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Title: Thyroid disorder
Presented by: Mekonnen Urgessa &
Merga Wekwaya
Presented to: Mr Tedesse. K. (Asst professor )
Sep. 2023
Fitche
SALALE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF
MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCIENCE
DEPARTMENT OF ADULT HEALTH
NURSING II
Thyroid disorders
10/3/2023 1
Course Out line
 Introduction
 Objective
 Definition
 Ethology
 Pathophysiology
 Clinical manifestation
 Diagnosis
 Medical & Nursing mgt
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 2
Objectives
 To understand basic thyroid axis physiology
 To know the common causes of hypo and
hyperthyroidism
 To recognise the signs and symptoms associated
with hypo and hyperthyroidism
 To know the Management for hypo and
hyperthyroidism
 Thyroid cancer
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 3
Introduction
Thyroid Gland
 Second largest endocrine
gland in body
 Small butterfly shaped gland
located at base of neck.
 Thyroid is controlled by the
hypothalmus and pituitary
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 4
Introduction…
Functions of Thyroid Gland
 Increase the body’s overall basal metabolic rate
 Increase oxygen consumption
 Essential for normal growth & mental development
 Sexual maturation
 Increase the sensitivity of CVS and CNS to
catecholamines (↑COP and HR)
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 5
Introduction…
Calcitonin
 It is secreted in response to high plasma levels
of calcium.
Iodine
 Deficiency alters thyroid function.
 Iodide is ingested in the diet, absorbed & its ions
are converted to iodine molecules.
 Molecules react with tyrosine (an amino acid) to
form the thyroid hormones.
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 6
Introduction…
Hormones: T3 & T4
 T3 (Triiodothyronine) & T4 (Tetraiodothyronine
 T4 is converted to T3 by peripheral organs
such as kidney, liver, and spleen
 T3 is 10x more active than T 4
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 7
Introduction…
Hormones: T4
 T4-thyroxine contains 4 iodine atoms
 It is a slow-acting pre-hormone
 T4 takes 4 days to peak in blood
 Half-life 7 days
 Overall effects take 6 weeks
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 8
Introduction…
Hormones: T3
 T3 is the active and faster-acting hormone
 The immediate effects of T3 last 1-2 days
 Half-life 1.5 days
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 9
Introduction…
Hormones- TSH
 TSH is a pituitary hormone
 Controlled by TRH-thyrotropin releasing hormone
from hypothalamus
 Functions to stimulate thyroid hormone production
 May enlarge thyroid (goiter) when under
producing or over producing
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 10
Introduction…
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 11
Negative Feedback System
Thyroid disorders
 Hypothyroidism
 Underactive thyroid
 Hyperthyroidism
 Overactive thyroid
 Goiter
 Thyroid enlargement
 Thyroid cancer
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 12
Hypothyroidism
Definition
 A clinical and biochemical syndrome that results
from a deficiency in thyroid hormone secretion
from thyroid gland or in the action
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 13
Hypothyroidism
Prevalence
 It is a common disorder with prevalence ranges
from 2-15% population
 Female to male ratio = 10:1
 ↑ with age; ♀ = ♂
 Mean age at diagnosis is 60 years
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 14
Hypothyroidism…
Causes
Primary
 Congenital : Agenesis,& ectopic thyroid remnants
 Defects of hormone synthesis: Iodine deficiency,
dyshormonogenesis, antithyroid drugs & other
drugs (e.g. lithium, amiodarone, interferon)
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 15
Hypothyroidism…
Causes
 Autoimmune
 Atrophic thyroiditis
 Hashimoto's thyroiditis
 Infective
 Post-subacute thyroiditis
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 16
Hypothyroidism…
Causes
 Iatrogenic
 Radioactive iodine therapy
 External neck irradiation
 Post-surgery
 Infiltration
 Amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis,
scleroderma
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 17
Hypothyroidism…
Causes
Secondary
 Hypopituitarism: tumors, pituitary surgery or
irradiation, infiltrative disorders, Sheehan's
syndrome, trauma, genetic
 Isolated TSH deficiency or inactivity
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 18
Hypothyroidism…
Causes
 Tertiary Hypothyroidism
 Hypothalamic disease: tumors, trauma,
Irradiation, idiopathic
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 19
Hashimoto’s Disease
 Autoimmune disorder in which antibodies are
directed against a thyroid sites to :
 Inhibit thyroid peroxidase(T4 –T3)
 Inhibit effects of TSH
 Stimulate thyroid growth
 Lymphocytes are attracted to attacking thyroid
gland leading to inflammation and swelling
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 20
Myxoedema coma
 Severe hypothyroidism, Accumulation of
mucopolysaccaride in subcutaneous tissues
 associated with: confusion or even coma,
hypothermia, severe cardiac failure,
hypoventilation,hypoglycaemia,hyponatrae
mia.
 Patients require full intensive care.
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 21
Myxoedema coma…
 occurs in the elderly
 usually precipitated by factors that impair respiration
 drugs (especially sedatives, anesthetics,
antidepressants)
 pneumonia, congestive heart failure, myocardial
infarction, gastrointestinal bleeding, cerebrovascular
accidents, Sepsis
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 22
10/3/2023 23
Symptoms
 Tiredness, weakness
 Dry skin
 Feeling cold
 Hair loss
 Difficulty concentrating and
poor memory
 Constipation
 Weight gain with poor appetite
 Dyspnea
 Hoarse voice
 Oligomenorrhea or
amenorrhea)
Signs
 Dry coarse skin; cool
peripheral extremities
 Puffy face, hands, and feet
(myxedema)
 Diffuse alopecia
 Bradycardia
 Peripheral edema
 Delayed tendon reflex
relaxation
 Serous cavity effusions
Signs and Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
Monitoring
 Obtain baseline FT4, TSH, LFT, CBCs before
initiation of therapy
 Repeat FT4 and TSH after 4-6 weeks on therapy
and 4-6 weeks after adjustments
 Once euthyroid state obtain thyroid function test
after 3-6 months
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 24
Nursing Management
 Provide a comfortable, warm environment because
client’s intolerance of cold.
 Prevent skin break down.
 Avoid using sedatives.
 Prevent constipation by gradually increasing
exercise, administering stool softener, increasing
bulk in the diet and promoting regular bowel habits.
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 25
Nursing Management
Close monitoring of the vital signs and cognitive
level to detect the following:
 Deterioration of physical and mental status
 S/S indicating that treatment has resulted in the
metabolic rate exceeding the ability of the
cardiovascular and pulmonary systems to respond
 Continued limitations or complications of
myxedema
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 26
Nursing Management
 Assist the client in adhering to a low calorie diet to
reduce weight.
 Teach the clients the nature of the thyroid
hormone deficiency, self care practice, and sign
and symptoms to monitor & asses future health.
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 27
Nursing Management
Providing Emotional Support
 The patient may experience severe emotional
reactions. The nonspecific, early symptoms may
produce negative reactions by family members
and friends, who may have labeled the patient
mentally unstable, uncooperative, or unwilling to
participate in self-care activities.
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 28
Hypothyroidism-Medical management
 Objective: restoration of a normal thyroid function
state.
 General management includes gradual replacement
of thyroid hormone with synthetic preparation of T3
&T4
 Levothyroxine (preferred agent).
 Tri-iodo thyronine & Thyroxine.
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 29
Hyperthyroidism
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 30
Hyperthyroidism
 Thyrotoxicosis - as the state of thyroid hormone
excess
 Hyperthyroidism - result of excessive thyroid
function
 Common:-Graves' disease (autoimmune)
 Toxic multinodular goitre
 Solitary toxic nodule/adenoma
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 31
Causes of Thyrotoxicosis
Primary hyperthyroidism
 Graves' disease
 Toxic multinodular goiter
 Toxic adenoma
 Functioning thyroid carcinoma metastases
 Struma ovarii
 Drugs: iodine excess (Jod-Basedow
phenomenon)
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 32
Causes of Thyrotoxicosis
Secondary hyperthyroidism
• TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma
• Chorionic gonadotropin-secreting tumorsa
• Gestational thyrotoxicosisa
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 33
Graves' disease
 The most common cause of hyperthyrodism
 It is an autoimmune disorder.
 More common in adults –b/n 20 and 50 years
 Can be familial and associated with other
autoimmune diseases
 Characterized by hyperthyroidism, ophthalmopathy
with exophthalmos and dermopathy (pretibial
myxedema)
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 34
Graves' disease…
 Autoimmune disease with breakdown of helper-T-
cell tolerance Excessive production of thyroid
autoantibodies: Thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSI)
Antibodies bind to the TSH receptor of the follicular
cell Stimulation of the cell resulting in:
Increased levels of thyroid hormones &
Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland
Hyperthyroidism and Thyroid gland enlargement
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 35
Hyperthyroidism-Symptoms
 Weight loss, Increased
appetite, Irritability
 Tremor, Goiter
 Restlessness
 Stiffness, Muscle
weakness
 Breathlessness
 Palpitation
 Heat intolerance
 Excessive sweating
 Itching
 Thirst, Vomiting,
Diarrhoea
 Oligomenorrhoea
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 36
Hyperthyroidism-Signs
 Tremor, Irritability,
Psychosis,
Tachycardia or atrial
fibrillation, Warm
peripheries, Systolic
hypertension, Cardiac
failure
 Papilledema
 Proximal myopathy
 Proximal muscle
wasting
 Onycholysis
 Palmar erythema
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 37
Assessment and Diagnostic Findings
 Enlarged thyroid.
 It is soft and may pulsate; with a bruit.
 Increased Blood serum level of T4 (decreased
TSH, increased free T4 and an increased
radioactive iodine uptake). Serum TSH level
decreases to prevent the secretion of T3&T4 as a
negative feedback mechanism.
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 38
Goiter
Muktar A. 39
 A diet deficient in iodine
 Increase in thyroid
stimulating hormone (TSH)
in response to a defect in
normal hormone synthesis
within the thyroid gland.
Congenital Thyroid Diseases
Muktar A. 40
 Agenesis /Aplasia
 Hypoplasia
 Accessory or aberrant thyroid glands
 Thyroglossal duct cyst
Hyperthyroidism-Treatment
Muktar A. 41
Drug Therapy
 Beta blocker
 Atenolol 50mg-100mg po daily
 Propranolol 20-40mg po TID
 Antithyroids
 Methimazole 15-30mg po daily
 Propylthiouracil (PTU) 300mg TID
Hyperthyroidism-Treatment…
 Procedural Therapy
 Radionuclide albation of thyroid gland
 Total thyroidectomy
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 42
10/3/2023 43
Benign
1. Hyperplasia
 Colloid nodules
2. Follicular epithelial cell adenoma
 Conventional
 Oncocytic (hurthlecell)
Classification of Thyroid growth
10/3/2023 44
Thyroid Malignant
1. Papillary Carcinoma (80-85%)
2. Follicular Carcinoma (5-12%)
3. Anaplastic Carcinoma (1%)
4. Medullary Carcinoma (<10%)
-
Classification of Thyroid growth
Summery
Disorders of the Thyroid gland;
 Under function- hypothyroidism- TSH, T3 and T4,
 Over function- hyperthyroidism TSH, T3 and T4
 Inflammation- thyroiditis
 Simple goiter
 Tumors:- benign- adenoma
- malignant
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 45
Summery
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 46
Reference
 Harrison’s 21st edition,2022, principle of internal
medicine, Mcgraw-hill education, Vol.1
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 47
Thank You !
10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 48

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Thyroid Disorder.pptx

  • 1. Title: Thyroid disorder Presented by: Mekonnen Urgessa & Merga Wekwaya Presented to: Mr Tedesse. K. (Asst professor ) Sep. 2023 Fitche SALALE UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF MEDICINE AND HEALTH SCIENCE DEPARTMENT OF ADULT HEALTH NURSING II Thyroid disorders 10/3/2023 1
  • 2. Course Out line  Introduction  Objective  Definition  Ethology  Pathophysiology  Clinical manifestation  Diagnosis  Medical & Nursing mgt 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 2
  • 3. Objectives  To understand basic thyroid axis physiology  To know the common causes of hypo and hyperthyroidism  To recognise the signs and symptoms associated with hypo and hyperthyroidism  To know the Management for hypo and hyperthyroidism  Thyroid cancer 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 3
  • 4. Introduction Thyroid Gland  Second largest endocrine gland in body  Small butterfly shaped gland located at base of neck.  Thyroid is controlled by the hypothalmus and pituitary 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 4
  • 5. Introduction… Functions of Thyroid Gland  Increase the body’s overall basal metabolic rate  Increase oxygen consumption  Essential for normal growth & mental development  Sexual maturation  Increase the sensitivity of CVS and CNS to catecholamines (↑COP and HR) 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 5
  • 6. Introduction… Calcitonin  It is secreted in response to high plasma levels of calcium. Iodine  Deficiency alters thyroid function.  Iodide is ingested in the diet, absorbed & its ions are converted to iodine molecules.  Molecules react with tyrosine (an amino acid) to form the thyroid hormones. 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 6
  • 7. Introduction… Hormones: T3 & T4  T3 (Triiodothyronine) & T4 (Tetraiodothyronine  T4 is converted to T3 by peripheral organs such as kidney, liver, and spleen  T3 is 10x more active than T 4 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 7
  • 8. Introduction… Hormones: T4  T4-thyroxine contains 4 iodine atoms  It is a slow-acting pre-hormone  T4 takes 4 days to peak in blood  Half-life 7 days  Overall effects take 6 weeks 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 8
  • 9. Introduction… Hormones: T3  T3 is the active and faster-acting hormone  The immediate effects of T3 last 1-2 days  Half-life 1.5 days 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 9
  • 10. Introduction… Hormones- TSH  TSH is a pituitary hormone  Controlled by TRH-thyrotropin releasing hormone from hypothalamus  Functions to stimulate thyroid hormone production  May enlarge thyroid (goiter) when under producing or over producing 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 10
  • 11. Introduction… 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 11 Negative Feedback System
  • 12. Thyroid disorders  Hypothyroidism  Underactive thyroid  Hyperthyroidism  Overactive thyroid  Goiter  Thyroid enlargement  Thyroid cancer 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 12
  • 13. Hypothyroidism Definition  A clinical and biochemical syndrome that results from a deficiency in thyroid hormone secretion from thyroid gland or in the action 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 13
  • 14. Hypothyroidism Prevalence  It is a common disorder with prevalence ranges from 2-15% population  Female to male ratio = 10:1  ↑ with age; ♀ = ♂  Mean age at diagnosis is 60 years 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 14
  • 15. Hypothyroidism… Causes Primary  Congenital : Agenesis,& ectopic thyroid remnants  Defects of hormone synthesis: Iodine deficiency, dyshormonogenesis, antithyroid drugs & other drugs (e.g. lithium, amiodarone, interferon) 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 15
  • 16. Hypothyroidism… Causes  Autoimmune  Atrophic thyroiditis  Hashimoto's thyroiditis  Infective  Post-subacute thyroiditis 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 16
  • 17. Hypothyroidism… Causes  Iatrogenic  Radioactive iodine therapy  External neck irradiation  Post-surgery  Infiltration  Amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis, scleroderma 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 17
  • 18. Hypothyroidism… Causes Secondary  Hypopituitarism: tumors, pituitary surgery or irradiation, infiltrative disorders, Sheehan's syndrome, trauma, genetic  Isolated TSH deficiency or inactivity 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 18
  • 19. Hypothyroidism… Causes  Tertiary Hypothyroidism  Hypothalamic disease: tumors, trauma, Irradiation, idiopathic 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 19
  • 20. Hashimoto’s Disease  Autoimmune disorder in which antibodies are directed against a thyroid sites to :  Inhibit thyroid peroxidase(T4 –T3)  Inhibit effects of TSH  Stimulate thyroid growth  Lymphocytes are attracted to attacking thyroid gland leading to inflammation and swelling 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 20
  • 21. Myxoedema coma  Severe hypothyroidism, Accumulation of mucopolysaccaride in subcutaneous tissues  associated with: confusion or even coma, hypothermia, severe cardiac failure, hypoventilation,hypoglycaemia,hyponatrae mia.  Patients require full intensive care. 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 21
  • 22. Myxoedema coma…  occurs in the elderly  usually precipitated by factors that impair respiration  drugs (especially sedatives, anesthetics, antidepressants)  pneumonia, congestive heart failure, myocardial infarction, gastrointestinal bleeding, cerebrovascular accidents, Sepsis 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 22
  • 23. 10/3/2023 23 Symptoms  Tiredness, weakness  Dry skin  Feeling cold  Hair loss  Difficulty concentrating and poor memory  Constipation  Weight gain with poor appetite  Dyspnea  Hoarse voice  Oligomenorrhea or amenorrhea) Signs  Dry coarse skin; cool peripheral extremities  Puffy face, hands, and feet (myxedema)  Diffuse alopecia  Bradycardia  Peripheral edema  Delayed tendon reflex relaxation  Serous cavity effusions Signs and Symptoms of Hypothyroidism
  • 24. Monitoring  Obtain baseline FT4, TSH, LFT, CBCs before initiation of therapy  Repeat FT4 and TSH after 4-6 weeks on therapy and 4-6 weeks after adjustments  Once euthyroid state obtain thyroid function test after 3-6 months 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 24
  • 25. Nursing Management  Provide a comfortable, warm environment because client’s intolerance of cold.  Prevent skin break down.  Avoid using sedatives.  Prevent constipation by gradually increasing exercise, administering stool softener, increasing bulk in the diet and promoting regular bowel habits. 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 25
  • 26. Nursing Management Close monitoring of the vital signs and cognitive level to detect the following:  Deterioration of physical and mental status  S/S indicating that treatment has resulted in the metabolic rate exceeding the ability of the cardiovascular and pulmonary systems to respond  Continued limitations or complications of myxedema 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 26
  • 27. Nursing Management  Assist the client in adhering to a low calorie diet to reduce weight.  Teach the clients the nature of the thyroid hormone deficiency, self care practice, and sign and symptoms to monitor & asses future health. 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 27
  • 28. Nursing Management Providing Emotional Support  The patient may experience severe emotional reactions. The nonspecific, early symptoms may produce negative reactions by family members and friends, who may have labeled the patient mentally unstable, uncooperative, or unwilling to participate in self-care activities. 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 28
  • 29. Hypothyroidism-Medical management  Objective: restoration of a normal thyroid function state.  General management includes gradual replacement of thyroid hormone with synthetic preparation of T3 &T4  Levothyroxine (preferred agent).  Tri-iodo thyronine & Thyroxine. 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 29
  • 31. Hyperthyroidism  Thyrotoxicosis - as the state of thyroid hormone excess  Hyperthyroidism - result of excessive thyroid function  Common:-Graves' disease (autoimmune)  Toxic multinodular goitre  Solitary toxic nodule/adenoma 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 31
  • 32. Causes of Thyrotoxicosis Primary hyperthyroidism  Graves' disease  Toxic multinodular goiter  Toxic adenoma  Functioning thyroid carcinoma metastases  Struma ovarii  Drugs: iodine excess (Jod-Basedow phenomenon) 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 32
  • 33. Causes of Thyrotoxicosis Secondary hyperthyroidism • TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma • Chorionic gonadotropin-secreting tumorsa • Gestational thyrotoxicosisa 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 33
  • 34. Graves' disease  The most common cause of hyperthyrodism  It is an autoimmune disorder.  More common in adults –b/n 20 and 50 years  Can be familial and associated with other autoimmune diseases  Characterized by hyperthyroidism, ophthalmopathy with exophthalmos and dermopathy (pretibial myxedema) 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 34
  • 35. Graves' disease…  Autoimmune disease with breakdown of helper-T- cell tolerance Excessive production of thyroid autoantibodies: Thyroid-stimulating antibody (TSI) Antibodies bind to the TSH receptor of the follicular cell Stimulation of the cell resulting in: Increased levels of thyroid hormones & Hyperplasia of the thyroid gland Hyperthyroidism and Thyroid gland enlargement 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 35
  • 36. Hyperthyroidism-Symptoms  Weight loss, Increased appetite, Irritability  Tremor, Goiter  Restlessness  Stiffness, Muscle weakness  Breathlessness  Palpitation  Heat intolerance  Excessive sweating  Itching  Thirst, Vomiting, Diarrhoea  Oligomenorrhoea 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 36
  • 37. Hyperthyroidism-Signs  Tremor, Irritability, Psychosis, Tachycardia or atrial fibrillation, Warm peripheries, Systolic hypertension, Cardiac failure  Papilledema  Proximal myopathy  Proximal muscle wasting  Onycholysis  Palmar erythema 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 37
  • 38. Assessment and Diagnostic Findings  Enlarged thyroid.  It is soft and may pulsate; with a bruit.  Increased Blood serum level of T4 (decreased TSH, increased free T4 and an increased radioactive iodine uptake). Serum TSH level decreases to prevent the secretion of T3&T4 as a negative feedback mechanism. 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 38
  • 39. Goiter Muktar A. 39  A diet deficient in iodine  Increase in thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) in response to a defect in normal hormone synthesis within the thyroid gland.
  • 40. Congenital Thyroid Diseases Muktar A. 40  Agenesis /Aplasia  Hypoplasia  Accessory or aberrant thyroid glands  Thyroglossal duct cyst
  • 41. Hyperthyroidism-Treatment Muktar A. 41 Drug Therapy  Beta blocker  Atenolol 50mg-100mg po daily  Propranolol 20-40mg po TID  Antithyroids  Methimazole 15-30mg po daily  Propylthiouracil (PTU) 300mg TID
  • 42. Hyperthyroidism-Treatment…  Procedural Therapy  Radionuclide albation of thyroid gland  Total thyroidectomy 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 42
  • 43. 10/3/2023 43 Benign 1. Hyperplasia  Colloid nodules 2. Follicular epithelial cell adenoma  Conventional  Oncocytic (hurthlecell) Classification of Thyroid growth
  • 44. 10/3/2023 44 Thyroid Malignant 1. Papillary Carcinoma (80-85%) 2. Follicular Carcinoma (5-12%) 3. Anaplastic Carcinoma (1%) 4. Medullary Carcinoma (<10%) - Classification of Thyroid growth
  • 45. Summery Disorders of the Thyroid gland;  Under function- hypothyroidism- TSH, T3 and T4,  Over function- hyperthyroidism TSH, T3 and T4  Inflammation- thyroiditis  Simple goiter  Tumors:- benign- adenoma - malignant 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 45
  • 47. Reference  Harrison’s 21st edition,2022, principle of internal medicine, Mcgraw-hill education, Vol.1 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 47
  • 48. Thank You ! 10/3/2023 Thyroid disorders 48