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Tom Armitage
tom@infovore.org
http://infovore.org
Evil communications corrupt good manners.




                       I Corinthians xv 33
Web services
                           .0
                         2
  Web services are everywhere.
  APIs.
  Widgets.
  SMS gateways.




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   3
Internet as platform




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   4
Infrastructure of services




                                   http://www.flickr.com/photos/kabanski/147167269/


Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                                                     5
Creepy Bellboys




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   6
Tools




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   7
The Uncanny Valet
Defining manners for a digital age




Tom Armitage
Manners?
What are manners?

                        Protocols     Manners
                           Specific    General
                     Documented       Intuitive
                           Detailed    Vague
                               More    Less


Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                  10
“adhering to prescribed norms in social interactions, or
about negotiating and making explicit interactional
norms when they don’t exist”




Bickmore & Cassell describing ‘etiquette’
The applications and tools
   we are building are,
  whether we like it not,
defining the manners of the
       web today.
Manners of control
Manners of communication
  Manners and context
   Manners of privacy
The manners of control
  How users are addressed is important.




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet          14
The manners of control
  How users are addressed is important.
  Over-familiarity breaks the illusion of control.
  NB: illusion of control.




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                     16
“Agents make people diminish themselves...[and]
redefine themselves into lesser beings”




                                     Jaron Lanier
“Anthropological representations destroy [users’] sense
of accomplishment”




                        Shneiderman and Maes
Computers as Social Actors
  (Clifford Nass)
  Our interactions with computers are “fundamentally social
  and natural”.




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                              19
Little MOO
  Endearing.                       Hello Tom


  Reinforcing status as            I'm Little MOO - the bit of software
                                   that will be managing your order
  computer.                        with us. It will shortly be sent to
                                   Big MOO, our print machine who will
  Building user’s relationship     print it for you in the next few days.
                                   I’ll let you know when it's
  with company.                    done and on it's way to you.

  Naturally dissuading user        Remember, I'm just a bit of software.
  from hitting reply.              So, if you have any questions
                                   regarding your order please contact
                                   customer services (who are real
                                   people) at:

                                   flickr@moo.com

                                   Thanks,

                                   Little MOO, Print Robot


Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                                            20
The illusion of control is
especially hard to provide
       to new users.
12:00
Principle of Least Astonishment
  The modern web brings lots of potential surprises:
   Ajax
   Drag-and-drop
   Rich interfaces
   Flash
   Clicking on an RSS feed




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                       24
Breaking frame is rude.
Desktop manners are
inappropriate on the web.
How do you give users
 control whilst minimising
the chance they will break
          things?
The Jack Principles
  Maintaining Pacing
  Create Illusion of Awareness
  Maintain Illusion of Awareness

  In “Maintaining Pacing”
    Make sure the user only has one task to perform at once.
    Limit the number of choices the user has at any one time.
    Only give the user meaningful choices.
    Make sure the user knows what to do at any one time.



Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                                28
Manners of communication
Pester
  You’ve got mail!
  You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve
  got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got
  mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail!
  You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve
  got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got
  mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail!
  You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve
  got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got
  mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail!
  You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve
  got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got

Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                              30
Sometimes pester is good.




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   31
“social presences that are available when we want
them and not when you don’t are the people we should
model”




                                    Clifford Nass
Degrees of Pester




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   33
Gentle notification.
Glancing (Matt Webb)
  Group communication
  facilitator.
  “looking up”.
  Looking at who’s online is a
  glance.
  “Eye contact is a polite way
  to start conversations”.
  Low-effort, high value.
  Fits around existing routines
  and into existing tools (IM).
  Easily ignored.

Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   35
Poking (Facebook)
  Simple, lightweight
  interaction.
  “Meaningless”
  Meaning less.
  Appropriate language.
  Interesting side-effect.
  Easily ignored.




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   36
“Last.fm's ‘who recently viewed my profile’ function
makes me feel the same discomfort as when you make
eye contact in a corridor but you're too far away to say
hello and it's rude to drop eye contact and it's rude to
stare.”




          This doesn’t always work, though.
Gentle communication.
Overhearing Machines




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   39
Overhearing Machines




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   40
“When I develop something new these days, I
automatically think of using Twitter as a back-end to
connect users of my software. If other developers
aren't doing this, I imagine they will soon... Twitter, for
me, is becoming a coral reef.”



                                            Dave Winer
Manners are contextual.
Context
  Online services are now displaying more facets than ever:
   Web
   RSS
   Mobile (web)
   Mobile (SMS)
   Other?
  Different contexts require different etiquette.




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                              43
What is context based on?
  Input:
    Functionality
    Senses
  Output:
    Functionality
    Manipulators
  Other tasks that are occurring:
    Other running applications
    Other input being performed
  “Flow”
  You can always ask for it.

Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet    44
Contextual sociability
  Email: hundreds of other people.
  Phonebook: about ninety, about 20 of whom are high-traffic.
  IM: about 50, about 20 of whom are high-traffic.
  Twitter: about 25 (50-odd via web, but I follow about half).
  Pub conversation: 8.
  Availabot: 1 (easily ignored).
  Phone conversation: 1 (hard to ignore).




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                                 45
Contextual sociability
  Email: Excellent filtering.
  Phonebook: Simple screening (caller-ID).
  IM: Good filtering (status, invisbility, caller-ID).
  Twitter: Simple filtering (friends, following).
  Pub conversation: Primitive filtering (not listening, moving).
  Availabot: Primitive/powerful filtering (hiding it).
  Phone conversation: No filtering (hanging up).




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                                  46
Convention over configuration.




                       The Rails Way
Configuration hell




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   48
Context is hard to ascertain.
Respecting privacy.
“Privacy is about control.”




                              Is it?
Privacy is about trust.
Privacy is about understanding.
Different levels of privacy
suit different applications.
Privacy on Facebook




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   55
Privacy on Facebook




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   56
Privacy on Facebook




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   57
Privacy on Facebook




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   58
Privacy on Facebook




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet   59
Privacy is:
  hard to explain on the web of data.
  high priority for everyone -
   make it simple.




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet        60
Login boxes
  Login boxes break frame: they snap you out of flow.
  Snap users back into flow as fast as possible.
  How much should be visible to non-logged in users?
  It’s impolite to keep safe things secret.




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                       61
NB: Exchanging username
and password changes the
relationship a user has with
         anything.
Does openID change this?
  Sort-of.
  Brings a whole new set of complexities.
  Bouncing people around websites is “rude”.
  Explaining flow when you’re sending people away is hard.
  The insecurities are more complex, too.




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                            63
“adhering to prescribed norms in social interactions, or
about negotiating and making explicit interactional
norms when they don’t exist”




Bickmore & Cassell describing ‘etiquette’
Manners are about less
  Services are proscriptive; tools are adaptive.
  Unexpected uses are exciting:
   for the user.
   for the designer.
  Hacking and playing about is an inherent part of making.
   This is easier when there’s less to unpick.
   Sealed boxes are rude.
   Hiding the source is rude.




Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet                             65
The applications and tools
we are building are, whether
 we like it not, defining the
 manners of the web today.
  We should be careful to
consider the behaviours we
wish to reinforce, and those
          we don’t.
The Uncanny Valet
Defining manners for a digital age




Tom Armitage

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The Uncanny Valet

  • 2. Evil communications corrupt good manners. I Corinthians xv 33
  • 3. Web services .0 2 Web services are everywhere. APIs. Widgets. SMS gateways. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 3
  • 4. Internet as platform Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 4
  • 5. Infrastructure of services http://www.flickr.com/photos/kabanski/147167269/ Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 5
  • 6. Creepy Bellboys Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 6
  • 7. Tools Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 7
  • 8. The Uncanny Valet Defining manners for a digital age Tom Armitage
  • 10. What are manners? Protocols Manners Specific General Documented Intuitive Detailed Vague More Less Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 10
  • 11. “adhering to prescribed norms in social interactions, or about negotiating and making explicit interactional norms when they don’t exist” Bickmore & Cassell describing ‘etiquette’
  • 12. The applications and tools we are building are, whether we like it not, defining the manners of the web today.
  • 13. Manners of control Manners of communication Manners and context Manners of privacy
  • 14. The manners of control How users are addressed is important. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 14
  • 15.
  • 16. The manners of control How users are addressed is important. Over-familiarity breaks the illusion of control. NB: illusion of control. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 16
  • 17. “Agents make people diminish themselves...[and] redefine themselves into lesser beings” Jaron Lanier
  • 18. “Anthropological representations destroy [users’] sense of accomplishment” Shneiderman and Maes
  • 19. Computers as Social Actors (Clifford Nass) Our interactions with computers are “fundamentally social and natural”. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 19
  • 20. Little MOO Endearing. Hello Tom Reinforcing status as I'm Little MOO - the bit of software that will be managing your order computer. with us. It will shortly be sent to Big MOO, our print machine who will Building user’s relationship print it for you in the next few days. I’ll let you know when it's with company. done and on it's way to you. Naturally dissuading user Remember, I'm just a bit of software. from hitting reply. So, if you have any questions regarding your order please contact customer services (who are real people) at: flickr@moo.com Thanks, Little MOO, Print Robot Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 20
  • 21. The illusion of control is especially hard to provide to new users.
  • 22. 12:00
  • 23.
  • 24. Principle of Least Astonishment The modern web brings lots of potential surprises: Ajax Drag-and-drop Rich interfaces Flash Clicking on an RSS feed Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 24
  • 27. How do you give users control whilst minimising the chance they will break things?
  • 28. The Jack Principles Maintaining Pacing Create Illusion of Awareness Maintain Illusion of Awareness In “Maintaining Pacing” Make sure the user only has one task to perform at once. Limit the number of choices the user has at any one time. Only give the user meaningful choices. Make sure the user knows what to do at any one time. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 28
  • 30. Pester You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got mail! You’ve got Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 30
  • 31. Sometimes pester is good. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 31
  • 32. “social presences that are available when we want them and not when you don’t are the people we should model” Clifford Nass
  • 33. Degrees of Pester Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 33
  • 35. Glancing (Matt Webb) Group communication facilitator. “looking up”. Looking at who’s online is a glance. “Eye contact is a polite way to start conversations”. Low-effort, high value. Fits around existing routines and into existing tools (IM). Easily ignored. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 35
  • 36. Poking (Facebook) Simple, lightweight interaction. “Meaningless” Meaning less. Appropriate language. Interesting side-effect. Easily ignored. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 36
  • 37. “Last.fm's ‘who recently viewed my profile’ function makes me feel the same discomfort as when you make eye contact in a corridor but you're too far away to say hello and it's rude to drop eye contact and it's rude to stare.” This doesn’t always work, though.
  • 39. Overhearing Machines Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 39
  • 40. Overhearing Machines Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 40
  • 41. “When I develop something new these days, I automatically think of using Twitter as a back-end to connect users of my software. If other developers aren't doing this, I imagine they will soon... Twitter, for me, is becoming a coral reef.” Dave Winer
  • 43. Context Online services are now displaying more facets than ever: Web RSS Mobile (web) Mobile (SMS) Other? Different contexts require different etiquette. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 43
  • 44. What is context based on? Input: Functionality Senses Output: Functionality Manipulators Other tasks that are occurring: Other running applications Other input being performed “Flow” You can always ask for it. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 44
  • 45. Contextual sociability Email: hundreds of other people. Phonebook: about ninety, about 20 of whom are high-traffic. IM: about 50, about 20 of whom are high-traffic. Twitter: about 25 (50-odd via web, but I follow about half). Pub conversation: 8. Availabot: 1 (easily ignored). Phone conversation: 1 (hard to ignore). Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 45
  • 46. Contextual sociability Email: Excellent filtering. Phonebook: Simple screening (caller-ID). IM: Good filtering (status, invisbility, caller-ID). Twitter: Simple filtering (friends, following). Pub conversation: Primitive filtering (not listening, moving). Availabot: Primitive/powerful filtering (hiding it). Phone conversation: No filtering (hanging up). Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 46
  • 48. Configuration hell Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 48
  • 49. Context is hard to ascertain.
  • 51. “Privacy is about control.” Is it?
  • 53. Privacy is about understanding.
  • 54. Different levels of privacy suit different applications.
  • 55. Privacy on Facebook Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 55
  • 56. Privacy on Facebook Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 56
  • 57. Privacy on Facebook Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 57
  • 58. Privacy on Facebook Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 58
  • 59. Privacy on Facebook Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 59
  • 60. Privacy is: hard to explain on the web of data. high priority for everyone - make it simple. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 60
  • 61. Login boxes Login boxes break frame: they snap you out of flow. Snap users back into flow as fast as possible. How much should be visible to non-logged in users? It’s impolite to keep safe things secret. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 61
  • 62. NB: Exchanging username and password changes the relationship a user has with anything.
  • 63. Does openID change this? Sort-of. Brings a whole new set of complexities. Bouncing people around websites is “rude”. Explaining flow when you’re sending people away is hard. The insecurities are more complex, too. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 63
  • 64. “adhering to prescribed norms in social interactions, or about negotiating and making explicit interactional norms when they don’t exist” Bickmore & Cassell describing ‘etiquette’
  • 65. Manners are about less Services are proscriptive; tools are adaptive. Unexpected uses are exciting: for the user. for the designer. Hacking and playing about is an inherent part of making. This is easier when there’s less to unpick. Sealed boxes are rude. Hiding the source is rude. Tom Armitage - The Uncanny Valet 65
  • 66. The applications and tools we are building are, whether we like it not, defining the manners of the web today. We should be careful to consider the behaviours we wish to reinforce, and those we don’t.
  • 67. The Uncanny Valet Defining manners for a digital age Tom Armitage