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UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 1
Chris Thornton info@phosphorusplatform.eu www.phosphorusplatform.eu
EU policies driving nutrient removal and recycling
and the revised UWWTD (Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive)
Tuesday 4th June 2024
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 2
European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP)
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 3
European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP)
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 4
EU “Green Deal” and phosphorus
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 5
Phosphorus recycling:
a long tradition
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 6
Without
mineral phosphate fertilisers
we could feed maybe 1/5th
of the current world population
Adapted from Dawson et al., Food Policy 2011:
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2010.11.012
Without Haber-Bosch
(mineral nitrogen fertilisers)
we could feed only half
of the current world population
- Fertilizers Europe / Wageningen University
- SMIL 2004 https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/enriching-earth and discussion here
https://ourworldindata.org/how-many-people-does-synthetic-fertilizer-feed
- Erisman 2008 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ngeo325
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 7
Phosphorus recycling potential in EU-27
[kton P/year - 2005] Total Recycled Potential
Sewage sludge 297 115 182
Biodegradable solid waste 130 38 92
Meat & bone meal 128 6 122
Total 427-555 153-160 274-396
Manure = 1 800
Mineral phosphorus fertiliser use = 1 450 ktP/y
Based on: Van Dijk, Lesschen & Oenema "Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States.“ Sci Tot Env 2016
https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.048
c. 50% of
sewage sludge
in EU goes to
agriculture (as
digestate, compost)
Nutrients
“returned to
land” ?
What data do we have ?
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 8
EU Water Policy
Water Framework Directive:
2019 «Fitness Check » (REFIT)
fit for purpose with room for improvement on
investments, implementation, integrating water into
other policies, chemical pollution, administrative
simplification and digitalisation. (ESPP eNews 39)
But only half of EU waters have achieved Good
Ecological Status and several JRC publications
suggest current actions insufficient
- https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102281
- https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133888
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 9
Context: European Green Deal 2019 (1)
Farm-to-Fork Strategy 2
and
Biodiversity Strategy 3
both fix target for 2030 to:
- reduce nutrient losses by at least -50%
while ensuring no deterioration on soil fertility
resulting in a
- reduction in fertiliser use
by at least -20%
1 = COM(2019)640 https://ec.europa.eu/info/files/communication-european-green-
deal_en
2 = COM(2020)381, 20th May 2020 https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-
content/EN/TXT/?qid=1590404602495&uri=CELEX%3A52020DC0381
3 = COM(2020) 380 final, 20th May 2020
https://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/strategy/index_en.htm
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 10
EU Soil Health Directive proposal
Commission proposed Directive July 2023 - currently in EU Parliament and Council
• Subsidiarity to Member States (MS)
• Definition of “Soil Districts”
• Annexes I - Soil Descriptors for Healthy Soil Condition …
- EU wide / or MS-defined
- includes:
- Max. soil POlsen : must be set by MS between 30 and 50 mg/kg
- Max. soil NKjeldahl : may be set by MS if causes “critical loss of ecosystem services
- “loss” of Soil Organic Carbon (but defined by level of SOC)
- not included in proposal: Minimum P or N
• (Unlike Water Framework Directive) - no legal obligations of status objectives by specified dates
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 11
Market “pull” policies
 EU Green Deal COM(2019)640 (page 8)
“The Commission will consider legal requirements to boost the market of secondary raw materials with
mandatory recycled content (for instance for packaging, vehicles, construction materials and batteries).”
https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52019DC0640&qid=1710021423737
 EU Circular Economy Action Plan COM(2020)98 (ch.3,7 “Food, water and nutrients”)
“the Commission will develop an Integrated Nutrient Management Plan, with a view to ensuring more
sustainable application of nutrients and stimulating the markets for recovered nutrients”
https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1583933814386&uri=COM:2020:98:FIN
 Revised Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive, preamble (38), LINK:
“Member States should, while taking into account national and local valorisation options, take measures
to encourage the production and purchasing of recovered nutrients from urban wastewater and sludge”
No progress to date …
ESPP policy proposals: see SCOPE Newsletter n°151
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 12
Economic Importance 
Supply
Risk

EU Critical Raw Materials (CRM)
White Phosphorus (P4)
since 2017, confirmed 2020
- essential for a wide range of industries:
electronics, fire safety, batteries, water, pharmaceuticals …
Phosphate rock
on the EU Critical Raw Materials List since 2014, confirmed 2020
- non-substitutable, non-renewable
- geopolitical resource concentration
- EU 90% dependent on imports
https://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/raw-materials/specific-interest/critical_en
2/9/2020 https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52020DC0474
Criticality and uses of P4 / P4 derivatives www.phosphorusplatform.eu/Scope136
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 13
EU Critical Raw Materials Act 2024, art. 26.1:
EU Regulation 2024/1252 (11th April 2024) https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2024/1252/oj
“Phosphate Rock” and “Phosphorus” (P4) on critical list (but not ‘Strategic’)
National programmes for circularity of CRMs, including
 incentivising resource and materials efficiency:
 “collection, sorting and processing of waste with high critical raw materials recovery potential …”
 “increase the use of secondary critical raw materials including through measures such as taking
recycled content into account in award criteria related to public procurement or financial incentives
for the use of secondary critical raw materials”
 “increase the technological maturity of recycling technologies”
 “support the use of Union quality standards for recycling processes of waste streams containing
critical raw materials”
 workforce upskilling
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 14
National and EU policies on phosphorus recycling
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 15
European States with P-recycling obligations
Switzerland
• 2016 VVEA (waste act), Art 15, makes
phosphorus recycling becomes obligatory by 2026
from sewage sludge incineration ash* and meat and bone meal ash
* Switzerland banned land use of sewage biosolids in 2006
Germany
• 2017 AbfKlärV (sewage sludge regulation):
phosphorus recycling from sewage becomes obligatory
- by 2029 / 2032 years for all WWTPs > 100 000 P.E. / 50 000 P.E.
if sewage sludge P > 2% of dry matter
Austria
• 13th May 2024 AVV Abfallverbrennungsverordnung
phosphorus recycling becomes obligatory by 2033
for WWTP >20 000 P.E.
from sewage (>60% recovery of wwtp inflow) or sludge ash (>80% recovery)
Under discussion
• Denmark, Sweden, Baltic …
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 16
Sewage Sludge Directive expected revision
JRC “Feasibility study in support of future” revision published Nov. 2023
- Considers TWO scenarios only
Agricultural use of treated sewage sludge, with tighter monitoring and contaminant limits
Mandatory sludge incineration with P-recovery, for sewage works above a certain TBD size
- Rejects co-incineration
Questions raised in the study include:
- contribution of sewage sludge to soil organic carbon
- contaminants (land use) – risk assessments – combination effects:
industrial chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care chemicals, PFAS, microplastics
- proposes agricultural use only if conform to EU FPR (CE-Mark) – what does this mean ?
- agronomic efficiency of nutrients in treated sewage sludge
- option of P-recovery upstream of combustion not considered
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 17
EU "Taxonomy"
EU criteria for ‘Sustainable Finance’
Regulation 2023/2486
includes P recovery
from municipal wastewater
- not P-recovery from other steams
- not N-recovery
- contacts ongoing for future updates
Criteria:
15% of wwtp P input
Or 80% of P from sludge incineration ash
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 18
UWWTD finalised text validated by Parliament and Council,
now pending legal publication
https://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-7108-
2024-INIT/en/pdf
Also: proposed modifications to Environmental Quality
Standards, Groundwater and Water Framework Directives to
address “emerging contaminants of concern” including
PFAS, microplastics and pharmaceuticals.
https://environment.ec.europa.eu/publications/proposal-
amending-water-directives_en
Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive recast
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 19
EU Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive Recast
(updated to final adopted text 5/2024)
• Collection and treatment for agglomerations > 1 000 p.e. by 2035
• Tighter P, N discharge constraints (wwtps > 10 000 p.e in eutrophication Sensitive Areas)
- 0.7 mgPtotal/l or 87.5% P removal (0,5 / 90% wwtps > 150 000 p.e.) (was 1-2 mgl/ or 80%)
- 10 mgN/l or 80% N removal (10 / 80% wwtps > 150 000 p.e.) (was 10-15 mg/l or 70-80%)
- for all wwtps > 150 000 p.e. even if NOT in Sensitive Area
• “Energy neutral” (of wastewater treatment, by 2045, at a national level)
Monitoring of GHG: at least CO2, N2O, CH4
• “Quaternary treatment” for all wwtps > 150 000 p.e., or > 10 000 p.e. in identified risk areas
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 20
• “Quaternary treatment” for all wwtps > 150 000 p.e., or > 10 000 p.e. in identified risk areas
• “Extended Producer Responsibility”
- for pharmaceuticals & cosmetics only (initially) – within three years
• Measurement methods for microplastics in ww and in sludge
and PFAS in ww and in sludge
• Promote water reuse
• “Integrated urban wastewater management plans”
• Definitions of “urban wastewater”, “sludge”, “micro-pollutant”, “antimicrobial resistance” …
EU Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive Recast
(updated to final adopted text 5/2024)
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 21
To be considered later
Directive evaluation by 2033 includes
• ‘Extended Producer Responsibility’ for sources of PFAS, microplastics
• national water reuse plans
• climate neutrality
• “opportunity and feasibility to set Union minimum reuse and recycling rates
for nitrogen from sludge and/or from urban wastewater”
EU Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive Recast
(updated to final adopted text 5/2024)
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 22
Article 20 - Sludge and resource recovery
1. Member States shall encourage the recovery of valuable resources and take the necessary
measures to ensure that sludge management routes are conform to the waste hierarchy
provided for in Article 4 of Directive 2008/98/EC. Such routes shall: (a) maximize prevention;
(b) prepare for reuse, recycling and other recovery of resources, in particular phosphorous
and nitrogen, taking into national or local valorisation options; (c) minimize the adverse
effects on the environment and human health.
2. The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts … specifying a combined minimum
reuse and recycling rate for phosphorus from sludge and from urban wastewater not reused
…, taking into account available technologies, resources and the economic viability for
phosphorus recovery … phosphorus contents of the sludge and the level of saturation of
the national market with organic phosphorus from other sources while ensuring that there is
safe sludge management and no adverse impact on human health and the environment.
The Commission shall adopt those delegated acts by [3 years after entry into force …].
EU Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive Recast
(updated to final adopted text 5/2024)
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 23
As per art. 20 of the revised UWWT Directive - see SCOPE Newsletter n° 151
 “Reuse” = sludge application to land / “Recycling” = extraction of a PRODUCT
 product with a market: CE-mark or National fertiliser or industrial P chemical
 Keep technologies and routes open
 80% P-recycling from sewage sludge incineration ash = today feasible
 50% P-recycling from total wwtp P input:
- possible, but needs combination of technologies – start with lower target then increase
 Set P recycling targets:
- as % of wwtp inflow (measured), taking into account upstream recycling
- as a national overall total (same EU target for all Member States) = allows optimisation.
 For sludge application to land:
- should replace fertiliser,
- EU validated (national or EU) quality certification scheme covering nutrient content & plant
availability, application limited to crop nutrient needs, contaminants
ESPP proposals on P “reuse & recycling rates”
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 24
EU Fertilising Products Regulation
and Organic Farming Regulation
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 25
EU Fertilising Products Regulation 2019/1009
Already a significant number of amendments adopted: refer to consolidated version
https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A02019R1009-20220716
Opens European market for recycled fertilisers - and so for recycling technologies
Precedent: first EU Product Legislation to confer EU “ End-of-Waste” status
Authorises recycled materials on a ‘case-by-case’ basis (Annex II – CMCs)
Covers:
- fertilisers: mineral, organic …
- soil improvers, liming materials
- growing media
- composts, digestates, biochars …
- …
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 26
EU Fertilising Products Regulation 2019/1009 (FPR)
STRUBIAS adopted and published
 FPR entered into application summer 2022
 “STRUBIAS” (Struvite, Biochars, Ashes) criteria
published end 2021
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 27
EU FPR:
in? or out?
Sewage
Manure
+ Cat 2
& 3 ABPs
Cat1
ABPs
Plant
materials
Food waste /
biowaste
Food
industry
CMC2: plant materials ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✗ ✗
CMC3: compost ✗ ✓* ✗ ✓ ✓ ✗
CMC4: “energy crop” digestate ✗ ✗ ✗ Some ✗ ✗
CMC5: other digestate ✗ ✓* ✗ ✓ ✓ ✗
CMC6: food-industry by-products ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✗
Certain
materials
CMC10: animal by-products
FPR CMC10 = currently empty box – study underway
* Subject to conditions of ABP Regs fertiliser “End Points” OJ: 8/8/2023
CMC11: by-products Only certain minerals from processes not taking wastes as inputs
CMC12: phosphate salts & derivates ✓ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✓ ✓
CMC13: ashes & derivates ✓ ✓* ✗ ✓ ✓ ✓
CMC14: pyrolysis & gasification ✗ (✓*) ✗ ✓ ✓ Plant only
CMC15: recovered minerals Only certain minerals from processes not taking wastes as inputs
CMC15: gas-stripping N salts ✓ Manure ✗ ✓ ✓ Some
Table prepared by ESPP « to the best of our understanding » only
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 28
Recycled nutrients in EU “Organic Farming”
EU Implementing Regulation on Organic Farming 2021/1165 Annex II
In some cases with use specification, contaminant limitations or specified “sustainable origin”
• Materials from plants or algae only for Organically produced or sustainably collected
• Manure inc. dried, composted, digestate “Factory farming origin forbidden”
• Compost or digestate of separately collected biowaste, of vegetable materials
• Certain animal-by-products: fish meal, meat & bone meal, hydrolysed proteins, dairy, wool, feathers, …
• Wood by-products and ashes
• Shellfish wastes
• Egg shells “Factory farming origin forbidden”
• Biochar from plant materials
• Struvite and precipitated phosphate salts (EU FPR CMC12 definition)
• Negative EGTOP Opinions : Animal Bone Char 2022, (certain) ammonia stripping N-salts
• Positive EGTOP Opinions : ‘Calcined phosphates’ 2016, and ‘Calcium phosphate’2024 both from sewage only
See also : ESPP proposals here - FIBL paper here
Published 17/1/2023
Precedent for nutrients
recovered from sewage
UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 29
Chris Thornton info@phosphorusplatform.eu www.phosphorusplatform.eu
EU policies driving nutrient removal and recycling
and the revised UWWTD (Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive)
Tuesday 4th June 2024

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Thornton ESPP slides UK WW Network 4_6_24.pdf

  • 1. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 1 Chris Thornton info@phosphorusplatform.eu www.phosphorusplatform.eu EU policies driving nutrient removal and recycling and the revised UWWTD (Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive) Tuesday 4th June 2024
  • 2. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 2 European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP)
  • 3. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 3 European Sustainable Phosphorus Platform (ESPP)
  • 4. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 4 EU “Green Deal” and phosphorus
  • 5. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 5 Phosphorus recycling: a long tradition
  • 6. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 6 Without mineral phosphate fertilisers we could feed maybe 1/5th of the current world population Adapted from Dawson et al., Food Policy 2011: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodpol.2010.11.012 Without Haber-Bosch (mineral nitrogen fertilisers) we could feed only half of the current world population - Fertilizers Europe / Wageningen University - SMIL 2004 https://mitpress.mit.edu/books/enriching-earth and discussion here https://ourworldindata.org/how-many-people-does-synthetic-fertilizer-feed - Erisman 2008 http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ngeo325
  • 7. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 7 Phosphorus recycling potential in EU-27 [kton P/year - 2005] Total Recycled Potential Sewage sludge 297 115 182 Biodegradable solid waste 130 38 92 Meat & bone meal 128 6 122 Total 427-555 153-160 274-396 Manure = 1 800 Mineral phosphorus fertiliser use = 1 450 ktP/y Based on: Van Dijk, Lesschen & Oenema "Phosphorus flows and balances of the European Union Member States.“ Sci Tot Env 2016 https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2015.08.048 c. 50% of sewage sludge in EU goes to agriculture (as digestate, compost) Nutrients “returned to land” ? What data do we have ?
  • 8. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 8 EU Water Policy Water Framework Directive: 2019 «Fitness Check » (REFIT) fit for purpose with room for improvement on investments, implementation, integrating water into other policies, chemical pollution, administrative simplification and digitalisation. (ESPP eNews 39) But only half of EU waters have achieved Good Ecological Status and several JRC publications suggest current actions insufficient - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.gloenvcha.2021.102281 - https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.133888
  • 9. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 9 Context: European Green Deal 2019 (1) Farm-to-Fork Strategy 2 and Biodiversity Strategy 3 both fix target for 2030 to: - reduce nutrient losses by at least -50% while ensuring no deterioration on soil fertility resulting in a - reduction in fertiliser use by at least -20% 1 = COM(2019)640 https://ec.europa.eu/info/files/communication-european-green- deal_en 2 = COM(2020)381, 20th May 2020 https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal- content/EN/TXT/?qid=1590404602495&uri=CELEX%3A52020DC0381 3 = COM(2020) 380 final, 20th May 2020 https://ec.europa.eu/environment/nature/biodiversity/strategy/index_en.htm
  • 10. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 10 EU Soil Health Directive proposal Commission proposed Directive July 2023 - currently in EU Parliament and Council • Subsidiarity to Member States (MS) • Definition of “Soil Districts” • Annexes I - Soil Descriptors for Healthy Soil Condition … - EU wide / or MS-defined - includes: - Max. soil POlsen : must be set by MS between 30 and 50 mg/kg - Max. soil NKjeldahl : may be set by MS if causes “critical loss of ecosystem services - “loss” of Soil Organic Carbon (but defined by level of SOC) - not included in proposal: Minimum P or N • (Unlike Water Framework Directive) - no legal obligations of status objectives by specified dates
  • 11. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 11 Market “pull” policies  EU Green Deal COM(2019)640 (page 8) “The Commission will consider legal requirements to boost the market of secondary raw materials with mandatory recycled content (for instance for packaging, vehicles, construction materials and batteries).” https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A52019DC0640&qid=1710021423737  EU Circular Economy Action Plan COM(2020)98 (ch.3,7 “Food, water and nutrients”) “the Commission will develop an Integrated Nutrient Management Plan, with a view to ensuring more sustainable application of nutrients and stimulating the markets for recovered nutrients” https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?qid=1583933814386&uri=COM:2020:98:FIN  Revised Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive, preamble (38), LINK: “Member States should, while taking into account national and local valorisation options, take measures to encourage the production and purchasing of recovered nutrients from urban wastewater and sludge” No progress to date … ESPP policy proposals: see SCOPE Newsletter n°151
  • 12. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 12 Economic Importance  Supply Risk  EU Critical Raw Materials (CRM) White Phosphorus (P4) since 2017, confirmed 2020 - essential for a wide range of industries: electronics, fire safety, batteries, water, pharmaceuticals … Phosphate rock on the EU Critical Raw Materials List since 2014, confirmed 2020 - non-substitutable, non-renewable - geopolitical resource concentration - EU 90% dependent on imports https://ec.europa.eu/growth/sectors/raw-materials/specific-interest/critical_en 2/9/2020 https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX:52020DC0474 Criticality and uses of P4 / P4 derivatives www.phosphorusplatform.eu/Scope136
  • 13. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 13 EU Critical Raw Materials Act 2024, art. 26.1: EU Regulation 2024/1252 (11th April 2024) https://eur-lex.europa.eu/eli/reg/2024/1252/oj “Phosphate Rock” and “Phosphorus” (P4) on critical list (but not ‘Strategic’) National programmes for circularity of CRMs, including  incentivising resource and materials efficiency:  “collection, sorting and processing of waste with high critical raw materials recovery potential …”  “increase the use of secondary critical raw materials including through measures such as taking recycled content into account in award criteria related to public procurement or financial incentives for the use of secondary critical raw materials”  “increase the technological maturity of recycling technologies”  “support the use of Union quality standards for recycling processes of waste streams containing critical raw materials”  workforce upskilling
  • 14. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 14 National and EU policies on phosphorus recycling
  • 15. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 15 European States with P-recycling obligations Switzerland • 2016 VVEA (waste act), Art 15, makes phosphorus recycling becomes obligatory by 2026 from sewage sludge incineration ash* and meat and bone meal ash * Switzerland banned land use of sewage biosolids in 2006 Germany • 2017 AbfKlärV (sewage sludge regulation): phosphorus recycling from sewage becomes obligatory - by 2029 / 2032 years for all WWTPs > 100 000 P.E. / 50 000 P.E. if sewage sludge P > 2% of dry matter Austria • 13th May 2024 AVV Abfallverbrennungsverordnung phosphorus recycling becomes obligatory by 2033 for WWTP >20 000 P.E. from sewage (>60% recovery of wwtp inflow) or sludge ash (>80% recovery) Under discussion • Denmark, Sweden, Baltic …
  • 16. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 16 Sewage Sludge Directive expected revision JRC “Feasibility study in support of future” revision published Nov. 2023 - Considers TWO scenarios only Agricultural use of treated sewage sludge, with tighter monitoring and contaminant limits Mandatory sludge incineration with P-recovery, for sewage works above a certain TBD size - Rejects co-incineration Questions raised in the study include: - contribution of sewage sludge to soil organic carbon - contaminants (land use) – risk assessments – combination effects: industrial chemicals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals, personal care chemicals, PFAS, microplastics - proposes agricultural use only if conform to EU FPR (CE-Mark) – what does this mean ? - agronomic efficiency of nutrients in treated sewage sludge - option of P-recovery upstream of combustion not considered
  • 17. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 17 EU "Taxonomy" EU criteria for ‘Sustainable Finance’ Regulation 2023/2486 includes P recovery from municipal wastewater - not P-recovery from other steams - not N-recovery - contacts ongoing for future updates Criteria: 15% of wwtp P input Or 80% of P from sludge incineration ash
  • 18. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 18 UWWTD finalised text validated by Parliament and Council, now pending legal publication https://data.consilium.europa.eu/doc/document/ST-7108- 2024-INIT/en/pdf Also: proposed modifications to Environmental Quality Standards, Groundwater and Water Framework Directives to address “emerging contaminants of concern” including PFAS, microplastics and pharmaceuticals. https://environment.ec.europa.eu/publications/proposal- amending-water-directives_en Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive recast
  • 19. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 19 EU Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive Recast (updated to final adopted text 5/2024) • Collection and treatment for agglomerations > 1 000 p.e. by 2035 • Tighter P, N discharge constraints (wwtps > 10 000 p.e in eutrophication Sensitive Areas) - 0.7 mgPtotal/l or 87.5% P removal (0,5 / 90% wwtps > 150 000 p.e.) (was 1-2 mgl/ or 80%) - 10 mgN/l or 80% N removal (10 / 80% wwtps > 150 000 p.e.) (was 10-15 mg/l or 70-80%) - for all wwtps > 150 000 p.e. even if NOT in Sensitive Area • “Energy neutral” (of wastewater treatment, by 2045, at a national level) Monitoring of GHG: at least CO2, N2O, CH4 • “Quaternary treatment” for all wwtps > 150 000 p.e., or > 10 000 p.e. in identified risk areas
  • 20. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 20 • “Quaternary treatment” for all wwtps > 150 000 p.e., or > 10 000 p.e. in identified risk areas • “Extended Producer Responsibility” - for pharmaceuticals & cosmetics only (initially) – within three years • Measurement methods for microplastics in ww and in sludge and PFAS in ww and in sludge • Promote water reuse • “Integrated urban wastewater management plans” • Definitions of “urban wastewater”, “sludge”, “micro-pollutant”, “antimicrobial resistance” … EU Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive Recast (updated to final adopted text 5/2024)
  • 21. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 21 To be considered later Directive evaluation by 2033 includes • ‘Extended Producer Responsibility’ for sources of PFAS, microplastics • national water reuse plans • climate neutrality • “opportunity and feasibility to set Union minimum reuse and recycling rates for nitrogen from sludge and/or from urban wastewater” EU Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive Recast (updated to final adopted text 5/2024)
  • 22. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 22 Article 20 - Sludge and resource recovery 1. Member States shall encourage the recovery of valuable resources and take the necessary measures to ensure that sludge management routes are conform to the waste hierarchy provided for in Article 4 of Directive 2008/98/EC. Such routes shall: (a) maximize prevention; (b) prepare for reuse, recycling and other recovery of resources, in particular phosphorous and nitrogen, taking into national or local valorisation options; (c) minimize the adverse effects on the environment and human health. 2. The Commission is empowered to adopt delegated acts … specifying a combined minimum reuse and recycling rate for phosphorus from sludge and from urban wastewater not reused …, taking into account available technologies, resources and the economic viability for phosphorus recovery … phosphorus contents of the sludge and the level of saturation of the national market with organic phosphorus from other sources while ensuring that there is safe sludge management and no adverse impact on human health and the environment. The Commission shall adopt those delegated acts by [3 years after entry into force …]. EU Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive Recast (updated to final adopted text 5/2024)
  • 23. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 23 As per art. 20 of the revised UWWT Directive - see SCOPE Newsletter n° 151  “Reuse” = sludge application to land / “Recycling” = extraction of a PRODUCT  product with a market: CE-mark or National fertiliser or industrial P chemical  Keep technologies and routes open  80% P-recycling from sewage sludge incineration ash = today feasible  50% P-recycling from total wwtp P input: - possible, but needs combination of technologies – start with lower target then increase  Set P recycling targets: - as % of wwtp inflow (measured), taking into account upstream recycling - as a national overall total (same EU target for all Member States) = allows optimisation.  For sludge application to land: - should replace fertiliser, - EU validated (national or EU) quality certification scheme covering nutrient content & plant availability, application limited to crop nutrient needs, contaminants ESPP proposals on P “reuse & recycling rates”
  • 24. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 24 EU Fertilising Products Regulation and Organic Farming Regulation
  • 25. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 25 EU Fertilising Products Regulation 2019/1009 Already a significant number of amendments adopted: refer to consolidated version https://eur-lex.europa.eu/legal-content/EN/TXT/?uri=CELEX%3A02019R1009-20220716 Opens European market for recycled fertilisers - and so for recycling technologies Precedent: first EU Product Legislation to confer EU “ End-of-Waste” status Authorises recycled materials on a ‘case-by-case’ basis (Annex II – CMCs) Covers: - fertilisers: mineral, organic … - soil improvers, liming materials - growing media - composts, digestates, biochars … - …
  • 26. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 26 EU Fertilising Products Regulation 2019/1009 (FPR) STRUBIAS adopted and published  FPR entered into application summer 2022  “STRUBIAS” (Struvite, Biochars, Ashes) criteria published end 2021
  • 27. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 27 EU FPR: in? or out? Sewage Manure + Cat 2 & 3 ABPs Cat1 ABPs Plant materials Food waste / biowaste Food industry CMC2: plant materials ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✗ ✗ CMC3: compost ✗ ✓* ✗ ✓ ✓ ✗ CMC4: “energy crop” digestate ✗ ✗ ✗ Some ✗ ✗ CMC5: other digestate ✗ ✓* ✗ ✓ ✓ ✗ CMC6: food-industry by-products ✗ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✗ Certain materials CMC10: animal by-products FPR CMC10 = currently empty box – study underway * Subject to conditions of ABP Regs fertiliser “End Points” OJ: 8/8/2023 CMC11: by-products Only certain minerals from processes not taking wastes as inputs CMC12: phosphate salts & derivates ✓ ✗ ✗ ✓ ✓ ✓ CMC13: ashes & derivates ✓ ✓* ✗ ✓ ✓ ✓ CMC14: pyrolysis & gasification ✗ (✓*) ✗ ✓ ✓ Plant only CMC15: recovered minerals Only certain minerals from processes not taking wastes as inputs CMC15: gas-stripping N salts ✓ Manure ✗ ✓ ✓ Some Table prepared by ESPP « to the best of our understanding » only
  • 28. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 28 Recycled nutrients in EU “Organic Farming” EU Implementing Regulation on Organic Farming 2021/1165 Annex II In some cases with use specification, contaminant limitations or specified “sustainable origin” • Materials from plants or algae only for Organically produced or sustainably collected • Manure inc. dried, composted, digestate “Factory farming origin forbidden” • Compost or digestate of separately collected biowaste, of vegetable materials • Certain animal-by-products: fish meal, meat & bone meal, hydrolysed proteins, dairy, wool, feathers, … • Wood by-products and ashes • Shellfish wastes • Egg shells “Factory farming origin forbidden” • Biochar from plant materials • Struvite and precipitated phosphate salts (EU FPR CMC12 definition) • Negative EGTOP Opinions : Animal Bone Char 2022, (certain) ammonia stripping N-salts • Positive EGTOP Opinions : ‘Calcined phosphates’ 2016, and ‘Calcium phosphate’2024 both from sewage only See also : ESPP proposals here - FIBL paper here Published 17/1/2023 Precedent for nutrients recovered from sewage
  • 29. UK Wastewater Network webinar, 4th June 2024 – n° 29 Chris Thornton info@phosphorusplatform.eu www.phosphorusplatform.eu EU policies driving nutrient removal and recycling and the revised UWWTD (Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive) Tuesday 4th June 2024