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THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT.
FREUD'S PSYCHOSEXUAL
THEORIES, ERIKSON'S PSYCHOSOCIAL
THEORIES, LEARNING
THEORIES, PIAGET'S THEORY OF
COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, KARL
JUNG, MASLOW.
THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT
 Theories of development provide a framework for
thinking about human growth, development, and
learning. But why do we study development? What
can we learn from psychological theories of
development? If you have ever wondered about
what motivates human thought and behavior,
understanding these theories can provide useful
insight into individuals and society.
TYPES OF THEORIES
 Developmental Theories
Developmental theories provide a set of guiding
principles and concepts that describe and explain
human development. Some developmental theories
focus on the formation of a specific quality, such as
Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Other
developmental theories focus on growth that happens
throughout the lifespan, such as Erikson's theory of
psychosocial development.
 Grand Theories
Grand theories are those comprehensive ideas often
proposed by major thinkers such as Sigmund Freud,
Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget.
TYPES OF THEORIES
Grand theories of development include psychoanalytic
theory, learning theory and cognitive theory. These
theories seek to explain much of human behavior, but
are often considered outdated and incomplete in the
face of modern research. Psychologists and researchers
often use grand theories as a basis for exploration, but
consider smaller theories and recent research as well.
 Minitheories
Minitheories describe a small, very specific aspect of
development. A minitheory might explain fairly narrow
behaviors, such as how self-esteem is formed or early
childhood socialization. These theories are often rooted
in the ideas established by grand theories, but they do
not seek to describe and explain the whole of human
behavior and growth.
TYPES OF THEORIES
 Emergent Theories
Emergent theories are those that have been
created fairly recently and are often formed by
systematically combining various minitheories.
These theories often draw on research and ideas
from many different disciplines, but are not yet as
broad or far-reaching as grand theories. The
sociocultural theory proposed by theorist Lev
Vygotsky is a good example of an emergent theory
of development.
THE PURPOSE OF PSYCHOLOGY THEORIES
 Theories provide a framework for understanding
human behaviour, thought, and development. By
having a broad base of understanding about the
how's and why's of human behaviour, we can better
understand ourselves and others.
 Theories create a basis for future research.
Researchers use theories to form hypotheses that
can then be tested.
 Theories are dynamic and always changing. As
new discoveries are made, theories are modified
and adapted to account for new information.
FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL
DEVELOPMENT
 What is Psychosexual Development?
Proposed by the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund
Freud, the theory of psychosexual development
describes how personality develops during childhood.
While the theory is well-known in psychology, it is also
one of the most controversial theories. Freud believed
that personality develops through a series of childhood
stages in which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id
become focused on certain erogenous areas. This
psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as the
driving force behind behavior.
Psychoanalytic theory suggested that personality is
mostly established by the age of five. Early experiences
play a large role in personality development and
continue to influence behavior later in life.
FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL
DEVELOPMENT
 If these psychosexual stages are completed
successfully, the result is a healthy personality. If
certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate
stage, fixation can occur. A fixation is a persistent
focus on an earlier psychosexual stage. Until this
conflict is resolved, the individual will remain "stuck"
in this stage. For example, a person who is fixated
at the oral stage may be over-dependent on others
and may seek oral stimulation through smoking,
drinking, or eating.
FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL
DEVELOPMENT
1. The Oral Stage
 Age Range: Birth to 1 Year
 Erogenous Zone: Mouth
 During the oral stage, the infant's primary source of
interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and
sucking reflex is especially important. The mouth is vital for
eating, and the infant derives pleasure from oral
stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and
sucking. Because the infant is entirely dependent upon
caretakers (who are responsible for feeding the child), the
infant also develops a sense of trust and comfort through
this oral stimulation.
 The primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process--
the child must become less dependent upon caretakers. If
fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual
would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral
fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating,
smoking or nail biting.
FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL
DEVELOPMENT
The Anal Stage
 Age Range: 1 to 3 years
 Erogenous Zone: Bowel and Bladder Control
 During the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary focus
of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel
movements. The major conflict at this stage is toilet training--
the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs.
Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment
and independence.
 According to Freud, success at this stage is dependent upon
the way in which parents approach toilet training. Parents
who utilize praise and rewards for using the toilet at the
appropriate time encourage positive outcomes and help
children feel capable and productive.
FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL
DEVELOPMENT
 Freud believed that positive experiences during this
stage served as the basis for people to become
competent, productive and creative adults.
 However, not all parents provide the support and
encouragement that children need during this stage.
Some parents' instead punish, ridicule or shame a child
for accidents. According to Freud, inappropriate parental
responses can result in negative outcomes. If parents
take an approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested
that an anal-expulsive personality could develop in
which the individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive
personality. If parents are too strict or begin toilet
training too early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive
personality develops in which the individual is
stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive.
FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL
DEVELOPMENT
The Phallic Stage
 Age Range: 3 to 6 Years
 Erogenous Zone: Genitals
 During the phallic stage, the primary focus of the libido is on
the genitals. At this age, children also begin to discover the
differences between males and females.
 Freud also believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a
rival for the mother’s affections. The Oedipus complex
describes these feelings of wanting to possess the mother
and the desire to replace the father. However, the child also
fears that he will be punished by the father for these feelings,
a fear Freud termed castration anxiety.
 The term Electra complex has been used to described a
similar set of feelings experienced by young girls. Freud,
however, believed that girls instead experience penis envy.
FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL
DEVELOPMENT
 Eventually, the child begins to identify with the
same-sex parent as a means of vicariously
possessing the other parent. For girls, however,
Freud believed that penis envy was never fully
resolved and that all women remain somewhat
fixated on this stage. Psychologists such as Karen
Horney disputed this theory, calling it both
inaccurate and demeaning to women. Instead,
Horney proposed that men experience feelings of
inferiority because they cannot give birth to
children.
FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL
DEVELOPMENT
 The Latent Period
 Age Range: 6 to Puberty
 Erogenous Zone: Sexual Feelings Are Inactive
 During the latent period, the libido interests are
suppressed. The development of the ego and superego
contribute to this period of calm. The stage begins
around the time that children enter into school and
become more concerned with peer relationships,
hobbies and other interests.
 The latent period is a time of exploration in which the
sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other
areas such as intellectual pursuits and social
interactions. This stage is important in the development
of social and communication skills and self-confidence.
FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL
DEVELOPMENT
The Latent Period
 Age Range: 6 to Puberty
 Erogenous Zone: Sexual Feelings Are Inactive
 During the latent period, the libido interests are
suppressed. The development of the ego and superego
contribute to this period of calm. The stage begins
around the time that children enter into school and
become more concerned with peer
relationships, hobbies and other interests.
 The latent period is a time of exploration in which the
sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other
areas such as intellectual pursuits and social
interactions. This stage is important in the development
of social and communication skills and self-confidence.
FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL
DEVELOPMENT
The Genital Stage
 Age Range: Puberty to Death
 Erogenous Zone: Maturing Sexual Interests
 During the final stage of psychosexual development, the
individual develops a strong sexual interest in the
opposite sex. This stage begins during puberty but last
throughout the rest of a person's life.
 Where in earlier stages the focus was solely on
individual needs, interest in the welfare of others grows
during this stage. If the other stages have been
completed successfully, the individual should now be
well-balanced, warm and caring. The goal of this stage
is to establish a balance between the various life areas.
EVALUATING FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL
STAGE THEORY
 The theory is focused almost entirely on male development
with little mention of female psychosexual development.
 His theories are difficult to test scientifically. Concepts such as
the libido are impossible to measure, and therefore cannot be
tested. The research that has been conducted tends to
discredit Freud's theory.
 Future predictions are too vague. How can we know that a
current behavior was caused specifically by a childhood
experience? The length of time between the cause and the
effect is too long to assume that there is a relationship
between the two variables.
 Freud's theory is based upon case studies and not empirical
research. Also, Freud based his theory on the recollections of
his adult patients, not on actual observation and study of
children.
ERIKSON'S THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL
DEVELOPMENT
 What is Psychosocial Development?
 Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development is
one of the best-known theories of personality in
psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed
that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike
Freud's theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson's theory
describes the impact of social experience across the
whole lifespan.
 One of the main elements of Erikson's psychosocial
stage theory is the development of ego identity. Ego
identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop
through social interaction. According to Erikson, our ego
identity is constantly changing due to new experiences
and information we acquire in our daily interactions with
others.
 In addition to ego identity, Erikson also believed that a
sense of competence motivates behaviors and actions.
Each stage in Erikson's theory is concerned with
becoming competent in an area of life. If the stage is
handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery,
which is sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego
quality. If the stage is managed poorly, the person will
emerge with a sense of inadequacy.
 In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a
conflict that serves as a turning point in development.
In Erikson's view, these conflicts are centered on either
developing a psychological quality or failing to develop
that quality. During these times, the potential for
personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure.
PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 1 - TRUST VS.
MISTRUST
 The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development
occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most
fundamental stage in life.
 Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust
is based on the dependability and quality of the child's
caregivers.
 If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and
secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally
unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the
children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear
and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.
 Of course, no child is going to develop a sense of 100 percent
trust or 100 percent doubt. Erikson believed that successful
development was all about striking a balance between the two
opposing sides. When this happens, children acquire
hope, which Erikson described as an openness to experience
tempered by some wariness that danger may be present.
PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 2 - AUTONOMY VS. SHAME
AND DOUBT
 The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial
development takes place during early childhood and is
focused on children developing a greater sense of personal
control.2
 Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part
of this process. However, Erikson's reasoning was quite
different then that of Freud's. Erikson believe that learning to
control one's bodily functions leads to a feeling of control and
a sense of independence.
 Other important events include gaining more control over food
choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection.
 Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and
confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of
inadequacy and self-doubt.
 Erikson believed that achieving a balance between autonomy
and shame and doubt would lead to will, which is the belief
that children can act with intention, within reason and limits.
PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 3 - INITIATIVE VS.
GUILT
 During the preschool years, children begin to assert
their power and control over the world through
directing play and other social interactions.
 Children who are successful at this stage feel
capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to
acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt,
self-doubt, and lack of initiative.
 When an ideal balance of individual initiative and a
willingness to work with others is achieved, the ego
quality known as purpose emerges.
PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 4 – INDUSTRY VS.
INFERIORITY
 This stage covers the early school years from
approximately age 5 to 11.
 Through social interactions, children begin to develop a
sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities.
 Children who are encouraged and commended by
parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence
and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no
encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will
doubt their abilities to be successful.
 Successfully finding a balance at this stage of
psychosocial development leads to the strength known
as competence or a belief our own abilities to handle the
tasks set before us.
PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 5 - IDENTITY VS.
CONFUSION
 During adolescence, children explore their
independence and develop a sense of self.
 Those who receive proper encouragement and
reinforcement through personal exploration will
emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self
and a feeling of independence and control. Those
who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will
feel insecure and confused about themselves and
the future.
 Completing this stage successfully leads to fidelity,
which Erikson described as an ability to live by
society's standards and expectations.
PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 6 - INTIMACY VS.
ISOLATION
 This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people
are exploring personal relationships.
 Erikson believed it was vital that people develop
close, committed relationships with other people. Those who
are successful at this step will form relationships that are
committed and secure.
 Remember that each step builds on skills learned in previous
steps. Erikson believed that a strong sense of personal
identity was important for developing intimate relationships.
Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of
self tend to have less committed relationships and are more
likely to suffer emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression.
 Successful resolution of this stage results in the virtue known
as love. It is marked by the ability to form lasting, meaningful
relationships with other people.
PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 7 - GENERATIVITY VS.
STAGNATION
 During adulthood, we continue to build our
lives, focusing on our career and family.
 Those who are successful during this phase will
feel that they are contributing to the world by being
active in their home and community. Those who fail
to attain this skill will feel unproductive and
uninvolved in the world.
 Care is the virtue achieved when this stage is
handled successfully. Being proud of your
accomplishments, watching your children grow into
adults, and developing a sense of unity with your
life partner are important accomplishments of this
stage.
PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 8 - INTEGRITY VS.
DESPAIR
 This phase occurs during old age and is focused on
reflecting back on life.
 Those who are unsuccessful during this stage will
feel that their life has been wasted and will
experience many regrets. The individual will be left
with feelings of bitterness and despair.
 Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will
feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing
this phase means looking back with few regrets and
a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals
will attain wisdom, even when confronting death.
THE STRENGTHS OF ERIKSON'S THEORY
 One of the strengths of psychosocial theory is that it
provides a broad framework from which to view
development throughout the entire lifespan. It also
allows us to emphasize the social nature of human
beings and the important influence that social
relationships have on development. Researchers
have found evidence supporting Erikson's ideas
about identity and have further identified different
sub-stages of identity formation. Some research
also suggests that people who form strong personal
identities during adolescence are better capable of
forming intimate relationships during early
adulthood.
LIMITATIONS OF PSYCHOSOCIAL
THEORY
 What kinds of experiences are necessary to
successfully complete each stage? How does a
person move from one stage to the next? One
major weakness of psychosocial theory is that the
exact mechanisms for resolving conflicts and
moving from one stage to the next are not well
described or developed. The theory fails to detail
exactly what type of experiences are necessary at
each stage in order to successfully resolve the
conflicts and move to the next stage.
LEARNING THEORIES
 During the first half of the twentieth century, a new
school of thought known as behaviorism rose to become
a dominant force within psychology. Behaviorists
believed that psychology needed to focus only on
observable and quantifiable behaviors in order to
become a more scientific discipline.
 According to the behavioral perspective, all human
behavior can be described in terms of environmental
influences. Some behaviorists, such as John B. Watson
and B.F. Skinner, insisted that learning occurs purely
through processes of association and reinforcement.
Later, psychologist Albert Bandura rejected this narrow
perspective and demonstrated the powerful effects of
observational learning.
PIAGET'S STAGES OF COGNITIVE
DEVELOPMENT
 According to psychologist Jean Piaget, children progress
through a series of four key stages of cognitive development
marked by shifts in how they understand the world. Piaget
believed that children are like "little scientists" and that they
actively try to explore and make sense of the world around
them. Through his observations of his own children, Piaget
developed a stage theory of intellectual development that
included four distinct stages: the sensorimotor stage, from
birth to age 2; the preoperational stage, from age 2 to about
age 7; the concrete operational stage, from age 7 to 11; and
the formal operational stage, which begins in adolescence
and spans into adulthood. Piaget's stage theory describes the
cognitive development of children. Cognitive development
involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget's
view, early cognitive development involves processes based
upon actions and later progresses into changes in mental
operations.
A QUICK SUMMARY OF COGNITIVE
DEVELOPMENT
 The Sensorimotor Stage: During this stage, infants and
toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and
manipulating objects.
 The Preoperational Stage: At this stage, kids learn through
pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of
view of other people.
 The Concrete Operational Stage: Kids at this point of
development begin to think more logically, but their thinking
can also be very rigid. They tend to struggle with abstract and
hypothetical concepts.
 The Formal Operational Stage: The final stage of Piaget's
theory involves an increase in logic, the ability to use
deductive reasoning, and an understanding of abstract ideas.
 It is important to note that Piaget did not view children's
intellectual development at a quantitative process; that is, kids
do not just add more information and knowledge to their
existing knowledge as they get older.
 Instead, Piaget suggested that there is a qualitative change in
how children think as they gradually process through these
four stages. A child at age 7 doesn't just have more
information about the world than he did at age 2; there is a
fundamental change in how he thinks about the world.
 In order to better understand some of the things that happen
during cognitive development, it is important to first examine a
few of the important ideas and concepts introduced by Piaget.
The following are some of the factors that influence how
children learn and grow.
 Schemas - A schema describes both the mental and physical
actions involved in understanding and knowing. Schemas are
categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and
understand the world.
In Piaget's view, a schema includes both a category of
knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge. As
experiences happen, this new information is used to modify,
add to, or change previously existing schemas.
For example, a child may have a schema about a type of animal, such
as a dog. If the child's sole experience has been with small dogs, a child
might believe that all dogs are small, furry, and have four legs. Suppose
then that the child encounters a very large dog. The child will take in this
new information, modifying the previously existing schema to include this
new information.
 Assimilation - The process of taking in new information into our
previously existing schemas is known as assimilation. The process is
somewhat subjective, because we tend to modify experience or
information somewhat to fit in with our preexisting beliefs. In the example
above, seeing a dog and labeling it "dog" is an example of assimilating
the animal into the child's dog schema.
 Accommodation - Another part of adaptation involves changing or
altering our existing schemas in light of new information, a process
known as accommodation. Accommodation involves altering existing
schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences.
New schemas may also be developed during this process.
 Equilibration - Piaget believed that all children try
to strike a balance between assimilation and
accommodation, which is achieved through a
mechanism Piaget called equilibration. As children
progress through the stages of cognitive
development, it is important to maintain a balance
between applying previous knowledge
(assimilation) and changing behavior to account for
new knowledge (accommodation). Equilibration
helps explain how children are able to move from
one stage of thought into the next.
CARL JUNG’S THEORY
 Like his mentor Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1960)
also believes in the existence of the unconscious. However, he
does not see the unconscious as
animalistic, instinctual, or sexual; he sees it as more spiritual.
Eventually, Jung split with Freud due to their differing views on
dreams.
 According to Jung, dreams are a way of communicating and
acquainting yourself with the unconscious. Dreams are not
attempts to conceal your true feelings from the waking mind, but
rather they are a window to your unconscious. They serve to
guide the waking self to achieve wholeness and offer a solution
to a problem you are facing in your waking life.
 Jung views the ego as your sense of self and how you portray
yourself to the world. Part of Jung's theory is that all things can
be viewed as paired opposites: good/evil, male/female, or
love/hate. So working in opposition to the ego, is the
"counterego" or what he refers to as the shadow. The shadow
represents the rejected aspects of yourself that you do not wish
to acknowledge. The shadow is more primitive, somewhat
uncultured, and a little awkward.
ARCHETYPES
JUNG'S ARCHETYPES
 Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung believed that
archetypes are models of people, behaviors or
personalities. Jung suggested that the psyche was
composed of three components: the ego, the
personal unconscious and the collective
unconscious.
 According to Jung, the ego represents the
conscious mind while the personal unconscious
contains memories, including those that have been
suppressed. The collective unconscious is a unique
component in that Jung believed that this part of the
psyche served as a form of psychological
inheritance. It contains all of the knowledge and
experiences we share as a species.
THE ORIGINS OF ARCHETYPES
 Where do these archetypes come from then? The collective
unconscious, Jung believed, was where these archetypes
exist. He suggested that these models are innate, universal
and hereditary. Archetypes are unlearned and function to
organize how we experience certain things.
 "All the most powerful ideas in history go back to archetypes,"
Jung explained in his book The Structure of the Psyche. "This
is particularly true of religious ideas, but the central concepts
of science, philosophy, and ethics are no exception to this
rule. In their present form they are variants of archetypal ideas
created by consciously applying and adapting these ideas to
reality. For it is the function of consciousness, not only to
recognize and assimilate the external world through the
gateway of the senses, but to translate into visible reality the
world within us."
 Jung identified four major archetypes, but also believed that
there was no limit to the number that may exist.
THE SELF
 The self is an archetype that represents the unification of the
unconsciousness and consciousness of an individual. The
creation of the self occurs through a process known as
individuation, in which the various aspects of personality are
integrated. Jung often represented the self as a circle, square
or mandala.
THE SHADOW
 The shadow is an archetype that consists of the sex and life
instincts. The shadow exists as part of the unconscious mind
and is composed of repressed
ideas, weaknesses, desires, instincts and shortcomings. This
archetype is often described as the darker side of the
psyche, representing wildness, chaos and the unknown.
These latent dispositions are present in all of us, Jung
believed, although people sometimes deny this element of
their own psyche and instead project it onto others.
 Jung suggested that the shadow can appear in dreams or
visions and may take a variety of forms. It might appear as a
snake, a monster, a demon, a dragon or some other dark, wild
or exotic figure.
THE ANIMA OR ANIMUS
 The anima is a feminine image in the male psyche and the
animus is a male image in the female psyche. The
anima/animus represents the "true self" rather than the image
we present to others and serves as the primary source of
communication with the collective unconscious.
 The combination of the anima and animus is known as the
syzygy, or the divine couple. The syzygy represents
completion, unification and wholeness.
THE PERSONA
 The persona is how we present ourselves to the world. The
word "persona" is derived from a Latin word that literally
means "mask." It is not a literal mask, however. The persona
represents all of the different social masks that we wear
among different groups and situations. It acts to shield the ego
from negative images. According to Jung, the persona may
appear in dreams and take a number of different forms.
OTHER ARCHETYPES
 Jung suggested that the number of existing archetypes
is not static or fixed. Instead, many different archetypes
may overlap or combine at any given time. The following
are just a few of the various archetypes that Jung
described:
 The father: Authority figure; stern; powerful.
 The mother: Nurturing; comforting.
 The child: Longing for innocence; rebirth; salvation.
 The wise old man: Guidance; knowledge; wisdom.
 The hero: Champion; defender; rescuer.
 The maiden: Innocence; desire; purity.
 The trickster: Deceiver; liar; trouble-maker.
HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
 The Five Levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
 What motivates behavior? According to humanist psychologist
Abraham Maslow, our actions are motivated in order achieve
certain needs. Maslow first introduced his concept of a
hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human
Motivation" and his subsequent book Motivation and
Personality. This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated
to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more
advanced needs.
 This hierarchy is most often displayed as a pyramid. The
lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic
needs, while the more complex needs are located at the top of
the pyramid. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic
physical requirements including the need for food, water,
sleep, and warmth. Once these lower-level needs have been
met, people can move on to the next level of needs, which are
for safety and security.
 As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly
psychological and social. Soon, the need for love, friendship, and
intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid, the need for
personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority.
Like Carl Rogers, Maslow emphasized the importance of self-
actualization, which is a process of growing and developing as a
person in order to achieve individual potential.
 Types of Needs
 Abraham Maslow believed that these needs are similar to
instincts and play a major role in motivating behavior.
Physiological, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency
needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise
due to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level needs is
important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences.
 Maslow termed the highest-level of the pyramid as growth
needs (also known as being needs or B-needs). Growth needs
do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to
grow as a person.
FIVE LEVELS OF THE HIERARCHY OF NEEDS
Physiological Needs
These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the
need for water, air, food, and sleep. Maslow believed that these needs
are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all
needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met.

Security Needs
These include needs for safety and security. Security needs are
important for survival, but they are not as demanding as the physiological
needs. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady
employment, health care, safe neighborhoods, and shelter from the
environment.

Social Needs
These include needs for belonging, love, and affection. Maslow
described these needs as less basic than physiological and security
needs. Relationships such as friendships, romantic attachments, and
families help fulfill this need for companionship and acceptance, as does
involvement in social, community, or religious groups.
 Esteem Needs
After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs
becomes increasingly important. These include the need for
things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social
recognition, and accomplishment.
 Self-actualizing Needs
This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Self-
actualizing people are self-aware, concerned with personal
growth, less concerned with the opinions of others, and
interested fulfilling their potential.
What exactly is self-actualization? Located at the peak of
Abraham Maslow's hierarchy, he described this high-level need
in the following way:
"What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self-
actualization...It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to
the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is
potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to
become more and more what one is, to become everything that
one is capable of becoming."
CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF-ACTUALIZED
PEOPLE
 Acceptance and Realism: Self-actualized people have realistic
perceptions of themselves, others and the world around them.
 Problem-centering: Self-actualized individuals are concerned with
solving problems outside of themselves, including helping others and
finding solutions to problems in the external world. These people are
often motivated by a sense of personal responsibility and ethics.
 Spontaneity: Self-actualized people are spontaneous in their internal
thoughts and outward behavior. While they can conform to rules and
social expectations, they also tend to be open and unconventional.
 Autonomy and Solitude: Another characteristic of self-actualized
people is the need for independence and privacy. While they enjoy the
company of others, these individuals need time to focus on developing
their own individual potential.
 Continued Freshness of Appreciation: Self-actualized people tend to
view the world with a continual sense of appreciation, wonder and awe.
Even simple experiences continue to be a source of inspiration and
pleasure.
Theories of human development

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Theories of human development

  • 1. THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT. FREUD'S PSYCHOSEXUAL THEORIES, ERIKSON'S PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORIES, LEARNING THEORIES, PIAGET'S THEORY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT, KARL JUNG, MASLOW.
  • 2. THEORIES OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT  Theories of development provide a framework for thinking about human growth, development, and learning. But why do we study development? What can we learn from psychological theories of development? If you have ever wondered about what motivates human thought and behavior, understanding these theories can provide useful insight into individuals and society.
  • 3. TYPES OF THEORIES  Developmental Theories Developmental theories provide a set of guiding principles and concepts that describe and explain human development. Some developmental theories focus on the formation of a specific quality, such as Kohlberg's theory of moral development. Other developmental theories focus on growth that happens throughout the lifespan, such as Erikson's theory of psychosocial development.  Grand Theories Grand theories are those comprehensive ideas often proposed by major thinkers such as Sigmund Freud, Erik Erikson and Jean Piaget.
  • 4. TYPES OF THEORIES Grand theories of development include psychoanalytic theory, learning theory and cognitive theory. These theories seek to explain much of human behavior, but are often considered outdated and incomplete in the face of modern research. Psychologists and researchers often use grand theories as a basis for exploration, but consider smaller theories and recent research as well.  Minitheories Minitheories describe a small, very specific aspect of development. A minitheory might explain fairly narrow behaviors, such as how self-esteem is formed or early childhood socialization. These theories are often rooted in the ideas established by grand theories, but they do not seek to describe and explain the whole of human behavior and growth.
  • 5. TYPES OF THEORIES  Emergent Theories Emergent theories are those that have been created fairly recently and are often formed by systematically combining various minitheories. These theories often draw on research and ideas from many different disciplines, but are not yet as broad or far-reaching as grand theories. The sociocultural theory proposed by theorist Lev Vygotsky is a good example of an emergent theory of development.
  • 6. THE PURPOSE OF PSYCHOLOGY THEORIES  Theories provide a framework for understanding human behaviour, thought, and development. By having a broad base of understanding about the how's and why's of human behaviour, we can better understand ourselves and others.  Theories create a basis for future research. Researchers use theories to form hypotheses that can then be tested.  Theories are dynamic and always changing. As new discoveries are made, theories are modified and adapted to account for new information.
  • 7. FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT  What is Psychosexual Development? Proposed by the famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, the theory of psychosexual development describes how personality develops during childhood. While the theory is well-known in psychology, it is also one of the most controversial theories. Freud believed that personality develops through a series of childhood stages in which the pleasure-seeking energies of the id become focused on certain erogenous areas. This psychosexual energy, or libido, was described as the driving force behind behavior. Psychoanalytic theory suggested that personality is mostly established by the age of five. Early experiences play a large role in personality development and continue to influence behavior later in life.
  • 8. FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT  If these psychosexual stages are completed successfully, the result is a healthy personality. If certain issues are not resolved at the appropriate stage, fixation can occur. A fixation is a persistent focus on an earlier psychosexual stage. Until this conflict is resolved, the individual will remain "stuck" in this stage. For example, a person who is fixated at the oral stage may be over-dependent on others and may seek oral stimulation through smoking, drinking, or eating.
  • 9. FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT 1. The Oral Stage  Age Range: Birth to 1 Year  Erogenous Zone: Mouth  During the oral stage, the infant's primary source of interaction occurs through the mouth, so the rooting and sucking reflex is especially important. The mouth is vital for eating, and the infant derives pleasure from oral stimulation through gratifying activities such as tasting and sucking. Because the infant is entirely dependent upon caretakers (who are responsible for feeding the child), the infant also develops a sense of trust and comfort through this oral stimulation.  The primary conflict at this stage is the weaning process-- the child must become less dependent upon caretakers. If fixation occurs at this stage, Freud believed the individual would have issues with dependency or aggression. Oral fixation can result in problems with drinking, eating, smoking or nail biting.
  • 10. FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT The Anal Stage  Age Range: 1 to 3 years  Erogenous Zone: Bowel and Bladder Control  During the anal stage, Freud believed that the primary focus of the libido was on controlling bladder and bowel movements. The major conflict at this stage is toilet training-- the child has to learn to control his or her bodily needs. Developing this control leads to a sense of accomplishment and independence.  According to Freud, success at this stage is dependent upon the way in which parents approach toilet training. Parents who utilize praise and rewards for using the toilet at the appropriate time encourage positive outcomes and help children feel capable and productive.
  • 11. FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT  Freud believed that positive experiences during this stage served as the basis for people to become competent, productive and creative adults.  However, not all parents provide the support and encouragement that children need during this stage. Some parents' instead punish, ridicule or shame a child for accidents. According to Freud, inappropriate parental responses can result in negative outcomes. If parents take an approach that is too lenient, Freud suggested that an anal-expulsive personality could develop in which the individual has a messy, wasteful or destructive personality. If parents are too strict or begin toilet training too early, Freud believed that an anal-retentive personality develops in which the individual is stringent, orderly, rigid and obsessive.
  • 12. FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT The Phallic Stage  Age Range: 3 to 6 Years  Erogenous Zone: Genitals  During the phallic stage, the primary focus of the libido is on the genitals. At this age, children also begin to discover the differences between males and females.  Freud also believed that boys begin to view their fathers as a rival for the mother’s affections. The Oedipus complex describes these feelings of wanting to possess the mother and the desire to replace the father. However, the child also fears that he will be punished by the father for these feelings, a fear Freud termed castration anxiety.  The term Electra complex has been used to described a similar set of feelings experienced by young girls. Freud, however, believed that girls instead experience penis envy.
  • 13. FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT  Eventually, the child begins to identify with the same-sex parent as a means of vicariously possessing the other parent. For girls, however, Freud believed that penis envy was never fully resolved and that all women remain somewhat fixated on this stage. Psychologists such as Karen Horney disputed this theory, calling it both inaccurate and demeaning to women. Instead, Horney proposed that men experience feelings of inferiority because they cannot give birth to children.
  • 14. FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT  The Latent Period  Age Range: 6 to Puberty  Erogenous Zone: Sexual Feelings Are Inactive  During the latent period, the libido interests are suppressed. The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm. The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies and other interests.  The latent period is a time of exploration in which the sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions. This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence.
  • 15. FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT The Latent Period  Age Range: 6 to Puberty  Erogenous Zone: Sexual Feelings Are Inactive  During the latent period, the libido interests are suppressed. The development of the ego and superego contribute to this period of calm. The stage begins around the time that children enter into school and become more concerned with peer relationships, hobbies and other interests.  The latent period is a time of exploration in which the sexual energy is still present, but it is directed into other areas such as intellectual pursuits and social interactions. This stage is important in the development of social and communication skills and self-confidence.
  • 16. FREUD'S STAGES OF PSYCHOSEXUAL DEVELOPMENT The Genital Stage  Age Range: Puberty to Death  Erogenous Zone: Maturing Sexual Interests  During the final stage of psychosexual development, the individual develops a strong sexual interest in the opposite sex. This stage begins during puberty but last throughout the rest of a person's life.  Where in earlier stages the focus was solely on individual needs, interest in the welfare of others grows during this stage. If the other stages have been completed successfully, the individual should now be well-balanced, warm and caring. The goal of this stage is to establish a balance between the various life areas.
  • 17. EVALUATING FREUD’S PSYCHOSEXUAL STAGE THEORY  The theory is focused almost entirely on male development with little mention of female psychosexual development.  His theories are difficult to test scientifically. Concepts such as the libido are impossible to measure, and therefore cannot be tested. The research that has been conducted tends to discredit Freud's theory.  Future predictions are too vague. How can we know that a current behavior was caused specifically by a childhood experience? The length of time between the cause and the effect is too long to assume that there is a relationship between the two variables.  Freud's theory is based upon case studies and not empirical research. Also, Freud based his theory on the recollections of his adult patients, not on actual observation and study of children.
  • 18. ERIKSON'S THEORY OF PSYCHOSOCIAL DEVELOPMENT  What is Psychosocial Development?  Erik Erikson's theory of psychosocial development is one of the best-known theories of personality in psychology. Much like Sigmund Freud, Erikson believed that personality develops in a series of stages. Unlike Freud's theory of psychosexual stages, Erikson's theory describes the impact of social experience across the whole lifespan.  One of the main elements of Erikson's psychosocial stage theory is the development of ego identity. Ego identity is the conscious sense of self that we develop through social interaction. According to Erikson, our ego identity is constantly changing due to new experiences and information we acquire in our daily interactions with others.
  • 19.  In addition to ego identity, Erikson also believed that a sense of competence motivates behaviors and actions. Each stage in Erikson's theory is concerned with becoming competent in an area of life. If the stage is handled well, the person will feel a sense of mastery, which is sometimes referred to as ego strength or ego quality. If the stage is managed poorly, the person will emerge with a sense of inadequacy.  In each stage, Erikson believed people experience a conflict that serves as a turning point in development. In Erikson's view, these conflicts are centered on either developing a psychological quality or failing to develop that quality. During these times, the potential for personal growth is high, but so is the potential for failure.
  • 20. PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 1 - TRUST VS. MISTRUST  The first stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development occurs between birth and one year of age and is the most fundamental stage in life.  Because an infant is utterly dependent, the development of trust is based on the dependability and quality of the child's caregivers.  If a child successfully develops trust, he or she will feel safe and secure in the world. Caregivers who are inconsistent, emotionally unavailable, or rejecting contribute to feelings of mistrust in the children they care for. Failure to develop trust will result in fear and a belief that the world is inconsistent and unpredictable.  Of course, no child is going to develop a sense of 100 percent trust or 100 percent doubt. Erikson believed that successful development was all about striking a balance between the two opposing sides. When this happens, children acquire hope, which Erikson described as an openness to experience tempered by some wariness that danger may be present.
  • 21. PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 2 - AUTONOMY VS. SHAME AND DOUBT  The second stage of Erikson's theory of psychosocial development takes place during early childhood and is focused on children developing a greater sense of personal control.2  Like Freud, Erikson believed that toilet training was a vital part of this process. However, Erikson's reasoning was quite different then that of Freud's. Erikson believe that learning to control one's bodily functions leads to a feeling of control and a sense of independence.  Other important events include gaining more control over food choices, toy preferences, and clothing selection.  Children who successfully complete this stage feel secure and confident, while those who do not are left with a sense of inadequacy and self-doubt.  Erikson believed that achieving a balance between autonomy and shame and doubt would lead to will, which is the belief that children can act with intention, within reason and limits.
  • 22. PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 3 - INITIATIVE VS. GUILT  During the preschool years, children begin to assert their power and control over the world through directing play and other social interactions.  Children who are successful at this stage feel capable and able to lead others. Those who fail to acquire these skills are left with a sense of guilt, self-doubt, and lack of initiative.  When an ideal balance of individual initiative and a willingness to work with others is achieved, the ego quality known as purpose emerges.
  • 23. PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 4 – INDUSTRY VS. INFERIORITY  This stage covers the early school years from approximately age 5 to 11.  Through social interactions, children begin to develop a sense of pride in their accomplishments and abilities.  Children who are encouraged and commended by parents and teachers develop a feeling of competence and belief in their skills. Those who receive little or no encouragement from parents, teachers, or peers will doubt their abilities to be successful.  Successfully finding a balance at this stage of psychosocial development leads to the strength known as competence or a belief our own abilities to handle the tasks set before us.
  • 24. PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 5 - IDENTITY VS. CONFUSION  During adolescence, children explore their independence and develop a sense of self.  Those who receive proper encouragement and reinforcement through personal exploration will emerge from this stage with a strong sense of self and a feeling of independence and control. Those who remain unsure of their beliefs and desires will feel insecure and confused about themselves and the future.  Completing this stage successfully leads to fidelity, which Erikson described as an ability to live by society's standards and expectations.
  • 25. PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 6 - INTIMACY VS. ISOLATION  This stage covers the period of early adulthood when people are exploring personal relationships.  Erikson believed it was vital that people develop close, committed relationships with other people. Those who are successful at this step will form relationships that are committed and secure.  Remember that each step builds on skills learned in previous steps. Erikson believed that a strong sense of personal identity was important for developing intimate relationships. Studies have demonstrated that those with a poor sense of self tend to have less committed relationships and are more likely to suffer emotional isolation, loneliness, and depression.  Successful resolution of this stage results in the virtue known as love. It is marked by the ability to form lasting, meaningful relationships with other people.
  • 26. PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 7 - GENERATIVITY VS. STAGNATION  During adulthood, we continue to build our lives, focusing on our career and family.  Those who are successful during this phase will feel that they are contributing to the world by being active in their home and community. Those who fail to attain this skill will feel unproductive and uninvolved in the world.  Care is the virtue achieved when this stage is handled successfully. Being proud of your accomplishments, watching your children grow into adults, and developing a sense of unity with your life partner are important accomplishments of this stage.
  • 27. PSYCHOSOCIAL STAGE 8 - INTEGRITY VS. DESPAIR  This phase occurs during old age and is focused on reflecting back on life.  Those who are unsuccessful during this stage will feel that their life has been wasted and will experience many regrets. The individual will be left with feelings of bitterness and despair.  Those who feel proud of their accomplishments will feel a sense of integrity. Successfully completing this phase means looking back with few regrets and a general feeling of satisfaction. These individuals will attain wisdom, even when confronting death.
  • 28. THE STRENGTHS OF ERIKSON'S THEORY  One of the strengths of psychosocial theory is that it provides a broad framework from which to view development throughout the entire lifespan. It also allows us to emphasize the social nature of human beings and the important influence that social relationships have on development. Researchers have found evidence supporting Erikson's ideas about identity and have further identified different sub-stages of identity formation. Some research also suggests that people who form strong personal identities during adolescence are better capable of forming intimate relationships during early adulthood.
  • 29. LIMITATIONS OF PSYCHOSOCIAL THEORY  What kinds of experiences are necessary to successfully complete each stage? How does a person move from one stage to the next? One major weakness of psychosocial theory is that the exact mechanisms for resolving conflicts and moving from one stage to the next are not well described or developed. The theory fails to detail exactly what type of experiences are necessary at each stage in order to successfully resolve the conflicts and move to the next stage.
  • 30. LEARNING THEORIES  During the first half of the twentieth century, a new school of thought known as behaviorism rose to become a dominant force within psychology. Behaviorists believed that psychology needed to focus only on observable and quantifiable behaviors in order to become a more scientific discipline.  According to the behavioral perspective, all human behavior can be described in terms of environmental influences. Some behaviorists, such as John B. Watson and B.F. Skinner, insisted that learning occurs purely through processes of association and reinforcement. Later, psychologist Albert Bandura rejected this narrow perspective and demonstrated the powerful effects of observational learning.
  • 31. PIAGET'S STAGES OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT  According to psychologist Jean Piaget, children progress through a series of four key stages of cognitive development marked by shifts in how they understand the world. Piaget believed that children are like "little scientists" and that they actively try to explore and make sense of the world around them. Through his observations of his own children, Piaget developed a stage theory of intellectual development that included four distinct stages: the sensorimotor stage, from birth to age 2; the preoperational stage, from age 2 to about age 7; the concrete operational stage, from age 7 to 11; and the formal operational stage, which begins in adolescence and spans into adulthood. Piaget's stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget's view, early cognitive development involves processes based upon actions and later progresses into changes in mental operations.
  • 32. A QUICK SUMMARY OF COGNITIVE DEVELOPMENT  The Sensorimotor Stage: During this stage, infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects.  The Preoperational Stage: At this stage, kids learn through pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other people.  The Concrete Operational Stage: Kids at this point of development begin to think more logically, but their thinking can also be very rigid. They tend to struggle with abstract and hypothetical concepts.  The Formal Operational Stage: The final stage of Piaget's theory involves an increase in logic, the ability to use deductive reasoning, and an understanding of abstract ideas.  It is important to note that Piaget did not view children's intellectual development at a quantitative process; that is, kids do not just add more information and knowledge to their existing knowledge as they get older.
  • 33.  Instead, Piaget suggested that there is a qualitative change in how children think as they gradually process through these four stages. A child at age 7 doesn't just have more information about the world than he did at age 2; there is a fundamental change in how he thinks about the world.  In order to better understand some of the things that happen during cognitive development, it is important to first examine a few of the important ideas and concepts introduced by Piaget. The following are some of the factors that influence how children learn and grow.  Schemas - A schema describes both the mental and physical actions involved in understanding and knowing. Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world. In Piaget's view, a schema includes both a category of knowledge and the process of obtaining that knowledge. As experiences happen, this new information is used to modify, add to, or change previously existing schemas.
  • 34. For example, a child may have a schema about a type of animal, such as a dog. If the child's sole experience has been with small dogs, a child might believe that all dogs are small, furry, and have four legs. Suppose then that the child encounters a very large dog. The child will take in this new information, modifying the previously existing schema to include this new information.  Assimilation - The process of taking in new information into our previously existing schemas is known as assimilation. The process is somewhat subjective, because we tend to modify experience or information somewhat to fit in with our preexisting beliefs. In the example above, seeing a dog and labeling it "dog" is an example of assimilating the animal into the child's dog schema.  Accommodation - Another part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information, a process known as accommodation. Accommodation involves altering existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences. New schemas may also be developed during this process.
  • 35.  Equilibration - Piaget believed that all children try to strike a balance between assimilation and accommodation, which is achieved through a mechanism Piaget called equilibration. As children progress through the stages of cognitive development, it is important to maintain a balance between applying previous knowledge (assimilation) and changing behavior to account for new knowledge (accommodation). Equilibration helps explain how children are able to move from one stage of thought into the next.
  • 36. CARL JUNG’S THEORY  Like his mentor Sigmund Freud, Carl Gustav Jung (1875-1960) also believes in the existence of the unconscious. However, he does not see the unconscious as animalistic, instinctual, or sexual; he sees it as more spiritual. Eventually, Jung split with Freud due to their differing views on dreams.  According to Jung, dreams are a way of communicating and acquainting yourself with the unconscious. Dreams are not attempts to conceal your true feelings from the waking mind, but rather they are a window to your unconscious. They serve to guide the waking self to achieve wholeness and offer a solution to a problem you are facing in your waking life.  Jung views the ego as your sense of self and how you portray yourself to the world. Part of Jung's theory is that all things can be viewed as paired opposites: good/evil, male/female, or love/hate. So working in opposition to the ego, is the "counterego" or what he refers to as the shadow. The shadow represents the rejected aspects of yourself that you do not wish to acknowledge. The shadow is more primitive, somewhat uncultured, and a little awkward.
  • 37. ARCHETYPES JUNG'S ARCHETYPES  Swiss psychiatrist Carl Jung believed that archetypes are models of people, behaviors or personalities. Jung suggested that the psyche was composed of three components: the ego, the personal unconscious and the collective unconscious.  According to Jung, the ego represents the conscious mind while the personal unconscious contains memories, including those that have been suppressed. The collective unconscious is a unique component in that Jung believed that this part of the psyche served as a form of psychological inheritance. It contains all of the knowledge and experiences we share as a species.
  • 38. THE ORIGINS OF ARCHETYPES  Where do these archetypes come from then? The collective unconscious, Jung believed, was where these archetypes exist. He suggested that these models are innate, universal and hereditary. Archetypes are unlearned and function to organize how we experience certain things.  "All the most powerful ideas in history go back to archetypes," Jung explained in his book The Structure of the Psyche. "This is particularly true of religious ideas, but the central concepts of science, philosophy, and ethics are no exception to this rule. In their present form they are variants of archetypal ideas created by consciously applying and adapting these ideas to reality. For it is the function of consciousness, not only to recognize and assimilate the external world through the gateway of the senses, but to translate into visible reality the world within us."  Jung identified four major archetypes, but also believed that there was no limit to the number that may exist.
  • 39. THE SELF  The self is an archetype that represents the unification of the unconsciousness and consciousness of an individual. The creation of the self occurs through a process known as individuation, in which the various aspects of personality are integrated. Jung often represented the self as a circle, square or mandala.
  • 40. THE SHADOW  The shadow is an archetype that consists of the sex and life instincts. The shadow exists as part of the unconscious mind and is composed of repressed ideas, weaknesses, desires, instincts and shortcomings. This archetype is often described as the darker side of the psyche, representing wildness, chaos and the unknown. These latent dispositions are present in all of us, Jung believed, although people sometimes deny this element of their own psyche and instead project it onto others.  Jung suggested that the shadow can appear in dreams or visions and may take a variety of forms. It might appear as a snake, a monster, a demon, a dragon or some other dark, wild or exotic figure.
  • 41. THE ANIMA OR ANIMUS  The anima is a feminine image in the male psyche and the animus is a male image in the female psyche. The anima/animus represents the "true self" rather than the image we present to others and serves as the primary source of communication with the collective unconscious.  The combination of the anima and animus is known as the syzygy, or the divine couple. The syzygy represents completion, unification and wholeness.
  • 42. THE PERSONA  The persona is how we present ourselves to the world. The word "persona" is derived from a Latin word that literally means "mask." It is not a literal mask, however. The persona represents all of the different social masks that we wear among different groups and situations. It acts to shield the ego from negative images. According to Jung, the persona may appear in dreams and take a number of different forms.
  • 43. OTHER ARCHETYPES  Jung suggested that the number of existing archetypes is not static or fixed. Instead, many different archetypes may overlap or combine at any given time. The following are just a few of the various archetypes that Jung described:  The father: Authority figure; stern; powerful.  The mother: Nurturing; comforting.  The child: Longing for innocence; rebirth; salvation.  The wise old man: Guidance; knowledge; wisdom.  The hero: Champion; defender; rescuer.  The maiden: Innocence; desire; purity.  The trickster: Deceiver; liar; trouble-maker.
  • 44. HIERARCHY OF NEEDS  The Five Levels of Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs  What motivates behavior? According to humanist psychologist Abraham Maslow, our actions are motivated in order achieve certain needs. Maslow first introduced his concept of a hierarchy of needs in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" and his subsequent book Motivation and Personality. This hierarchy suggests that people are motivated to fulfill basic needs before moving on to other, more advanced needs.  This hierarchy is most often displayed as a pyramid. The lowest levels of the pyramid are made up of the most basic needs, while the more complex needs are located at the top of the pyramid. Needs at the bottom of the pyramid are basic physical requirements including the need for food, water, sleep, and warmth. Once these lower-level needs have been met, people can move on to the next level of needs, which are for safety and security.
  • 45.
  • 46.  As people progress up the pyramid, needs become increasingly psychological and social. Soon, the need for love, friendship, and intimacy become important. Further up the pyramid, the need for personal esteem and feelings of accomplishment take priority. Like Carl Rogers, Maslow emphasized the importance of self- actualization, which is a process of growing and developing as a person in order to achieve individual potential.  Types of Needs  Abraham Maslow believed that these needs are similar to instincts and play a major role in motivating behavior. Physiological, security, social, and esteem needs are deficiency needs (also known as D-needs), meaning that these needs arise due to deprivation. Satisfying these lower-level needs is important in order to avoid unpleasant feelings or consequences.  Maslow termed the highest-level of the pyramid as growth needs (also known as being needs or B-needs). Growth needs do not stem from a lack of something, but rather from a desire to grow as a person.
  • 47. FIVE LEVELS OF THE HIERARCHY OF NEEDS Physiological Needs These include the most basic needs that are vital to survival, such as the need for water, air, food, and sleep. Maslow believed that these needs are the most basic and instinctive needs in the hierarchy because all needs become secondary until these physiological needs are met.  Security Needs These include needs for safety and security. Security needs are important for survival, but they are not as demanding as the physiological needs. Examples of security needs include a desire for steady employment, health care, safe neighborhoods, and shelter from the environment.  Social Needs These include needs for belonging, love, and affection. Maslow described these needs as less basic than physiological and security needs. Relationships such as friendships, romantic attachments, and families help fulfill this need for companionship and acceptance, as does involvement in social, community, or religious groups.
  • 48.  Esteem Needs After the first three needs have been satisfied, esteem needs becomes increasingly important. These include the need for things that reflect on self-esteem, personal worth, social recognition, and accomplishment.  Self-actualizing Needs This is the highest level of Maslow’s hierarchy of needs. Self- actualizing people are self-aware, concerned with personal growth, less concerned with the opinions of others, and interested fulfilling their potential. What exactly is self-actualization? Located at the peak of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy, he described this high-level need in the following way: "What a man can be, he must be. This need we may call self- actualization...It refers to the desire for self-fulfillment, namely, to the tendency for him to become actualized in what he is potentially. This tendency might be phrased as the desire to become more and more what one is, to become everything that one is capable of becoming."
  • 49. CHARACTERISTICS OF SELF-ACTUALIZED PEOPLE  Acceptance and Realism: Self-actualized people have realistic perceptions of themselves, others and the world around them.  Problem-centering: Self-actualized individuals are concerned with solving problems outside of themselves, including helping others and finding solutions to problems in the external world. These people are often motivated by a sense of personal responsibility and ethics.  Spontaneity: Self-actualized people are spontaneous in their internal thoughts and outward behavior. While they can conform to rules and social expectations, they also tend to be open and unconventional.  Autonomy and Solitude: Another characteristic of self-actualized people is the need for independence and privacy. While they enjoy the company of others, these individuals need time to focus on developing their own individual potential.  Continued Freshness of Appreciation: Self-actualized people tend to view the world with a continual sense of appreciation, wonder and awe. Even simple experiences continue to be a source of inspiration and pleasure.