots reserved as parking lots, a built up area equivalent to the zonal permissible FAR for the area
under reservation will be available for free for the Corporation (MCGM) or any other appropriate authority;
the area handed over as parking lot will be free of FAR. The authority or owner may be allowed to
develop the parking lot for the public, utilizing the full built-up area equivalent to the FAR available. The
parking lot may be provided as a basement, on an open space, under stilts or even upper floors.
Based on the cluster redevelopment policy DCR 33(9), an urban renewal scheme can be proposed for an
area of minimum 4000 sq.mt with an incentive FAR of 55%. If a parking lot is proposed in the scheme, it
can consume a built up area equivalent to the zonal permissible FAR for the area under reservation. The
maximum permissible FAR for the plot (existing FAR + additional incentive FAR) should not be more than
4 (or 3 based on zonal codes). The Built up area consumed by the parking lot is free of FAR.
Additionally, for the sale component of either Cess building or slum redevelopment schemes, a minimum
of one parking space per dwelling unit has to be provided. This adds to the overall parking provision and
FAR consumed on any given plot within the Island city.
Developers or a public authority or organization proposing a multi-storeyed parking lot close to a transit
node, follow the same norms as described above. Additionally, they are given a 50% incentive FAR.
Within the Island city the total consumable FAR (not including built-up area consumed by parking) is
capped at 4 and within Greater Mumbai it is 3.
Among these regulations, the BEST bus depot, station or Terminus redevelopment norms present a good
example. For sites redeveloped to provide for proposed reservations for commercial or amenity use, only
30% of existing permissible FAR will be allowed, out of which 50% of built up area is proposed on the
ground and the remaining on floors above. A Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA) study is expected to be
conducted to ensure that the new development does not interfere with the existing functions of the BEST
services, and does not negatively impact existing traffic volumes on the roads abutting it. If the TIA shows
negative impacts, the Commissioner has the right to restrict the development to a justifiable extent. The
development has to include the required parking and other services and utilities as per norms within the
permissible FAR.
Effects of the current parking norms (DP 1991)

Photo credit: Rejeet Mathews, EMBARQ India
Effects of the current parking norms (DP 1991)

Photo credit: Lubaina Rangwala, EMBARQ India
Recommended Parking Solutions
‘Walkable Park-Once TOD neighbourhoods’
Revert to Parking Maximums within TOD zone
(Or at least much lower minimums)
Urban Form guidelines for quality Off-Street

Parking
Parking norm flexibility with Deficiency Charges
(“Parking-in-lieu fee”).
Lower parking norms for small sites/
developments (and exempt smallest altogether)

* Final solutions arrived at were based on inputs from Dr. Paul Barter
Complete Communities Through Better Regulations and Design

Photo credit: Rejeet Mathews, EMBARQ India
Complete Communities Through Better Regulations and Design

Photo credit: Rejeet Mathews, EMBARQ India
Street design and pedestrian
priority in MIDC, Marol, Mumbai
Addressing the needs of a business district

MIDC
As MIDC
Marol
transforms,
there is an
opportunity to
create a safe,
secure and
pleasant
environment
for people
and
businesses

ANDHERI
STATION

1km
CHAKALA
STATION

2km

3km

INTERNATIONAL
AIRPORT
GHATKOPAR STATION
Survey Profile of MIDC Marol (2011)
•
•
•
•

•

•

Population: ~ 1.8 lakh people*
Age groups: 72% in 26-50
Gender: 30% women
Education
• Undergraduate: 25%
• Graduate: 55%
Employment
• Salaried: 93%
• Self-employed: 6%
Income

* Excluding SEEPZ
How do people travel to and from MIDC Marol?
How do people travel to and from MIDC Marol?

62% step out at least once a day
What is the quality of public transport facilities?

Insufficient waiting infrastructure
How safe are the streets from traffic?

61% think streets are unsafe to walk
Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol

www.embarqindia.org
Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol

Current effective utilisation of carriageway
Unregulated hawking activity
Autos park haphazardly near junctions
Pedestrians walk on the road

www.embarqindia.org
Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol

Defining vending areas
Actual pedestrian space requirement

www.embarqindia.org
Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol

Retaining existing carriageway

www.embarqindia.org
Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol

Creating safe pedestrian crossings

www.embarqindia.org
Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol

Creating a porous building edge and accommodating seating

www.embarqindia.org
Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol

Creating a safe and pleasant pedestrian environment

www.embarqindia.org
Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol

Creating a safe and pleasant pedestrian environment

www.embarqindia.org
Master List of Proposals

Street design of primary roads
Street design of secondary roads

Potential plots for multi-use (public open spaces etc)
Introducing pedestrian networks
Intersection geometry corrections
PP

Parking management strategy
Creating nodes / Place markers

SV

Street vending strategy

SS

Signage strategy / guidelines
Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol

Large gap in the divider

No street markings
to guide vehicles
and pedestrians

Unsafe crossing, no
pedestrian refuge area
Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol

Create pedestrian refuge
areas

Reduce gap in the
divider

Create table top
intersection

Safe crossings
Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol

Vehicles move on the
concrete carriageway

People wait on the
road

Bus stop occupies
entire footpath

Insufficient footpaths
and seating
Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol

Demarcate lanes Demarcate bus
stopping area

New bus
shelters

Provide seating, shade,
soften Marol Depot edge

Provide sufficient
space to walk
Leveraging Learnings from the Indian Context
Building liveable cities and complete communities requires efforts at the regional,
city, street and building scales.
Walking is the dominant mode of movement in most cities, ever since we all learnt to
walk we are pedestrians and this must be encouraged and promoted as it provides

several benefits ranging from health to economical and environmental ones.

TOD Guidebook in partnership with Gehl Architects
(Approaches and Methodologies towards applying TOD principles in India)
Safe Access Manual for Transit Nodes
(Approaches and Methodologies towards implementing Safe Access Design and
DCR’s in India)
THANK YOU
Transit Oriented Development (TOD) offers an entirely new perspective to
both urban design and urban transit. TOD results in the creation of
compact, walkable and liveable communities with safe access to jobs,
amenities and homes centred around high quality mass transit stations.

rmathews@embarqindia.org
rejeetm@gmail.com
www.embarqindia.org

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Rejeet Matthews: Building Complete Communities—Transit-oriented Development in India

  • 1. Building Complete Communities Transit Oriented Development in India November, 2013 Rejeet Mathews Project Manager Urban Development and Accessibility EMBARQ India rmathews@embarqindia.org LIVABLE CITIES SYMPOSIUM
  • 2. Building Complete Communities Transit Oriented Development in India  Transit Oriented Development and Transit Adjacent Development  Opportunities and Challenges for TOD in India  Interpreting the Principles of TOD in the Indian context  Case studies: Building Complete Communities through TOD  Way Forward
  • 3. Transit Oriented Development and Transit Adjacent Development
  • 4. Source: Fabio Duarte, TOD in Curitiba, www.pucpr.br/ppgtu Transit Oriented Development TOD is a matter of transforming the city, not only the transportation
  • 5. Transit Adjacent Development Simulation sketch: Sudeept Maiti, EMBARQ India
  • 6. Opportunities and Challenges for TOD in India
  • 7. Weak Frameworks to integrate TOD into Statutory Documents National level guidelines (UDPFI), State Level Acts (TCPA), and city master plans do not acknowledge the need to integrate land use and transportation Urban form controls and local area plans are not mandated Automobile oriented transport planning which is single use based and promotes the use of private vehicles dominates new areas and redevelopments
  • 8. Challenges for TOD in India Buildings enroute to Elphinstone Railway Station in Mumbai Photo credit: Lubaina Rangwala, EMBARQ India
  • 9. Challenges for TOD in India Maze of flyovers at Hebbal, Bangalore - Photo credit: http://www.legalcrystal.com Neither practical nor desirable in emerging economies
  • 10. Challenges for TOD in India • In cities, it is the pedestrian, NMT and small vehicle users that are the most vulnerable • Improvements that focus on making fast travel safe do not necessarily improve net safety within cities Data Source: ncrb.nic.in / Analysis: EMBARQ India/ Binoy Mascarenhas
  • 11. Opportunities for TOD in India bus waiting parking walking seating
  • 12. Ingredients for TOD are everywhere Density of people is high and mixed land uses are abundant in city centres Walking is the dominant mode of movement in most Indian cities especially for economically weaker sections Vehicular ownership is gradually increasing, but is not yet an indispensable habit, and needs to be protected while making sustainable transport modes attractive and easily accessed.
  • 13. Opportunities for TOD Over Rs 100,000 crore of investments being made in India currently in the transport sector and should not result in poorly translated projects on ground Over 7+ cities are opting for metro rail and another 7+ opting for BRT hence accessibility around these transit stations is key Post the census 2011, several master plans and developmental projects are under review and is an opportunity to introduce land use and transport integration
  • 14. Interpreting the Principles of TOD in the Indian context
  • 15. Compact, Walkable, Liveable Communities… www.embarqindia.org
  • 16. Principles of TOD in the Indian context Complete Streets Transit Supportive Land uses Public Spaces Cultural Landscapes Integrated Transport Travel Demand Management Compact Development
  • 17. Complete Communities Through Better Design Source: IBI Group Report, Task 1 Report, NRDA, Naya Raipur
  • 18. Complete Communities Through Better Design Source: IBI Group Report, Task 1 Report, NRDA, Naya Raipur
  • 19. Case studies: Building Complete Communities through TOD
  • 20. Impact of Urban Codes in Mumbai City
  • 22. Excerpt from the current parking norms (DP 1991) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. For plots reserved as parking lots, a built up area equivalent to the zonal permissible FAR for the area under reservation will be available for free for the Corporation (MCGM) or any other appropriate authority; the area handed over as parking lot will be free of FAR. The authority or owner may be allowed to develop the parking lot for the public, utilizing the full built-up area equivalent to the FAR available. The parking lot may be provided as a basement, on an open space, under stilts or even upper floors. Based on the cluster redevelopment policy DCR 33(9), an urban renewal scheme can be proposed for an area of minimum 4000 sq.mt with an incentive FAR of 55%. If a parking lot is proposed in the scheme, it can consume a built up area equivalent to the zonal permissible FAR for the area under reservation. The maximum permissible FAR for the plot (existing FAR + additional incentive FAR) should not be more than 4 (or 3 based on zonal codes). The Built up area consumed by the parking lot is free of FAR. Additionally, for the sale component of either Cess building or slum redevelopment schemes, a minimum of one parking space per dwelling unit has to be provided. This adds to the overall parking provision and FAR consumed on any given plot within the Island city. Developers or a public authority or organization proposing a multi-storeyed parking lot close to a transit node, follow the same norms as described above. Additionally, they are given a 50% incentive FAR. Within the Island city the total consumable FAR (not including built-up area consumed by parking) is capped at 4 and within Greater Mumbai it is 3. Among these regulations, the BEST bus depot, station or Terminus redevelopment norms present a good example. For sites redeveloped to provide for proposed reservations for commercial or amenity use, only 30% of existing permissible FAR will be allowed, out of which 50% of built up area is proposed on the ground and the remaining on floors above. A Traffic Impact Assessment (TIA) study is expected to be conducted to ensure that the new development does not interfere with the existing functions of the BEST services, and does not negatively impact existing traffic volumes on the roads abutting it. If the TIA shows negative impacts, the Commissioner has the right to restrict the development to a justifiable extent. The development has to include the required parking and other services and utilities as per norms within the permissible FAR.
  • 23. Effects of the current parking norms (DP 1991) Photo credit: Rejeet Mathews, EMBARQ India
  • 24. Effects of the current parking norms (DP 1991) Photo credit: Lubaina Rangwala, EMBARQ India
  • 25. Recommended Parking Solutions ‘Walkable Park-Once TOD neighbourhoods’ Revert to Parking Maximums within TOD zone (Or at least much lower minimums) Urban Form guidelines for quality Off-Street Parking Parking norm flexibility with Deficiency Charges (“Parking-in-lieu fee”). Lower parking norms for small sites/ developments (and exempt smallest altogether) * Final solutions arrived at were based on inputs from Dr. Paul Barter
  • 26. Complete Communities Through Better Regulations and Design Photo credit: Rejeet Mathews, EMBARQ India
  • 27. Complete Communities Through Better Regulations and Design Photo credit: Rejeet Mathews, EMBARQ India
  • 28. Street design and pedestrian priority in MIDC, Marol, Mumbai
  • 29. Addressing the needs of a business district MIDC As MIDC Marol transforms, there is an opportunity to create a safe, secure and pleasant environment for people and businesses ANDHERI STATION 1km CHAKALA STATION 2km 3km INTERNATIONAL AIRPORT GHATKOPAR STATION
  • 30. Survey Profile of MIDC Marol (2011) • • • • • • Population: ~ 1.8 lakh people* Age groups: 72% in 26-50 Gender: 30% women Education • Undergraduate: 25% • Graduate: 55% Employment • Salaried: 93% • Self-employed: 6% Income * Excluding SEEPZ
  • 31. How do people travel to and from MIDC Marol?
  • 32. How do people travel to and from MIDC Marol? 62% step out at least once a day
  • 33. What is the quality of public transport facilities? Insufficient waiting infrastructure
  • 34. How safe are the streets from traffic? 61% think streets are unsafe to walk
  • 35. Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol www.embarqindia.org
  • 36. Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol Current effective utilisation of carriageway Unregulated hawking activity Autos park haphazardly near junctions Pedestrians walk on the road www.embarqindia.org
  • 37. Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol Defining vending areas Actual pedestrian space requirement www.embarqindia.org
  • 38. Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol Retaining existing carriageway www.embarqindia.org
  • 39. Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol Creating safe pedestrian crossings www.embarqindia.org
  • 40. Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol Creating a porous building edge and accommodating seating www.embarqindia.org
  • 41. Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol Creating a safe and pleasant pedestrian environment www.embarqindia.org
  • 42. Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol Creating a safe and pleasant pedestrian environment www.embarqindia.org
  • 43. Master List of Proposals Street design of primary roads Street design of secondary roads Potential plots for multi-use (public open spaces etc) Introducing pedestrian networks Intersection geometry corrections PP Parking management strategy Creating nodes / Place markers SV Street vending strategy SS Signage strategy / guidelines
  • 44. Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol Large gap in the divider No street markings to guide vehicles and pedestrians Unsafe crossing, no pedestrian refuge area
  • 45. Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol Create pedestrian refuge areas Reduce gap in the divider Create table top intersection Safe crossings
  • 46. Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol Vehicles move on the concrete carriageway People wait on the road Bus stop occupies entire footpath Insufficient footpaths and seating
  • 47. Building Complete Streets in MIDC Marol Demarcate lanes Demarcate bus stopping area New bus shelters Provide seating, shade, soften Marol Depot edge Provide sufficient space to walk
  • 48. Leveraging Learnings from the Indian Context Building liveable cities and complete communities requires efforts at the regional, city, street and building scales. Walking is the dominant mode of movement in most cities, ever since we all learnt to walk we are pedestrians and this must be encouraged and promoted as it provides several benefits ranging from health to economical and environmental ones. TOD Guidebook in partnership with Gehl Architects (Approaches and Methodologies towards applying TOD principles in India) Safe Access Manual for Transit Nodes (Approaches and Methodologies towards implementing Safe Access Design and DCR’s in India)
  • 49. THANK YOU Transit Oriented Development (TOD) offers an entirely new perspective to both urban design and urban transit. TOD results in the creation of compact, walkable and liveable communities with safe access to jobs, amenities and homes centred around high quality mass transit stations. rmathews@embarqindia.org rejeetm@gmail.com www.embarqindia.org