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The Theory and PracticeThe Theory and Practice
of Oligarchicalof Oligarchical
CollectivismCollectivism
Emmanuel GoldsteinEmmanuel Goldstein
Who is EmmanuelWho is Emmanuel
Goldstein?Goldstein?
 He was once a high-ranking partyHe was once a high-ranking party
member until he betrayed the partymember until he betrayed the party
 Now he is supposedly the leader ofNow he is supposedly the leader of
the Resistancethe Resistance
What is this book?What is this book?
 It is a book within a book. Winston isIt is a book within a book. Winston is
reading it inreading it in 19841984 and we are readingand we are reading
what he iswhat he is
 It is THE book of the ResistanceIt is THE book of the Resistance
 Every member of the Brotherhood isEvery member of the Brotherhood is
supposed to read itsupposed to read it
 Winston tells Julia she has to read it, butWinston tells Julia she has to read it, but
she asks Winston to read it to her insteadshe asks Winston to read it to her instead
Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is
StrengthStrength
 Since the beginning of civilization,Since the beginning of civilization,
there has been three kinds of people:there has been three kinds of people:
– The high, the middle, and the lowThe high, the middle, and the low
– They have been divided in many ways,They have been divided in many ways,
had many ways, and tried to rebelhad many ways, and tried to rebel
– After the upheaval ends, we are alwaysAfter the upheaval ends, we are always
left with these three kinds of people againleft with these three kinds of people again
**Winston stops reading here and jumps ahead to chapter 3Winston stops reading here and jumps ahead to chapter 3
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 The splitting up of the world into threeThe splitting up of the world into three
great superstates was foreseen beforegreat superstates was foreseen before
the middle of the 20the middle of the 20thth
centurycentury
– Europe had been absorbed by RussiaEurope had been absorbed by Russia
forming Eurasiaforming Eurasia
– The British Empire had been absorbed byThe British Empire had been absorbed by
the United States forming Oceaniathe United States forming Oceania
– Eastasia emerged after another decadeEastasia emerged after another decade
of confused fightingof confused fighting
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 In one combination or another, these threeIn one combination or another, these three
superstates are permanently at war, andsuperstates are permanently at war, and
have been so for the past 25 yearshave been so for the past 25 years
 It is a warfare of limited aims betweenIt is a warfare of limited aims between
combatants who are unable to destroy onecombatants who are unable to destroy one
another, have no material cause for fighting,another, have no material cause for fighting,
and are not divided by any genuineand are not divided by any genuine
ideological differenceideological difference
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 The war involves very small numbers ofThe war involves very small numbers of
people, mostly highly trained specialists,people, mostly highly trained specialists,
and causes comparatively few casualtiesand causes comparatively few casualties
 None of the three superstates could beNone of the three superstates could be
definitely conquered even by the other twodefinitely conquered even by the other two
in combination – they are too evenlyin combination – they are too evenly
matched and their natural defenses are toomatched and their natural defenses are too
formidableformidable
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 Between the frontiers of the threeBetween the frontiers of the three
superstates, and not permanently in thesuperstates, and not permanently in the
possession of any of them , there is a roughpossession of any of them , there is a rough
quadrilateral with its corners at Tangier,quadrilateral with its corners at Tangier,
Brazzaville, Darwin, and Hong KongBrazzaville, Darwin, and Hong Kong
containing about 1/5 of the population of thecontaining about 1/5 of the population of the
worldworld
 It is for the possession of these thicklyIt is for the possession of these thickly
populated regions and of the northern icepopulated regions and of the northern ice
cap that the three powers are constantlycap that the three powers are constantly
strugglingstruggling
1984 Map1984 Map
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 The primary aim of modern warfare isThe primary aim of modern warfare is
to use up the products of the machineto use up the products of the machine
without raising the general standard ofwithout raising the general standard of
livingliving
 As a whole, the world is more primitiveAs a whole, the world is more primitive
than it was 50 years agothan it was 50 years ago
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 From the moment the machine made its firstFrom the moment the machine made its first
appearance it was clear to all thinkingappearance it was clear to all thinking
people that the need for human drudgery,people that the need for human drudgery,
and therefore to a great extent for humanand therefore to a great extent for human
inequity had disappearedinequity had disappeared
 If the machine were deliberately used forIf the machine were deliberately used for
that end, hunger, overwork, dirt, illiteracy,that end, hunger, overwork, dirt, illiteracy,
and disease could be eliminated within aand disease could be eliminated within a
few generations.few generations.
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 The machine did raise the standard ofThe machine did raise the standard of
living of the average human being veryliving of the average human being very
greatly over a period of about fiftygreatly over a period of about fifty
years at the end of the 19years at the end of the 19thth
andand
beginning of the 20beginning of the 20thth
centurycentury
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 If leisure and security were enjoyed by allIf leisure and security were enjoyed by all
alike, the great mass of human beings whoalike, the great mass of human beings who
are normally stupefied by poverty wouldare normally stupefied by poverty would
become literate and would learn to think forbecome literate and would learn to think for
themselves; and when once they had donethemselves; and when once they had done
this, they would sooner or later realize thatthis, they would sooner or later realize that
the privileged minority had no function, andthe privileged minority had no function, and
they would sweep it awaythey would sweep it away
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 The essential act of war is destruction, notThe essential act of war is destruction, not
necessarily of human lives, but of thenecessarily of human lives, but of the
products of human laborproducts of human labor
 War is a way of shattering to pieces , orWar is a way of shattering to pieces , or
pouring into the stratosphere, or sinking inpouring into the stratosphere, or sinking in
the depths of the sea, materials which mightthe depths of the sea, materials which might
otherwise be used to make the masses toootherwise be used to make the masses too
comfortable, and hence, in the long run, toocomfortable, and hence, in the long run, too
intelligentintelligent
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 The humblest party member isThe humblest party member is
expected to be competent andexpected to be competent and
industrious.industrious.
 He should also be an ignorant fanaticHe should also be an ignorant fanatic
 It does not matter whether the war isIt does not matter whether the war is
going well or badly – all that is neededgoing well or badly – all that is needed
is that a state of war should existis that a state of war should exist
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 The two aims of the party:The two aims of the party:
– To conquer the whole surface of the earthTo conquer the whole surface of the earth
– To extinguish once and for all theTo extinguish once and for all the
possibility of independent thoughtpossibility of independent thought
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 All three powers continue to produce atomicAll three powers continue to produce atomic
bombs and store them up but don’t usebombs and store them up but don’t use
themthem
 War has remained the same for 30-40 yearsWar has remained the same for 30-40 years
– Helicopters still usedHelicopters still used
– Bombing planes have been replaced by self-Bombing planes have been replaced by self-
propelled projectilespropelled projectiles
– Tank, torpedo, submarine, rifle, hand grenadeTank, torpedo, submarine, rifle, hand grenade
still in usestill in use
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 All three superstates need to make sureAll three superstates need to make sure
there is no contact with foreigners becausethere is no contact with foreigners because
they would realize that they are all similarthey would realize that they are all similar
and have been told liesand have been told lies
 The conditions of life in all three superstatesThe conditions of life in all three superstates
are very much the sameare very much the same
– Political systems similarPolitical systems similar
– Similar ruling groupsSimilar ruling groups
Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is
PeacePeace
 The war is waged by each ruling groupThe war is waged by each ruling group
against its own subjects and the objectagainst its own subjects and the object
of war is not to make or preventof war is not to make or prevent
conquests of territory, but to keep theconquests of territory, but to keep the
structure of society in tactstructure of society in tact
 This is the meaning of “War is Peace”This is the meaning of “War is Peace”
At this point Winston goes back to Chapter 1At this point Winston goes back to Chapter 1
Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is
StrengthStrength
 Back to the three groups (upper,Back to the three groups (upper,
middle, and lower classes)middle, and lower classes)
 They have always had the sameThey have always had the same
purposespurposes
– Upper – Stay where they areUpper – Stay where they are
– Middle – Change places with the upperMiddle – Change places with the upper
– Lower – Create a society in whichLower – Create a society in which
everyone is equaleveryone is equal
Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is
StrengthStrength
 With the development of machines it was noWith the development of machines it was no
longer necessary to have the classeslonger necessary to have the classes
anymore – there was enough of everythinganymore – there was enough of everything
for everyone to be wealthyfor everyone to be wealthy
– But the upper class wouldn’t allow thisBut the upper class wouldn’t allow this
 The advances in technology also allowedThe advances in technology also allowed
people to be under constant surveillancepeople to be under constant surveillance
Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is
StrengthStrength
 Each of the three superstates cannotEach of the three superstates cannot
be conquered except through slowbe conquered except through slow
demographic changes which ademographic changes which a
government with wide powers cangovernment with wide powers can
easily averteasily avert
Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is
StrengthStrength
 Problem is overproduction – need toProblem is overproduction – need to
keep the lower classes needykeep the lower classes needy
 War uses up goods and takes care ofWar uses up goods and takes care of
the surplusthe surplus
Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is
StrengthStrength
 Big Brother:Big Brother:
– InfallibleInfallible
– All powerfulAll powerful
– All good things are because of hisAll good things are because of his
leadershipleadership
– He will never die – no one knows whenHe will never die – no one knows when
he was bornhe was born
– He is the guise in which the PartyHe is the guise in which the Party
chooses to represent itself to the worldchooses to represent itself to the world
Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is
StrengthStrength
 In Oceania there is no lawIn Oceania there is no law
 Thoughts and actions which, whenThoughts and actions which, when
detected, mean certain death are NOTdetected, mean certain death are NOT
formally forbidden, and the endless purges,formally forbidden, and the endless purges,
arrests, tortures, imprisonments, andarrests, tortures, imprisonments, and
vaporizations are not inflicted asvaporizations are not inflicted as
punishments for crimes which have actuallypunishments for crimes which have actually
been committed, but are merely the wiping-been committed, but are merely the wiping-
out of persons who might perhaps commit aout of persons who might perhaps commit a
crime at some time in the futurecrime at some time in the future
Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is
StrengthStrength
 The contradictions in the governmentThe contradictions in the government
are necessary so that the governmentare necessary so that the government
can retain power forevercan retain power forever
 The entire government depends onThe entire government depends on
doublethinkdoublethink

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The theory and practice of oligarchical collectivism in 1984

  • 1. The Theory and PracticeThe Theory and Practice of Oligarchicalof Oligarchical CollectivismCollectivism Emmanuel GoldsteinEmmanuel Goldstein
  • 2. Who is EmmanuelWho is Emmanuel Goldstein?Goldstein?  He was once a high-ranking partyHe was once a high-ranking party member until he betrayed the partymember until he betrayed the party  Now he is supposedly the leader ofNow he is supposedly the leader of the Resistancethe Resistance
  • 3. What is this book?What is this book?  It is a book within a book. Winston isIt is a book within a book. Winston is reading it inreading it in 19841984 and we are readingand we are reading what he iswhat he is  It is THE book of the ResistanceIt is THE book of the Resistance  Every member of the Brotherhood isEvery member of the Brotherhood is supposed to read itsupposed to read it  Winston tells Julia she has to read it, butWinston tells Julia she has to read it, but she asks Winston to read it to her insteadshe asks Winston to read it to her instead
  • 4. Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is StrengthStrength  Since the beginning of civilization,Since the beginning of civilization, there has been three kinds of people:there has been three kinds of people: – The high, the middle, and the lowThe high, the middle, and the low – They have been divided in many ways,They have been divided in many ways, had many ways, and tried to rebelhad many ways, and tried to rebel – After the upheaval ends, we are alwaysAfter the upheaval ends, we are always left with these three kinds of people againleft with these three kinds of people again **Winston stops reading here and jumps ahead to chapter 3Winston stops reading here and jumps ahead to chapter 3
  • 5. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  The splitting up of the world into threeThe splitting up of the world into three great superstates was foreseen beforegreat superstates was foreseen before the middle of the 20the middle of the 20thth centurycentury – Europe had been absorbed by RussiaEurope had been absorbed by Russia forming Eurasiaforming Eurasia – The British Empire had been absorbed byThe British Empire had been absorbed by the United States forming Oceaniathe United States forming Oceania – Eastasia emerged after another decadeEastasia emerged after another decade of confused fightingof confused fighting
  • 6. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  In one combination or another, these threeIn one combination or another, these three superstates are permanently at war, andsuperstates are permanently at war, and have been so for the past 25 yearshave been so for the past 25 years  It is a warfare of limited aims betweenIt is a warfare of limited aims between combatants who are unable to destroy onecombatants who are unable to destroy one another, have no material cause for fighting,another, have no material cause for fighting, and are not divided by any genuineand are not divided by any genuine ideological differenceideological difference
  • 7. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  The war involves very small numbers ofThe war involves very small numbers of people, mostly highly trained specialists,people, mostly highly trained specialists, and causes comparatively few casualtiesand causes comparatively few casualties  None of the three superstates could beNone of the three superstates could be definitely conquered even by the other twodefinitely conquered even by the other two in combination – they are too evenlyin combination – they are too evenly matched and their natural defenses are toomatched and their natural defenses are too formidableformidable
  • 8. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  Between the frontiers of the threeBetween the frontiers of the three superstates, and not permanently in thesuperstates, and not permanently in the possession of any of them , there is a roughpossession of any of them , there is a rough quadrilateral with its corners at Tangier,quadrilateral with its corners at Tangier, Brazzaville, Darwin, and Hong KongBrazzaville, Darwin, and Hong Kong containing about 1/5 of the population of thecontaining about 1/5 of the population of the worldworld  It is for the possession of these thicklyIt is for the possession of these thickly populated regions and of the northern icepopulated regions and of the northern ice cap that the three powers are constantlycap that the three powers are constantly strugglingstruggling
  • 10. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  The primary aim of modern warfare isThe primary aim of modern warfare is to use up the products of the machineto use up the products of the machine without raising the general standard ofwithout raising the general standard of livingliving  As a whole, the world is more primitiveAs a whole, the world is more primitive than it was 50 years agothan it was 50 years ago
  • 11. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  From the moment the machine made its firstFrom the moment the machine made its first appearance it was clear to all thinkingappearance it was clear to all thinking people that the need for human drudgery,people that the need for human drudgery, and therefore to a great extent for humanand therefore to a great extent for human inequity had disappearedinequity had disappeared  If the machine were deliberately used forIf the machine were deliberately used for that end, hunger, overwork, dirt, illiteracy,that end, hunger, overwork, dirt, illiteracy, and disease could be eliminated within aand disease could be eliminated within a few generations.few generations.
  • 12. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  The machine did raise the standard ofThe machine did raise the standard of living of the average human being veryliving of the average human being very greatly over a period of about fiftygreatly over a period of about fifty years at the end of the 19years at the end of the 19thth andand beginning of the 20beginning of the 20thth centurycentury
  • 13. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  If leisure and security were enjoyed by allIf leisure and security were enjoyed by all alike, the great mass of human beings whoalike, the great mass of human beings who are normally stupefied by poverty wouldare normally stupefied by poverty would become literate and would learn to think forbecome literate and would learn to think for themselves; and when once they had donethemselves; and when once they had done this, they would sooner or later realize thatthis, they would sooner or later realize that the privileged minority had no function, andthe privileged minority had no function, and they would sweep it awaythey would sweep it away
  • 14. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  The essential act of war is destruction, notThe essential act of war is destruction, not necessarily of human lives, but of thenecessarily of human lives, but of the products of human laborproducts of human labor  War is a way of shattering to pieces , orWar is a way of shattering to pieces , or pouring into the stratosphere, or sinking inpouring into the stratosphere, or sinking in the depths of the sea, materials which mightthe depths of the sea, materials which might otherwise be used to make the masses toootherwise be used to make the masses too comfortable, and hence, in the long run, toocomfortable, and hence, in the long run, too intelligentintelligent
  • 15. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  The humblest party member isThe humblest party member is expected to be competent andexpected to be competent and industrious.industrious.  He should also be an ignorant fanaticHe should also be an ignorant fanatic  It does not matter whether the war isIt does not matter whether the war is going well or badly – all that is neededgoing well or badly – all that is needed is that a state of war should existis that a state of war should exist
  • 16. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  The two aims of the party:The two aims of the party: – To conquer the whole surface of the earthTo conquer the whole surface of the earth – To extinguish once and for all theTo extinguish once and for all the possibility of independent thoughtpossibility of independent thought
  • 17. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  All three powers continue to produce atomicAll three powers continue to produce atomic bombs and store them up but don’t usebombs and store them up but don’t use themthem  War has remained the same for 30-40 yearsWar has remained the same for 30-40 years – Helicopters still usedHelicopters still used – Bombing planes have been replaced by self-Bombing planes have been replaced by self- propelled projectilespropelled projectiles – Tank, torpedo, submarine, rifle, hand grenadeTank, torpedo, submarine, rifle, hand grenade still in usestill in use
  • 18. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  All three superstates need to make sureAll three superstates need to make sure there is no contact with foreigners becausethere is no contact with foreigners because they would realize that they are all similarthey would realize that they are all similar and have been told liesand have been told lies  The conditions of life in all three superstatesThe conditions of life in all three superstates are very much the sameare very much the same – Political systems similarPolitical systems similar – Similar ruling groupsSimilar ruling groups
  • 19. Chapter 3 – War isChapter 3 – War is PeacePeace  The war is waged by each ruling groupThe war is waged by each ruling group against its own subjects and the objectagainst its own subjects and the object of war is not to make or preventof war is not to make or prevent conquests of territory, but to keep theconquests of territory, but to keep the structure of society in tactstructure of society in tact  This is the meaning of “War is Peace”This is the meaning of “War is Peace” At this point Winston goes back to Chapter 1At this point Winston goes back to Chapter 1
  • 20. Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is StrengthStrength  Back to the three groups (upper,Back to the three groups (upper, middle, and lower classes)middle, and lower classes)  They have always had the sameThey have always had the same purposespurposes – Upper – Stay where they areUpper – Stay where they are – Middle – Change places with the upperMiddle – Change places with the upper – Lower – Create a society in whichLower – Create a society in which everyone is equaleveryone is equal
  • 21. Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is StrengthStrength  With the development of machines it was noWith the development of machines it was no longer necessary to have the classeslonger necessary to have the classes anymore – there was enough of everythinganymore – there was enough of everything for everyone to be wealthyfor everyone to be wealthy – But the upper class wouldn’t allow thisBut the upper class wouldn’t allow this  The advances in technology also allowedThe advances in technology also allowed people to be under constant surveillancepeople to be under constant surveillance
  • 22. Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is StrengthStrength  Each of the three superstates cannotEach of the three superstates cannot be conquered except through slowbe conquered except through slow demographic changes which ademographic changes which a government with wide powers cangovernment with wide powers can easily averteasily avert
  • 23. Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is StrengthStrength  Problem is overproduction – need toProblem is overproduction – need to keep the lower classes needykeep the lower classes needy  War uses up goods and takes care ofWar uses up goods and takes care of the surplusthe surplus
  • 24. Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is StrengthStrength  Big Brother:Big Brother: – InfallibleInfallible – All powerfulAll powerful – All good things are because of hisAll good things are because of his leadershipleadership – He will never die – no one knows whenHe will never die – no one knows when he was bornhe was born – He is the guise in which the PartyHe is the guise in which the Party chooses to represent itself to the worldchooses to represent itself to the world
  • 25. Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is StrengthStrength  In Oceania there is no lawIn Oceania there is no law  Thoughts and actions which, whenThoughts and actions which, when detected, mean certain death are NOTdetected, mean certain death are NOT formally forbidden, and the endless purges,formally forbidden, and the endless purges, arrests, tortures, imprisonments, andarrests, tortures, imprisonments, and vaporizations are not inflicted asvaporizations are not inflicted as punishments for crimes which have actuallypunishments for crimes which have actually been committed, but are merely the wiping-been committed, but are merely the wiping- out of persons who might perhaps commit aout of persons who might perhaps commit a crime at some time in the futurecrime at some time in the future
  • 26. Chapter 1 – Ignorance isChapter 1 – Ignorance is StrengthStrength  The contradictions in the governmentThe contradictions in the government are necessary so that the governmentare necessary so that the government can retain power forevercan retain power forever  The entire government depends onThe entire government depends on doublethinkdoublethink