SlideShare a Scribd company logo
Emidio Capriotti
http://biofold.org/
Department of Pharmacy and
Biotechnology (FaBiT)
University of Bologna
Basic Thermodynamics
Concepts
Elements of Biophysics
Main Topics
• Basic notions of thermodynamics and kinetics
• Basic elements of structural and functional biology.
• Basic elements of cell biology.
Suggested books
• Biophysics: An Introduction by Roland Glaser
• Biophysical Chemistry by James P. Allen
• Molecular and Cellular Biophysics by Meyer B. Jackson
What is Biophysics?
• The subjects of Biophysics are the physical principles underlying all
processes of living systems.
• Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science which includes notions of
biology and physics connected to other disciplines such as
mathematics, physical chemistry, and biochemistry.
• Although not all biological reactions can be explained, there is no
evidence that physical laws are no longer valid in biological systems.
Thermodynamics Concepts
• Definition: Thermodynamics is the characterization of the states of
matter, namely gases, liquids, and solids, in terms of energetic quantities.
• Thermodynamic rules are very general and apply to all types of objects,
ranging from gas molecules to cell membranes to the world.
• Fundamental thermodynamics state variables are: pressure, temperature
and volume
State variables
• A state variable is a property of a system that depends only on the current,
equilibrium state of the system and thus do not depend on the path by which
the system arrived at its present state.
• The state of an ideal gas can be characterized by:
Pressure (P): is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object
per unit area over which that force is distributed.
Temperature (T): physical quantity that expresses the hotness of matter or
radiation. It is related to the average kinetic energy of microscopic particle,
such as atom, molecule, or electron.
Volume (V): is a measure of the three-dimensional space occupied by an
object.
• Relationships among the different properties of the system. For an ideal gas
the relationship between state variable are described by the equation:
PV=nRT (van der Waals equation) R = 0.082 L⋅atm⋅K−1⋅mol−1
= 8.314 J⋅K−1⋅mol−1
I Law of Thermodynamics
• The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of
any isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one
form to another, but can be neither created nor destroyed.
ΔU is the change in internal energy, w is the work done on (or done by
the system) and q is the transferred heat.
ΔU = q + w
Work
w = −FΔx
w = −FΔx = −(PA)Δx = −PΔV
The work is performed when a force (F) is used to move an object through
a distance (Δx),
When work occurs in a system with the opposing forces essen
the work is called re9ersible. A reversible change is a chan
be reversed by an infinitesimal alteration of a variable. In th
piston, this happens when the inside and outside pressure
equal. For example, heating the gas inside the piston will c
inside to expand but the piston is continually sliding, keeping
equal on the two sides. In this case, work can be calculate
internal pressure (eqn 2.9). For reversible expansion of an ide
the temperature is held constant, the ideal gas law can be
yielding:
w P V
nRT
V
V nRT
V
V
V
V
i
f
i
f
= − = −







 = −
∫ ∫
d d
d
dV
V
nRT
V
V
V
V
f
i
i
f
∫ = − ln
V
∫
1
e
V.
Enthalpy
H = U + PV
∆H = ∆U + ∆(PV) = ∆U + P∆V P=constant
Formally, enthalpy (H), is defined in terms of internal energy (U), and the
product of pressure (P) and volume (V) according to:
∆H = ∆U + P∆V = (q − P∆V) + P∆V = q
At constant pressure, the change in enthalpy is equal to the heat
transferred.
II Law of Thermodynamics
• The second law states that if the physical process is irreversible, the
combined entropy of the system and the environment must increase.
Ball vs Egg
For the ball the kinetic energy
is transformed in potential
energy.
For the egg the kinetic energy
is converted in to heat but the
egg is in a more disordered
state.
Entropy
The entropy represents the molecular disorder of a system. The concept of
entropy is explicitly defined in terms of the heat and temperature of a
system. In an isothermal process, the change in entropy is
For an ideal gas, when temperature is
fixed, internal energy does not change and
the heat flow balances the work, yielding:
being performed with a value determined by the
change:
For an ideal gas, when temperature is fixed, internal energy does no
and the heat flow balances the work, yielding:
q w nRT
V
V
T nR
V
V
f
i
f
i
ln ln
= − = =








w P V nRT
V
V
V
V
f
i
i
f
ln
= − = −
∫ d
w nRT
V
V
f
i
ln
= −
∆x
Reversible
expansion
e
ansion
with
essure,
he
re, Pin.
amount of heat produced, dq, and the temperature:
(
For a measurable change of an isothermal process, the change in entr
∆S, is:
(
The change in entropy is equal to the energy transferred as heat div
by the temperature. This definition makes use of heat rather than ano
energy term, such as work, as heat can be thought of as being associated
the random motion of molecules, while work represents an ordered cha
of a system. The presence of temperature in the denominator account
the effect of temperature on the randomness of motion, as objects w
are hot have a larger amount of motion due to thermal energy than
objects. This definition makes use of the concept of reversible proce
which refers to the ability of infinitesimally small changes in a param
to result in a change in a process. Thermal reversibility refers to the sys
∆S
q
T
=
d
d
S
q
T
=
CHAPTER 3 SECOND LAW
For ∆T = 0, ∆U = q + w = 0 and q = −w
The entropy change is proportional to the heat (eqn 3.2) and can
written in terms of the volume change:
(3
∆S
q
T
nR
V
V
f
i
ln
= =








81405124362_4_003.qxd 4/29/08 10:40 Page 49
III Law of Thermodynamics
• The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of all perfectly
crystalline substances is zero at a temperature of zero Kelvin.
In general, as temperature is decreased, random motion due to thermal
motion is quenched. For a crystal, all of the atoms or molecules are
located in well-defined, regular arrays and hence spatial disorder is
absent.
From a molecular viewpoint, the entropy can also be viewed as being
zero as the arrangement of molecules is uniquely defined.
Gibbs energy
• The Gibbs energy is a quantity that is used to measure the maximum
amount of work done in a thermodynamic system when the
temperature and pressure are kept constant.
∆G = ∆H − T∆S
∆G = 0
∆G < 0
∆G > 0
Spontaneous process
Equilibrium
Unfavourable process
dG = dH − d(TS)
dH = dU + PdV + VdP
dU = TdS − PdV with q=TdS and w= −PdV
dG = TdS − PdV + PdV + VdP − TdS − SdT
dG = VdP − SdT
dG = VdP T=constant
Gibbs energy for ideal gas
For an ideal gas, the change in the Gibbs energy can be directly
related to its thermodynamic parameters
At constant temperature, the change in temperature,
to zero, which simplifies this expression for the c
energy to:
dGconstant T = VdP
In order to determine the change in the Gibbs energy
this expression is integrated from the initial pressure t
This integration shows that the change in the Gibbs en
by the thermodynamic properties of the ideal gas, th
the temperature, and the change in pressure:
∆G
nRT
P
nRT
P
P
P
P
f
i
i
f
ln
= =
∫
At constant temperature, the change in temperatur
to zero, which simplifies this expression for the
energy to:
dGconstant T = VdP
In order to determine the change in the Gibbs ener
this expression is integrated from the initial pressure
This integration shows that the change in the Gibbs e
by the thermodynamic properties of the ideal gas, t
the temperature, and the change in pressure:
∆G
nRT
P
nRT
P
P
P
P
f
i
i
f
ln
= =
∫
dP
Equilibrium Constant
For any given reaction A ➝ B with an equilibrium constant K,
the value of the equilibrium constant can be written in terms of
the change in the Gibbs energy:
The equilibrium constant for a reaction is simply an alternative
representation of the Gibbs energy change.
K=1 ➞ ∆G = 0
K>1 ➞ ∆G < 0
K<1 ➞ ∆G > 0
Proceeds forward
Equilibrium
Proceeds backward
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE GIBBS ENERGY
EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT
For any given reaction A ↔ B with an equilibrium
of the equilibrium constant can be written in term
Gibbs energy:
K = e−∆G/kT
Thus, the equilibrium constant for a reaction is simpl
entation of the Gibbs energy change. This relationsh
three regions (Table 3.1). First, spontaneous reactions
energy change is negative; in this case, the associatio
number greater than one. Second, at equilibrium the
to zero, corresponding to a value of one for the equili
reactions that are favored to proceed in the reverse
moving forward correspond to a positive value for th
[B]
[A]
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE GIBBS EN
EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT
For any given reaction A ↔ B with an equ
of the equilibrium constant can be written
Gibbs energy:
K = e−∆G/kT
Thus, the equilibrium constant for a reaction
entation of the Gibbs energy change. This re
three regions (Table 3.1). First, spontaneous r
energy change is negative; in this case, the as
number greater than one. Second, at equilibr
to zero, corresponding to a value of one for th
reactions that are favored to proceed in the
moving forward correspond to a positive valu
Exercise
Given the following reaction with ∆Gº = -33.0 kJ x mol at 298 K
calculate the equilibrium constant
• calculate the equilibrium constant
• what happen when at T= 1000 K and ∆Gº = 106.5 kJ x mol?
• what happen when at T= 464 K and ∆Gº = 0 kJ x mol?
N2 + 3H2 2NH3
➞
➞

More Related Content

Similar to Thermodynamics and laws of thermodynamics and osmotic or diffusion

nasir
nasirnasir
Principle of bioenergetics & photobiology and photosynthesis
Principle of bioenergetics & photobiology and photosynthesisPrinciple of bioenergetics & photobiology and photosynthesis
Principle of bioenergetics & photobiology and photosynthesis
Dr Kirpa Ram Jangra
 
Lecture No.3.pptx A good slide for students
Lecture No.3.pptx A good slide for studentsLecture No.3.pptx A good slide for students
Lecture No.3.pptx A good slide for students
shahzad5098115
 
Thermo-DSY-Unit-3--1.pptx
Thermo-DSY-Unit-3--1.pptxThermo-DSY-Unit-3--1.pptx
Thermo-DSY-Unit-3--1.pptx
YogeshMokaddamPatil
 
Che Module-1.pptx
Che Module-1.pptxChe Module-1.pptx
Che Module-1.pptx
Browny5
 
6 thermodynamics.ppt
6 thermodynamics.ppt6 thermodynamics.ppt
6 thermodynamics.ppt
AdithyanCD
 
Thermo Lecture no.3 (1)
Thermo Lecture no.3 (1)Thermo Lecture no.3 (1)
Thermo Lecture no.3 (1)
Bahauddin Zakariya University, Multan
 
Chapter5.pdf
Chapter5.pdfChapter5.pdf
Chapter5.pdf
mohammedseid45
 
Heat and thermodynamics
Heat and thermodynamics Heat and thermodynamics
Heat and thermodynamics
rabeya rabu
 
Jatin bhatia art integration project 22
Jatin bhatia art integration project 22Jatin bhatia art integration project 22
Jatin bhatia art integration project 22
Dav public school Rohtak
 
Hsslive-XI-Cheem-Ch-6_Thermodynamics.pdf
Hsslive-XI-Cheem-Ch-6_Thermodynamics.pdfHsslive-XI-Cheem-Ch-6_Thermodynamics.pdf
Hsslive-XI-Cheem-Ch-6_Thermodynamics.pdf
PraveenBukka1
 
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (2)
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (2)Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (2)
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (2)
Prasanth566435
 
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (1)
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (1)Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (1)
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (1)
Prasanth566435
 
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamicsHsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics
Prasanth566435
 
Heat and thermodynamics - Preliminary / Dr. Mathivanan Velumani
Heat and thermodynamics -  Preliminary / Dr. Mathivanan VelumaniHeat and thermodynamics -  Preliminary / Dr. Mathivanan Velumani
Heat and thermodynamics - Preliminary / Dr. Mathivanan Velumani
Mathivanan Velumani
 
Thermodynamics
ThermodynamicsThermodynamics
Thermodynamics
Arunesh Gupta
 
Slideshow chapter 1 3 physical chemistry 1 dr ngo thanh an
Slideshow chapter 1 3 physical chemistry 1 dr ngo thanh anSlideshow chapter 1 3 physical chemistry 1 dr ngo thanh an
Slideshow chapter 1 3 physical chemistry 1 dr ngo thanh an
Nguyen Thanh Tu Collection
 
Basic of thermodynamics section a
Basic of thermodynamics  section aBasic of thermodynamics  section a
Basic of thermodynamics section a
Akshit Kohli
 
Thermodynamic, part 1
Thermodynamic, part 1Thermodynamic, part 1
thermodynamics.pptx
thermodynamics.pptxthermodynamics.pptx
thermodynamics.pptx
MaureenMaeMalunes
 

Similar to Thermodynamics and laws of thermodynamics and osmotic or diffusion (20)

nasir
nasirnasir
nasir
 
Principle of bioenergetics & photobiology and photosynthesis
Principle of bioenergetics & photobiology and photosynthesisPrinciple of bioenergetics & photobiology and photosynthesis
Principle of bioenergetics & photobiology and photosynthesis
 
Lecture No.3.pptx A good slide for students
Lecture No.3.pptx A good slide for studentsLecture No.3.pptx A good slide for students
Lecture No.3.pptx A good slide for students
 
Thermo-DSY-Unit-3--1.pptx
Thermo-DSY-Unit-3--1.pptxThermo-DSY-Unit-3--1.pptx
Thermo-DSY-Unit-3--1.pptx
 
Che Module-1.pptx
Che Module-1.pptxChe Module-1.pptx
Che Module-1.pptx
 
6 thermodynamics.ppt
6 thermodynamics.ppt6 thermodynamics.ppt
6 thermodynamics.ppt
 
Thermo Lecture no.3 (1)
Thermo Lecture no.3 (1)Thermo Lecture no.3 (1)
Thermo Lecture no.3 (1)
 
Chapter5.pdf
Chapter5.pdfChapter5.pdf
Chapter5.pdf
 
Heat and thermodynamics
Heat and thermodynamics Heat and thermodynamics
Heat and thermodynamics
 
Jatin bhatia art integration project 22
Jatin bhatia art integration project 22Jatin bhatia art integration project 22
Jatin bhatia art integration project 22
 
Hsslive-XI-Cheem-Ch-6_Thermodynamics.pdf
Hsslive-XI-Cheem-Ch-6_Thermodynamics.pdfHsslive-XI-Cheem-Ch-6_Thermodynamics.pdf
Hsslive-XI-Cheem-Ch-6_Thermodynamics.pdf
 
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (2)
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (2)Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (2)
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (2)
 
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (1)
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (1)Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (1)
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics (1)
 
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamicsHsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics
Hsslive xi-cheem-ch-6 thermodynamics
 
Heat and thermodynamics - Preliminary / Dr. Mathivanan Velumani
Heat and thermodynamics -  Preliminary / Dr. Mathivanan VelumaniHeat and thermodynamics -  Preliminary / Dr. Mathivanan Velumani
Heat and thermodynamics - Preliminary / Dr. Mathivanan Velumani
 
Thermodynamics
ThermodynamicsThermodynamics
Thermodynamics
 
Slideshow chapter 1 3 physical chemistry 1 dr ngo thanh an
Slideshow chapter 1 3 physical chemistry 1 dr ngo thanh anSlideshow chapter 1 3 physical chemistry 1 dr ngo thanh an
Slideshow chapter 1 3 physical chemistry 1 dr ngo thanh an
 
Basic of thermodynamics section a
Basic of thermodynamics  section aBasic of thermodynamics  section a
Basic of thermodynamics section a
 
Thermodynamic, part 1
Thermodynamic, part 1Thermodynamic, part 1
Thermodynamic, part 1
 
thermodynamics.pptx
thermodynamics.pptxthermodynamics.pptx
thermodynamics.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf
2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf
2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf
Yasser Mahgoub
 
22CYT12-Unit-V-E Waste and its Management.ppt
22CYT12-Unit-V-E Waste and its Management.ppt22CYT12-Unit-V-E Waste and its Management.ppt
22CYT12-Unit-V-E Waste and its Management.ppt
KrishnaveniKrishnara1
 
Transformers design and coooling methods
Transformers design and coooling methodsTransformers design and coooling methods
Transformers design and coooling methods
Roger Rozario
 
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Sinan KOZAK
 
BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdf
BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdfBRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdf
BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdf
LAXMAREDDY22
 
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptxManufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Madan Karki
 
学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样
学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样
学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样
171ticu
 
artificial intelligence and data science contents.pptx
artificial intelligence and data science contents.pptxartificial intelligence and data science contents.pptx
artificial intelligence and data science contents.pptx
GauravCar
 
4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf
4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf
4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf
Gino153088
 
哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样
哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样
哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样
insn4465
 
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
bijceesjournal
 
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptxProperties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
MDSABBIROJJAMANPAYEL
 
KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressions
KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressionsKuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressions
KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressions
Victor Morales
 
john krisinger-the science and history of the alcoholic beverage.pptx
john krisinger-the science and history of the alcoholic beverage.pptxjohn krisinger-the science and history of the alcoholic beverage.pptx
john krisinger-the science and history of the alcoholic beverage.pptx
Madan Karki
 
Material for memory and display system h
Material for memory and display system hMaterial for memory and display system h
Material for memory and display system h
gowrishankartb2005
 
Hematology Analyzer Machine - Complete Blood Count
Hematology Analyzer Machine - Complete Blood CountHematology Analyzer Machine - Complete Blood Count
Hematology Analyzer Machine - Complete Blood Count
shahdabdulbaset
 
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
gerogepatton
 
cnn.pptx Convolutional neural network used for image classication
cnn.pptx Convolutional neural network used for image classicationcnn.pptx Convolutional neural network used for image classication
cnn.pptx Convolutional neural network used for image classication
SakkaravarthiShanmug
 
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdfEngineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
abbyasa1014
 
Software Quality Assurance-se412-v11.ppt
Software Quality Assurance-se412-v11.pptSoftware Quality Assurance-se412-v11.ppt
Software Quality Assurance-se412-v11.ppt
TaghreedAltamimi
 

Recently uploaded (20)

2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf
2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf
2008 BUILDING CONSTRUCTION Illustrated - Ching Chapter 02 The Building.pdf
 
22CYT12-Unit-V-E Waste and its Management.ppt
22CYT12-Unit-V-E Waste and its Management.ppt22CYT12-Unit-V-E Waste and its Management.ppt
22CYT12-Unit-V-E Waste and its Management.ppt
 
Transformers design and coooling methods
Transformers design and coooling methodsTransformers design and coooling methods
Transformers design and coooling methods
 
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
Optimizing Gradle Builds - Gradle DPE Tour Berlin 2024
 
BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdf
BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdfBRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdf
BRAIN TUMOR DETECTION for seminar ppt.pdf
 
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptxManufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
Manufacturing Process of molasses based distillery ppt.pptx
 
学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样
学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样
学校原版美国波士顿大学毕业证学历学位证书原版一模一样
 
artificial intelligence and data science contents.pptx
artificial intelligence and data science contents.pptxartificial intelligence and data science contents.pptx
artificial intelligence and data science contents.pptx
 
4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf
4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf
4. Mosca vol I -Fisica-Tipler-5ta-Edicion-Vol-1.pdf
 
哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样
哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样
哪里办理(csu毕业证书)查尔斯特大学毕业证硕士学历原版一模一样
 
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
Comparative analysis between traditional aquaponics and reconstructed aquapon...
 
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptxProperties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
Properties Railway Sleepers and Test.pptx
 
KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressions
KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressionsKuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressions
KuberTENes Birthday Bash Guadalajara - K8sGPT first impressions
 
john krisinger-the science and history of the alcoholic beverage.pptx
john krisinger-the science and history of the alcoholic beverage.pptxjohn krisinger-the science and history of the alcoholic beverage.pptx
john krisinger-the science and history of the alcoholic beverage.pptx
 
Material for memory and display system h
Material for memory and display system hMaterial for memory and display system h
Material for memory and display system h
 
Hematology Analyzer Machine - Complete Blood Count
Hematology Analyzer Machine - Complete Blood CountHematology Analyzer Machine - Complete Blood Count
Hematology Analyzer Machine - Complete Blood Count
 
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
International Conference on NLP, Artificial Intelligence, Machine Learning an...
 
cnn.pptx Convolutional neural network used for image classication
cnn.pptx Convolutional neural network used for image classicationcnn.pptx Convolutional neural network used for image classication
cnn.pptx Convolutional neural network used for image classication
 
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdfEngineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
Engineering Drawings Lecture Detail Drawings 2014.pdf
 
Software Quality Assurance-se412-v11.ppt
Software Quality Assurance-se412-v11.pptSoftware Quality Assurance-se412-v11.ppt
Software Quality Assurance-se412-v11.ppt
 

Thermodynamics and laws of thermodynamics and osmotic or diffusion

  • 1. Emidio Capriotti http://biofold.org/ Department of Pharmacy and Biotechnology (FaBiT) University of Bologna Basic Thermodynamics Concepts Elements of Biophysics
  • 2. Main Topics • Basic notions of thermodynamics and kinetics • Basic elements of structural and functional biology. • Basic elements of cell biology.
  • 3. Suggested books • Biophysics: An Introduction by Roland Glaser • Biophysical Chemistry by James P. Allen • Molecular and Cellular Biophysics by Meyer B. Jackson
  • 4. What is Biophysics? • The subjects of Biophysics are the physical principles underlying all processes of living systems. • Biophysics is an interdisciplinary science which includes notions of biology and physics connected to other disciplines such as mathematics, physical chemistry, and biochemistry. • Although not all biological reactions can be explained, there is no evidence that physical laws are no longer valid in biological systems.
  • 5. Thermodynamics Concepts • Definition: Thermodynamics is the characterization of the states of matter, namely gases, liquids, and solids, in terms of energetic quantities. • Thermodynamic rules are very general and apply to all types of objects, ranging from gas molecules to cell membranes to the world. • Fundamental thermodynamics state variables are: pressure, temperature and volume
  • 6. State variables • A state variable is a property of a system that depends only on the current, equilibrium state of the system and thus do not depend on the path by which the system arrived at its present state. • The state of an ideal gas can be characterized by: Pressure (P): is the force applied perpendicular to the surface of an object per unit area over which that force is distributed. Temperature (T): physical quantity that expresses the hotness of matter or radiation. It is related to the average kinetic energy of microscopic particle, such as atom, molecule, or electron. Volume (V): is a measure of the three-dimensional space occupied by an object. • Relationships among the different properties of the system. For an ideal gas the relationship between state variable are described by the equation: PV=nRT (van der Waals equation) R = 0.082 L⋅atm⋅K−1⋅mol−1 = 8.314 J⋅K−1⋅mol−1
  • 7. I Law of Thermodynamics • The law of conservation of energy states that the total energy of any isolated system is constant; energy can be transformed from one form to another, but can be neither created nor destroyed. ΔU is the change in internal energy, w is the work done on (or done by the system) and q is the transferred heat. ΔU = q + w
  • 8. Work w = −FΔx w = −FΔx = −(PA)Δx = −PΔV The work is performed when a force (F) is used to move an object through a distance (Δx), When work occurs in a system with the opposing forces essen the work is called re9ersible. A reversible change is a chan be reversed by an infinitesimal alteration of a variable. In th piston, this happens when the inside and outside pressure equal. For example, heating the gas inside the piston will c inside to expand but the piston is continually sliding, keeping equal on the two sides. In this case, work can be calculate internal pressure (eqn 2.9). For reversible expansion of an ide the temperature is held constant, the ideal gas law can be yielding: w P V nRT V V nRT V V V V i f i f = − = −         = − ∫ ∫ d d d dV V nRT V V V V f i i f ∫ = − ln V ∫ 1 e V.
  • 9. Enthalpy H = U + PV ∆H = ∆U + ∆(PV) = ∆U + P∆V P=constant Formally, enthalpy (H), is defined in terms of internal energy (U), and the product of pressure (P) and volume (V) according to: ∆H = ∆U + P∆V = (q − P∆V) + P∆V = q At constant pressure, the change in enthalpy is equal to the heat transferred.
  • 10. II Law of Thermodynamics • The second law states that if the physical process is irreversible, the combined entropy of the system and the environment must increase. Ball vs Egg For the ball the kinetic energy is transformed in potential energy. For the egg the kinetic energy is converted in to heat but the egg is in a more disordered state.
  • 11. Entropy The entropy represents the molecular disorder of a system. The concept of entropy is explicitly defined in terms of the heat and temperature of a system. In an isothermal process, the change in entropy is For an ideal gas, when temperature is fixed, internal energy does not change and the heat flow balances the work, yielding: being performed with a value determined by the change: For an ideal gas, when temperature is fixed, internal energy does no and the heat flow balances the work, yielding: q w nRT V V T nR V V f i f i ln ln = − = =         w P V nRT V V V V f i i f ln = − = − ∫ d w nRT V V f i ln = − ∆x Reversible expansion e ansion with essure, he re, Pin. amount of heat produced, dq, and the temperature: ( For a measurable change of an isothermal process, the change in entr ∆S, is: ( The change in entropy is equal to the energy transferred as heat div by the temperature. This definition makes use of heat rather than ano energy term, such as work, as heat can be thought of as being associated the random motion of molecules, while work represents an ordered cha of a system. The presence of temperature in the denominator account the effect of temperature on the randomness of motion, as objects w are hot have a larger amount of motion due to thermal energy than objects. This definition makes use of the concept of reversible proce which refers to the ability of infinitesimally small changes in a param to result in a change in a process. Thermal reversibility refers to the sys ∆S q T = d d S q T = CHAPTER 3 SECOND LAW For ∆T = 0, ∆U = q + w = 0 and q = −w The entropy change is proportional to the heat (eqn 3.2) and can written in terms of the volume change: (3 ∆S q T nR V V f i ln = =         81405124362_4_003.qxd 4/29/08 10:40 Page 49
  • 12. III Law of Thermodynamics • The third law of thermodynamics states that the entropy of all perfectly crystalline substances is zero at a temperature of zero Kelvin. In general, as temperature is decreased, random motion due to thermal motion is quenched. For a crystal, all of the atoms or molecules are located in well-defined, regular arrays and hence spatial disorder is absent. From a molecular viewpoint, the entropy can also be viewed as being zero as the arrangement of molecules is uniquely defined.
  • 13. Gibbs energy • The Gibbs energy is a quantity that is used to measure the maximum amount of work done in a thermodynamic system when the temperature and pressure are kept constant. ∆G = ∆H − T∆S ∆G = 0 ∆G < 0 ∆G > 0 Spontaneous process Equilibrium Unfavourable process
  • 14. dG = dH − d(TS) dH = dU + PdV + VdP dU = TdS − PdV with q=TdS and w= −PdV dG = TdS − PdV + PdV + VdP − TdS − SdT dG = VdP − SdT dG = VdP T=constant Gibbs energy for ideal gas For an ideal gas, the change in the Gibbs energy can be directly related to its thermodynamic parameters At constant temperature, the change in temperature, to zero, which simplifies this expression for the c energy to: dGconstant T = VdP In order to determine the change in the Gibbs energy this expression is integrated from the initial pressure t This integration shows that the change in the Gibbs en by the thermodynamic properties of the ideal gas, th the temperature, and the change in pressure: ∆G nRT P nRT P P P P f i i f ln = = ∫ At constant temperature, the change in temperatur to zero, which simplifies this expression for the energy to: dGconstant T = VdP In order to determine the change in the Gibbs ener this expression is integrated from the initial pressure This integration shows that the change in the Gibbs e by the thermodynamic properties of the ideal gas, t the temperature, and the change in pressure: ∆G nRT P nRT P P P P f i i f ln = = ∫ dP
  • 15. Equilibrium Constant For any given reaction A ➝ B with an equilibrium constant K, the value of the equilibrium constant can be written in terms of the change in the Gibbs energy: The equilibrium constant for a reaction is simply an alternative representation of the Gibbs energy change. K=1 ➞ ∆G = 0 K>1 ➞ ∆G < 0 K<1 ➞ ∆G > 0 Proceeds forward Equilibrium Proceeds backward RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE GIBBS ENERGY EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT For any given reaction A ↔ B with an equilibrium of the equilibrium constant can be written in term Gibbs energy: K = e−∆G/kT Thus, the equilibrium constant for a reaction is simpl entation of the Gibbs energy change. This relationsh three regions (Table 3.1). First, spontaneous reactions energy change is negative; in this case, the associatio number greater than one. Second, at equilibrium the to zero, corresponding to a value of one for the equili reactions that are favored to proceed in the reverse moving forward correspond to a positive value for th [B] [A] RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE GIBBS EN EQUILIBRIUM CONSTANT For any given reaction A ↔ B with an equ of the equilibrium constant can be written Gibbs energy: K = e−∆G/kT Thus, the equilibrium constant for a reaction entation of the Gibbs energy change. This re three regions (Table 3.1). First, spontaneous r energy change is negative; in this case, the as number greater than one. Second, at equilibr to zero, corresponding to a value of one for th reactions that are favored to proceed in the moving forward correspond to a positive valu
  • 16. Exercise Given the following reaction with ∆Gº = -33.0 kJ x mol at 298 K calculate the equilibrium constant • calculate the equilibrium constant • what happen when at T= 1000 K and ∆Gº = 106.5 kJ x mol? • what happen when at T= 464 K and ∆Gº = 0 kJ x mol? N2 + 3H2 2NH3 ➞ ➞