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THREE SKILLS
FOR GPS TO
ADDRESS THE
INFODEMIC
Neville Calleja
Tina Purnat
Elisabeth Wilhelm
This presentation © 2023 by Tina D Purnat is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike
4.0 International
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Thanks for your interest in this topic. I developed this deck to support public health efforts and have made it available for others to
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licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-
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Creator: https://www.linkedin.com/in/tinadpurnat/ Work is published at: https://tinapurnat.com
GPS CAN BE SUPERHEROES
IN MANAGING THE
INFODEMIC
Most trusted source of health
information
Have pre-existing relationships with
patients and community
Can translate health guidance and
evidence
Empower patients with health education
Provide empathetic care
CHALLENGES PATIENTS FACE FINDING AND
USING HEALTH INFORMATION
• Circulating misinformation
• Deceptive marketing tactics
• Low knowledge/awareness
• Concerns going unaddressed
• Absence of pro-health voices in
online space
• Influencers promoting inaccurate
information
• Can't find health information
• Lack of social support in digital
spaces for vaccination
• Absence of credible, accurate health
information available
• Low digital literacy
• Lack of access to digital spaces and
information
• Health workers unable to address
vaccine concerns and
misinformation effectively
• Media amplifies misinformation on
social media
“Believer”
I am deeply connected to an online community
that is pushing false, misleading claims. I believe
the information being shared by the community
is true and I want to share it with others.
“Hoaxster”
I create hoaxes to fool
people, sometimes to
make money.
THERE ARE DIFFERENT MOTIVATIONS FOR PEOPLE
SHARING HEALTH MISINFORMATION
“Disinformer”
I deliberately create harmful
misinformation.
“Mischief-maker”
I create false of misleading
information to see if I can fool
people for the fun of it.
“Oversharer”
When I see something online that seems
helpful or worrying I like to share
without checking because I’d rather
people have as much information as
possible.
“Enthusiast”
I post misinformation
frequently in support of a
person or cause.
“Casual sharer”
I tend to spend a lot of time online,
and can sometimes share carelessly
while waiting in line, or scrolling late
at night in bed.
Creators Sharers
Source: US Surgeon General Health Misinformation Toolkit
Memes (fun, colorful
images or graphics) that
were created as a joke,
but people started
resharing thinking it was
true.
Cherry-picked statistics.
Too often we see people
choosing the number that
supports what they want
to argue, but without all
the data, they haven’t
provided all the context.
Websites that look
professional (often
designed to look like news
sites) but the stories are
all false or misleading.
They have sensational
headlines designed to
make us click on them.
Misleading graphs or
diagrams that look official
but don’t tell the whole
story
COMMON TYPES OF HEALTH MISINFORMATION
Source: US Surgeon General Health Misinformation Toolkit
COMMON TYPES OF HEALTH MISINFORMATION
Source: US Surgeon General Health Misinformation Toolkit
Quotations where the
beginning or end have been
deleted to change the meaning.
The person did say that, but
without the full context it’s not a
fair representation of what they
said.
Old images that recirculate
as if they are actually very
recent.
Videos that have been edited
to change the meaning.
COMMON TYPES OF HEALTH MISINFORMATION
Source: US Surgeon General Health Misinformation Toolkit
Quotations where the
beginning or end have been
deleted to change the meaning.
The person did say that, but
without the full context it’s not a
fair representation of what they
said.
Old images that recirculate
as if they are actually very
recent.
Videos that have been edited
to change the meaning.
COMMON TACTICS TO
PROMOTE HEALTH
MISINFORMATION
Source: US Surgeon General Health Misinformation Toolkit
Professional visual
cues
Logos Good looking
website
Close relation
reference
Personal
experience
Rare terms’
search
COMMON HEALTH MISINFORMATION NARRATIVES
Source: FirstDraft https://firstdraftnews.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/FirstDraft_Underthesurface_Fullreport_Final.pdf?x21167
Development, provision
and access of healthcare
services and products
Safety, efficacy and
necessity of diagnostics,
therapeutics and
vaccines
Political and
economic motives
Conspiracy
theories
Liberty and
freedom
Morality and
religion
CONTENTS OF AN INFODEMIC AND WHERE GPS CAN
MAKE A DIFFERENCE
Questions
Concerns
Information
Voids
Mis- and
disinformation
HOW TO BE DIGITALLY SAVVY
OVERVIEW
HOW TO HAVE QUALITY CONVERSATIONS WITH PATIENTS
HOW TO ADDRESS HEALTH MISINFORMATION
HOW TO HAVE QUALITY
CONVERSATIONS WITH
PATIENTS
QUALITY
CONVERSATIONS MATTER
Motivational interviewing is a psychology-based
approach to counsel patients to help them find
motivation to make positive behavior
changes that can improve their health.
Negative interpersonal interactions with
healthcare workers can reduce patient and
community trust and desire and likelihood to
follow recommendations and return for future
services.
Motivational interviewing can build trust and
help address information needs and connect
with people’s values.
Core skill How to apply it
Ask open‐ended questions
Draw patient into conversation to understand their understanding,
fears and questions about the health issue.
Give affirmations
Let the patient know you are hearing and understanding their
frustrations and concerns without interrupting or dismissing.
Provide reflection
Demonstrate empathy and concern for the wellbeing of your patient,
and ask follow-up questions to help patient clarify their thinking and
answers.
Summarize the conversation
Recap the discussion to ensure that you interpreted the patient’s
concerns accurately and have chosen next steps together.
CORE SKILLS FOR MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING
Adapted from source: Breckenridge, L. A., Burns, D., & Nye, C. (2022). The use of motivational interviewing to overcome COVID‐19 vaccine
hesitancy in primary care settings. Public Health Nursing, 39(3), 618-623.
STEPS FOR MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING
• Be polite, even
if you disagree
2. Welcome patient
warmly
3. Encourage
patients to express
ideas and fears
4. Use empathy to
demonstrate
understanding
5. Show
appreciation for
patient’s knowledge
and questions
6. Keep messages
simple and clear
7. Avoid
interrupting patient
when they speak
8. Avoid
assumption that
patient doesn’t
want to follow
health advice
9. Use appropriate
body language,
facial expressions
and eye contact
10. Listen actively
to promote
discussion
11. User respectful
terms of address
12. Check for
understanding at
end of discussion
Adapted from source: UNICEF Interpersonal Communications for Immunization Package; https://ipc.unicef.org/package-components
HOW TO ADDRESS HEALTH
MISINFORMATION
HOW TO IDENTIFY HEALTH MISINFORMATION
Consider the source:
Is it from a reputable
news organization or
health authority?
Read the whole article:
If a headline sounds
sensationalist, click and
read the whole article.
Does it support with
references to credible
sources? Are medical or
scientific claims
supported with
evidence?
Check the date:
When was it posted?
Was it recent or is it
old?
Check your biases:
Think about whether
your own beliefs are
interfering with you
judging this content
fairly.
Check for unbelievable
statements:
Is there a claim made
that seems too good or
too horrible to be true?
If so, what is the
supporting evidence for
the claim?
Ask a health expert:
Talk to subject matter
experts in the area of
health in question
Don’t interrupt.
Make sure not to cut off, speak
over or jump into correcting the
other person.
Help them feel
empowered.
Provide an empowering
message. (e.g. “Once you learn
more about healthy eating to
prevent diabetes, you will feel
more in control.”)
Don’t focus on the myths.
Focus on understanding the
underlying worry or concern that
may have caused this
misinformation to “stick” with this
person. (Use sandwich method to
debunk on next slide.)
HOW TO ADDRESS HEALTH-RELATED CONCERNS IN A
CONVERSATION (AND ONLINE)
Connect with the
person’s values.
Use active listening skills to
maintain an empathetic
connection and ask for further
information.
Assume they will choose
the recommended care
or treatment.
Establish a verbal default. (e.g. “It’s
time to schedule your
colonoscopy.”)
Keep the door open.
Some people’s opinions will not
likely be changed in one
conversation and stay open for
further conversation.
Fact Warning Fallacy Fact
• Lead with the fact
• Make it clear,
relevant and
memorable
• Misinformation alert!
• Misleading tactics alert!
• Unintentional: Explain
reasons why facts
could have been
misinterpreted
• Intentional:
• Flag tactics
• Undermine
trust in
authors
• Highlight
misleading
tactics
• Reveal hidden
agenda
• Provide alternative
correct information
• Must replace
misinformation
• Make correct
information more
memorable than the
misinformation
ADDRESSING MISINFORMATION EFFECTIVELY: THE
"TRUTH SANDWICH" (ALSO KNOWN AS DEBUNKING)
Fact Warning Fallacy Fact
• There’s no peer-
reviewed research
that supports the
idea that apricot
kernels cure
cancer.
• However, some
companies are happy to
take your money by selling
products that seem
healthy and natural but
don’t actually work.
• This health claim is one
person’s experience
who is not a medical
professional and does
not represent cancer
patients as a whole.
• in fact, research has
shown that patients with
cancer who use
alternative treatments
are more likely to die
earlier instead of those
that use doctor-
recommended
treatments.
EXAMPLE: CELEBRITY CLAIMS THAT BOILING APRICOT KERNELS
TO MAKE TEA CURED HER BREAST CANCER
HOW TO BE DIGITALLY
SAVVY
BEFORE ENGAGING
Audit your
digital self
Choose
engagement
style
Remember
your audience
Be a
connector
Clean up old blog posts and
social media posts, close
down old social media
accounts, use stronger
passwords, update
professional online profiles,
change privacy settings.
Research and choose the
platforms, types of content
you’ll be posting, frequency,
and how you’ll handle
questions or comments or
trolls. Also, decide how you’ll
engage on other people’s
posts.
When responding to
comments online, know that
the “lurkers” are even more
important than the person
you’re publicly responding
to. Aim to persuade the
bystanders and not the
hardcore believers.
Empathize with poster’s
feelings, ask to offer your
perspective, give friendly,
link to a source poster
would find credible to
underscore your point.
Advocate: Promote a health topic or issue, especially where
there is low awareness or a lot of misunderstandings of the topic
Educator: Develop educational, how-to content, such as video or
tutorials
Writer: Contribute to blogs, online publications, Substacks, etc;
Expert: Serve as a subject matter expert for journalists and fact
checkers
(SOME) WAYS TO ENGAGE IN DIGITAL SPACES
When you create compelling digital content, you can:
• reach more people
• amplify accurate, positive messages that can "go viral"
• improve health knowledge
• answer questions and fill gaps
• influence perceptions
• connect people to information and services
• promote healthy behaviors
It also competes better against misinformation and other harmful
narratives.
WHY IS CREATING COMPELLING
HEALTH CONTENT IMPORTANT?
Always include a picture, video or
audio, never just text
Format size of images/video for
the specific social media platforms
Use pictures or video that the
community can relate to
FOR BUILDING COMPELLING
DIGITAL CONTENT
Use plain language (ask yourself,
could your mom understand this
post?)
Keep it short and simple (less than
150 characters is best)
Use a positive tone
Leverage existing trends (e.g.
music, popular references)
Use emojis to feel friendlier
On certain social media accounts,
use relevant hashtags (e.g.
#vaccineswork)
FOR BUILDING COMPELLING
DIGITAL CONTENT
Ensure that file sizes are small to
make it easier for people to download
Include important information for call
to action (who, what, when, where,
how, why)
Add logos (with permission!) for more
credibility
💉
ADDRESSING HEALTH MISINFORMATION ON SOCIAL
MEDIA
• Remember you are talking to a wider audience than just the person who posted the
misinformation – respond with them in mind.
• Be empathetic and assume the author did not realize that they were sharing
misinformation.
• Ask permission to share knowledge.
• Provide short responses in clear, simple language. Establish your credentials early on and
frame your response as a health professional with heart (e.g. “As a health worker, I have
heard similar concerns from parents, but I can tell you…”)
• When sharing links, make sure to offer additional resources that the original poster would
find most compelling (e.g. link to the pediatric association Facebook page instead of linking
to a scientific paper when talking to a young mother)
• Don’t publicly engage with trolls or people who seem unlikely to change their minds if
provided with additional information. Sometimes the best way to share information is
through private message.
RESOURCES
THANK YOU
elisabeth@sent.com
me@tinapurnat.com

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Three skills for GPs to address the infodemic

  • 1. THREE SKILLS FOR GPS TO ADDRESS THE INFODEMIC Neville Calleja Tina Purnat Elisabeth Wilhelm This presentation © 2023 by Tina D Purnat is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International
  • 2. How you can use this slide deck Thanks for your interest in this topic. I developed this deck to support public health efforts and have made it available for others to use it as well. I’ve made full effort to acknowledge sources of information and adaptation of slides from other people. You are welcome to adapt the slide deck as per the license below. Please make an effort to properly credit the efforts of others that you use. This presentation © 2023 by Tina D Purnat is licensed under Attribution-NonCommercial- ShareAlike 4.0 International You are free to: 1.Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format 2.Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material 3.The licensor cannot revoke these freedoms as long as you follow the license terms. Under the following terms: 1.Attribution - You must give appropriate credit , provide a link to the license, and indicate if changes were made . You may do so in any reasonable manner, but not in any way that suggests the licensor endorses you or your use. 2.NonCommercial - You may not use the material for commercial purposes . 3.ShareAlike - If you remix, transform, or build upon the material, you must distribute your contributions under the same license as the original. 4.No additional restrictions - You may not apply legal terms or technological measures that legally restrict others from doing anything the license permits. Creator: https://www.linkedin.com/in/tinadpurnat/ Work is published at: https://tinapurnat.com
  • 3. GPS CAN BE SUPERHEROES IN MANAGING THE INFODEMIC Most trusted source of health information Have pre-existing relationships with patients and community Can translate health guidance and evidence Empower patients with health education Provide empathetic care
  • 4. CHALLENGES PATIENTS FACE FINDING AND USING HEALTH INFORMATION • Circulating misinformation • Deceptive marketing tactics • Low knowledge/awareness • Concerns going unaddressed • Absence of pro-health voices in online space • Influencers promoting inaccurate information • Can't find health information • Lack of social support in digital spaces for vaccination • Absence of credible, accurate health information available • Low digital literacy • Lack of access to digital spaces and information • Health workers unable to address vaccine concerns and misinformation effectively • Media amplifies misinformation on social media
  • 5. “Believer” I am deeply connected to an online community that is pushing false, misleading claims. I believe the information being shared by the community is true and I want to share it with others. “Hoaxster” I create hoaxes to fool people, sometimes to make money. THERE ARE DIFFERENT MOTIVATIONS FOR PEOPLE SHARING HEALTH MISINFORMATION “Disinformer” I deliberately create harmful misinformation. “Mischief-maker” I create false of misleading information to see if I can fool people for the fun of it. “Oversharer” When I see something online that seems helpful or worrying I like to share without checking because I’d rather people have as much information as possible. “Enthusiast” I post misinformation frequently in support of a person or cause. “Casual sharer” I tend to spend a lot of time online, and can sometimes share carelessly while waiting in line, or scrolling late at night in bed. Creators Sharers Source: US Surgeon General Health Misinformation Toolkit
  • 6. Memes (fun, colorful images or graphics) that were created as a joke, but people started resharing thinking it was true. Cherry-picked statistics. Too often we see people choosing the number that supports what they want to argue, but without all the data, they haven’t provided all the context. Websites that look professional (often designed to look like news sites) but the stories are all false or misleading. They have sensational headlines designed to make us click on them. Misleading graphs or diagrams that look official but don’t tell the whole story COMMON TYPES OF HEALTH MISINFORMATION Source: US Surgeon General Health Misinformation Toolkit
  • 7. COMMON TYPES OF HEALTH MISINFORMATION Source: US Surgeon General Health Misinformation Toolkit Quotations where the beginning or end have been deleted to change the meaning. The person did say that, but without the full context it’s not a fair representation of what they said. Old images that recirculate as if they are actually very recent. Videos that have been edited to change the meaning.
  • 8. COMMON TYPES OF HEALTH MISINFORMATION Source: US Surgeon General Health Misinformation Toolkit Quotations where the beginning or end have been deleted to change the meaning. The person did say that, but without the full context it’s not a fair representation of what they said. Old images that recirculate as if they are actually very recent. Videos that have been edited to change the meaning.
  • 9. COMMON TACTICS TO PROMOTE HEALTH MISINFORMATION Source: US Surgeon General Health Misinformation Toolkit Professional visual cues Logos Good looking website Close relation reference Personal experience Rare terms’ search
  • 10. COMMON HEALTH MISINFORMATION NARRATIVES Source: FirstDraft https://firstdraftnews.org/wp-content/uploads/2020/11/FirstDraft_Underthesurface_Fullreport_Final.pdf?x21167 Development, provision and access of healthcare services and products Safety, efficacy and necessity of diagnostics, therapeutics and vaccines Political and economic motives Conspiracy theories Liberty and freedom Morality and religion
  • 11. CONTENTS OF AN INFODEMIC AND WHERE GPS CAN MAKE A DIFFERENCE Questions Concerns Information Voids Mis- and disinformation
  • 12. HOW TO BE DIGITALLY SAVVY OVERVIEW HOW TO HAVE QUALITY CONVERSATIONS WITH PATIENTS HOW TO ADDRESS HEALTH MISINFORMATION
  • 13. HOW TO HAVE QUALITY CONVERSATIONS WITH PATIENTS
  • 14. QUALITY CONVERSATIONS MATTER Motivational interviewing is a psychology-based approach to counsel patients to help them find motivation to make positive behavior changes that can improve their health. Negative interpersonal interactions with healthcare workers can reduce patient and community trust and desire and likelihood to follow recommendations and return for future services. Motivational interviewing can build trust and help address information needs and connect with people’s values.
  • 15. Core skill How to apply it Ask open‐ended questions Draw patient into conversation to understand their understanding, fears and questions about the health issue. Give affirmations Let the patient know you are hearing and understanding their frustrations and concerns without interrupting or dismissing. Provide reflection Demonstrate empathy and concern for the wellbeing of your patient, and ask follow-up questions to help patient clarify their thinking and answers. Summarize the conversation Recap the discussion to ensure that you interpreted the patient’s concerns accurately and have chosen next steps together. CORE SKILLS FOR MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING Adapted from source: Breckenridge, L. A., Burns, D., & Nye, C. (2022). The use of motivational interviewing to overcome COVID‐19 vaccine hesitancy in primary care settings. Public Health Nursing, 39(3), 618-623.
  • 16. STEPS FOR MOTIVATIONAL INTERVIEWING • Be polite, even if you disagree 2. Welcome patient warmly 3. Encourage patients to express ideas and fears 4. Use empathy to demonstrate understanding 5. Show appreciation for patient’s knowledge and questions 6. Keep messages simple and clear 7. Avoid interrupting patient when they speak 8. Avoid assumption that patient doesn’t want to follow health advice 9. Use appropriate body language, facial expressions and eye contact 10. Listen actively to promote discussion 11. User respectful terms of address 12. Check for understanding at end of discussion Adapted from source: UNICEF Interpersonal Communications for Immunization Package; https://ipc.unicef.org/package-components
  • 17. HOW TO ADDRESS HEALTH MISINFORMATION
  • 18. HOW TO IDENTIFY HEALTH MISINFORMATION Consider the source: Is it from a reputable news organization or health authority? Read the whole article: If a headline sounds sensationalist, click and read the whole article. Does it support with references to credible sources? Are medical or scientific claims supported with evidence? Check the date: When was it posted? Was it recent or is it old? Check your biases: Think about whether your own beliefs are interfering with you judging this content fairly. Check for unbelievable statements: Is there a claim made that seems too good or too horrible to be true? If so, what is the supporting evidence for the claim? Ask a health expert: Talk to subject matter experts in the area of health in question
  • 19. Don’t interrupt. Make sure not to cut off, speak over or jump into correcting the other person. Help them feel empowered. Provide an empowering message. (e.g. “Once you learn more about healthy eating to prevent diabetes, you will feel more in control.”) Don’t focus on the myths. Focus on understanding the underlying worry or concern that may have caused this misinformation to “stick” with this person. (Use sandwich method to debunk on next slide.) HOW TO ADDRESS HEALTH-RELATED CONCERNS IN A CONVERSATION (AND ONLINE) Connect with the person’s values. Use active listening skills to maintain an empathetic connection and ask for further information. Assume they will choose the recommended care or treatment. Establish a verbal default. (e.g. “It’s time to schedule your colonoscopy.”) Keep the door open. Some people’s opinions will not likely be changed in one conversation and stay open for further conversation.
  • 20. Fact Warning Fallacy Fact • Lead with the fact • Make it clear, relevant and memorable • Misinformation alert! • Misleading tactics alert! • Unintentional: Explain reasons why facts could have been misinterpreted • Intentional: • Flag tactics • Undermine trust in authors • Highlight misleading tactics • Reveal hidden agenda • Provide alternative correct information • Must replace misinformation • Make correct information more memorable than the misinformation ADDRESSING MISINFORMATION EFFECTIVELY: THE "TRUTH SANDWICH" (ALSO KNOWN AS DEBUNKING)
  • 21. Fact Warning Fallacy Fact • There’s no peer- reviewed research that supports the idea that apricot kernels cure cancer. • However, some companies are happy to take your money by selling products that seem healthy and natural but don’t actually work. • This health claim is one person’s experience who is not a medical professional and does not represent cancer patients as a whole. • in fact, research has shown that patients with cancer who use alternative treatments are more likely to die earlier instead of those that use doctor- recommended treatments. EXAMPLE: CELEBRITY CLAIMS THAT BOILING APRICOT KERNELS TO MAKE TEA CURED HER BREAST CANCER
  • 22. HOW TO BE DIGITALLY SAVVY
  • 23. BEFORE ENGAGING Audit your digital self Choose engagement style Remember your audience Be a connector Clean up old blog posts and social media posts, close down old social media accounts, use stronger passwords, update professional online profiles, change privacy settings. Research and choose the platforms, types of content you’ll be posting, frequency, and how you’ll handle questions or comments or trolls. Also, decide how you’ll engage on other people’s posts. When responding to comments online, know that the “lurkers” are even more important than the person you’re publicly responding to. Aim to persuade the bystanders and not the hardcore believers. Empathize with poster’s feelings, ask to offer your perspective, give friendly, link to a source poster would find credible to underscore your point.
  • 24. Advocate: Promote a health topic or issue, especially where there is low awareness or a lot of misunderstandings of the topic Educator: Develop educational, how-to content, such as video or tutorials Writer: Contribute to blogs, online publications, Substacks, etc; Expert: Serve as a subject matter expert for journalists and fact checkers (SOME) WAYS TO ENGAGE IN DIGITAL SPACES
  • 25. When you create compelling digital content, you can: • reach more people • amplify accurate, positive messages that can "go viral" • improve health knowledge • answer questions and fill gaps • influence perceptions • connect people to information and services • promote healthy behaviors It also competes better against misinformation and other harmful narratives. WHY IS CREATING COMPELLING HEALTH CONTENT IMPORTANT?
  • 26. Always include a picture, video or audio, never just text Format size of images/video for the specific social media platforms Use pictures or video that the community can relate to FOR BUILDING COMPELLING DIGITAL CONTENT Use plain language (ask yourself, could your mom understand this post?) Keep it short and simple (less than 150 characters is best) Use a positive tone
  • 27. Leverage existing trends (e.g. music, popular references) Use emojis to feel friendlier On certain social media accounts, use relevant hashtags (e.g. #vaccineswork) FOR BUILDING COMPELLING DIGITAL CONTENT Ensure that file sizes are small to make it easier for people to download Include important information for call to action (who, what, when, where, how, why) Add logos (with permission!) for more credibility 💉
  • 28. ADDRESSING HEALTH MISINFORMATION ON SOCIAL MEDIA • Remember you are talking to a wider audience than just the person who posted the misinformation – respond with them in mind. • Be empathetic and assume the author did not realize that they were sharing misinformation. • Ask permission to share knowledge. • Provide short responses in clear, simple language. Establish your credentials early on and frame your response as a health professional with heart (e.g. “As a health worker, I have heard similar concerns from parents, but I can tell you…”) • When sharing links, make sure to offer additional resources that the original poster would find most compelling (e.g. link to the pediatric association Facebook page instead of linking to a scientific paper when talking to a young mother) • Don’t publicly engage with trolls or people who seem unlikely to change their minds if provided with additional information. Sometimes the best way to share information is through private message.