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The What and
How's of
Cybersecurity
An introduction to this
crazy world
Introduction
OSI reference model
● How to make the computers interact?
● What media would you use?
● This concerns with Layer 1 (Physical layer)
OSI reference model
● How to grow your network and handle
addressing?
● How would you guarantee everyone gets a chance to
talk, and no one’s message jumbles up anyone
else’s?
● This concerns with Layer 2 (Data Link layer)
OSI reference model
● what happens if you want to send a
message out of your network?
● And you certainly can’t expect each
computer to know the address of every
computer in the whole world.?
● This concerns with Layer 3 (Network layer)
OSI reference model
● Layer 4 (Transport)
● Layer 7 (Application)
● Layer 5 (Session)
● Layer 6 (Presentation)
OSI reference model
Smol break and summary
TCP/IP Overview
TCP/IP Overview
DNS(Domain name system)
Ping, ipconfig,dnscache, cleaning dns cache,
netstat
Vulnerabilities
● Microsoft Vulnerability Research
(www.microsoft.com/en-us/msrc/msvr)
● Security Focus (www.securityfocus.com)
● Hackerstorm (www.hackerstorm.co.uk)
● Exploit Database (www.exploit-db.com)
● Security Magazine (www.securitymagazine.com)
● Trend Micro (www.trendmicro.com)
● Dark Reading (www.darkreading.com)
Vulnerabilities
Quantification of risk:
● the Common Vulnerability
Scoring System (CVSS,
https://www.first.org/cvss/)
● National Vulnerability
Database (NVD,
https://nvd.nist.gov/vuln-
metrics/cvss)
Vulnerabilities
Vulnerabilities
Default
passwords
Operating
System
Flaws
Protocol
Failures
Misconfiguration
Design
Flaws
Application
Flaws
Vulnerabilities
Hacker Classifications
White hats
1
Black hats
2
Gray hats
3
The hacking community in general can be
categorized into three separate
classifications:
Attack Types
Shrink-wrap
attacks
Application
level attacks
Operating
system attacks
Misconfiguratio
n attacks
Reconnaissance
Scanning and Enumeration
Gaining Access
Maintaining Access
Covering Tracks
The Ethical Hacker
The what and how's of cybersecurity

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The what and how's of cybersecurity