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The System of Rice
  Intensification (SRI) –
  An Agroecological Approach to
  Agricultural Development and
   Environmental Conservation

AEM 6600 – Agroecosystems, Economic
  Development and the Environment
    Prof. Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
Agroecology – a alternative paradigm
      to the Green Revolution?
Inductive approach to agroecology:
• Experience in Madagascar
• Acquaintance with agroecology
  • Organization of Bellagio conference, 1999

•Concern with agricultural strategies
  • Comparison of 20th and 21st century
    conditions for agricultural development
Goals for rice sector in 21st century,
acc. to IRRI/DG ( 2004 -- Intl. Year of Rice )
  • Increase land productivity-- higher yield
  • Higher water productivity -- crop per drop
  • Make technology accessible for the poor
  • More environmental friendliness
  • More pest- and disease-resistance
  • Less susceptibility to climatic stresses
  • Better grain quality for consumers
  • Greater profitability for farmers
SRI practices, now available, can
   help us meet all of these needs:
• Higher yields -- by 50 to 100%, or more
• Water reductions -- by 25 to 50%
• Capital expenditure – is not necessary,
and neither is use of agrochemical inputs
• Resistance to pests and diseases and
less vulnerability to drought and lodging
• Better grain quality
• Lower costs of production = higher income
Additional benefits of SRI practice:
• Time to maturity -- reduced by 1-2 weeks
• Milling outturn (polished rice) ~ 15% higher
• Other crops’ performance can also be improved
by SRI concepts and practices, e.g., finger millet
• Human resource development for farmers,
promoted through participatory approaches
• Diversification and modernization of
smallholder agriculture to improve the economy
• Health benefits – less chemicals in food chain;
reduced arsenic uptake; mosquito-borne diseases↓
System of Finger Millet Intensification
on left; regular management of improved
variety and of traditional variety on right,
picture courtesy of PRADAN, Jharkhand
SRI Is NOT a Technology = 6 Core Ideas
•   Use young seedlings to preserve growth potential –
    although DIRECT SEEDING is becoming an option
•   Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly,
    shallow, not inverting root tips which halts growth
•   Give plants wider spacing -– one plant per hill and in
    square pattern to achieve “edge effect” everywhere
•   Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded –- soil should
    be mostly aerobic, not continuously saturated, and
•   Actively aerate the soil -- as much as possible
•   Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible
First 3 practices stimulate plant growth, while
    the other practices enhance the growth and
Two Paradigms for Agriculture:
• GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to:
 (a) Change the genetic potential of plants, and
 (b) Increase the use of external inputs --
 more water, more fertilizer and insecticides

• SRI (AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the
 management of plants, soil, water & nutrients:
  (a) Promoting the growth of root systems, and
  (b) Increasing the abundance and diversity of
     soil organisms to better enlist their benefits
Takeo province,
Cambodia ; Rice
plant grown from
  a single seed
Nepal,
  Morang
  District:
Single rice
plant grown
 with SRI
  methods
Rice field in Madagascar grown with SRI methods
Farmer in Timbuktu
region of Mali showing
  difference between
regular and SRI plants
-- first-year yield of
       8.98 t/ha
SRI field in Cuba – CFA Camilo Cienfuegos, Bahia Honda,
         14 t/ha – Los Palacios 9 cv. -- 2003
Farmer in Cuba with two plants
 of same variety (VN 2084)
   and same age (52 DAP)
As of 2009, SRI benefits have been validated in
35 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America
 SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries
          in Asia, Africa, and Latin America




Before 1999: Madagascar             2004-05: Senegal, Mali,
1999-2000: China, Indonesia         Pakistan, Vietnam
2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba           2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan,
Cambodia, Gambia, India, Laos,      Iran, Iraq, Zambia
Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines,        2007: Afghanistan, Brazil
Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand   2008: Egypt, Rwanda, Congo,
2002-03: Benin, Guinea,             Ecuador, Costa Rica
Mozambique, Peru
                                    > 1 million farmers/acres
300                                               Ye llow
                                          SRI              CK                 leaf and
                            250                                               sheath
                                  47.9%                  34.7%
                                                                              Panicle
 Organ dry weight(g/hill)




                            200

                                                                              Le af
                            150

                            100                                               Sheath

                            50
                                                                              Stem
                             0
 Stage IH                         H   FH MR WR YR
                                                IH   H    FH     MR WR   YR
Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field
Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
Lombok
  Province,
 Indonesia:
 Rice plants
same variety
and same age
Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of
on-farm comparative evaluations of
  SRI by Nippon Koei, 2002-06
• No. of trials: 12,133
• Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares
• Ave. increase in yield: 3.3 t/ha (78%)
• Reduction in water requirements: 40%
• Reduction in fertilizer use: 50%
• Reduction in costs of production: 20%
Bali, DS 2006: 24 farmers on 42 hectares:
INDONESIA: Rice plants in Nippon Koei office, Jakarta
ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS
• Natural ecosystems benefit from a
lower water requirement for rice (WWF)
• Water quality better (less NO3) from
reductions in application of N fertilizer
• Soil quality and water quality are better
with less use of agrochemicals
• Less methane (major GHG) results from
not flooding –still assessing effects on N2O
Incidence of Diseases and Pests
Vietnam National IPM Program: average of
 data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06:
                   Spring season            Summer season
              SRI     Farmer   Differ-   SRI     Farmer   Differ-
              Plots    Plots    ence     Plots    Plots    ence
Sheath
blight
              6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8%                 73.7%
Leaf blight   --       --        --      8.6% 36.3%       76.5%
Small leaf    63.4    107.7    41.1% 61.8 122.3           49.5%
folder *
Brown
plant
              542     1,440    62.4%     545     3,214    83.0%
hopper   *
AVERAGE                        55.5%                      70.7%
     * Insects/m2
Sri Lanka: rice fields same variety, same irrigation system,
& same drought -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
Vietnam: FFS farmer in Dông Trù village – after typhoon
Measured Differences in Grain Quality
                        Conventional    SRI Methods
    Characteristic        Methods        (3 spacings)   Difference

 Chalky kernels      39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 ↓30.7%
  (%)
 General               6.74 – 7.17      1.02 – 4.04     ↓65.7%
 chalkiness (%)
 Milled rice         41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 ↑16.1%
 outturn (%)
 Head milled         38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 ↑17.5%
 rice (%)
  Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University,
  presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for
  High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Haerbin, 8/2004
Use of wooden rake
  to mark square
 pattern on field
Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spaced
Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari,
     AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations
Use of roller-marker in Punjab state of India
Cono-weeder re-designed by
H. M. Premaratna, Sri Lanka,
locally manufactured for $10
Weeding with
rotary hoe in
 Madagascar
Weeder designed by Nong Sovann, Kampong Spreu province,
Cambodia; built for $3, gets $20 increase in value of rice
The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) An Agroecological Approach toAgricultural Development and Environmental Conservation
Simplest weeder -- made by
 Govinda Dhakal, Indrapura,
 in Morang District, Nepal,
    costing about 25¢ --
4 persons can weed 1 acre in
the time that 10-12 persons
 can weed an acre by hand
SRI direct-seeder designed and built by L. Romero in Cuba;
with transplanting he has gotten 14 t/ha; 40x40 cm spacing
was too wide; neighbor built 12-row seeder to be ox-drawn
Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in
raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha;
SRI yield of 16 t/ha in 2001 set yield record for Sichuan
AFGHANISTAN: SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by
Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
SRI field at 30 days
SRI plant 72 days after       Yield calculated
transplanting – 133 tillers   at 11.56 tons/ha
IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
Head of Agronomy Dept. at
  Amol research station,
Bahman Larijani – plans to
include SRI in a new $150
million World Bank project
IRAN:
  SRI roots
 and normal,
flooded rice
 roots: note
difference in
color as well
   as size
Miyatty Jannah,
Crawak village,
  East Java,
   Indonesia
4-day seedling
used by Miyatty,
West Java,
Indonesia
Planting 4-day
 seedlings in
  West Java,
   Indonesia
Miyatty
  Jannah,
  Crawak
  village,
East Java,
 Indonesia
Agroecology – a alternative paradigm
       to the Green Revolution
•Different conditions in 21st century:
  • Land per capita is reducing
  • Water becoming less and less reliable
  • Energy costs continue to rise, along
  with costs of production
  •Environmental impacts to be mitigated
  •Need to address poverty more directly
Post-modern agriculture:
 successor to the Green Revolution?
• Differs from ‘post-modernism’ in
  the humanities and social sciences
 •   Not hostile to science
 • Draws on the most contemporary
 scientific work in soil biology, soil
 ecology, epigenetics
• Post-modern agriculture should
Factorial trials by CNRRI, 2004 and 2005
   using two super-hybrid varieties --
 seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields
 Standard Rice Mgmt      New Rice Mgmt (SRI)
 • 30-day seedlings      • 20-day seedlings
 • 20x20 cm spacing      • 30x30 cm spacing
 • Continuous flooding   • Alternate wetting
 • Fertilization:          and drying (AWD)
   – 100% chemical       • Fertilization:
                           – 50% chemical,
                           – 50% organic
Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice
management (SRI) vs.standard rice management
       at different plant densities ha-1

    10000
     9000
     8000
     7000
     6000
     5000
     4000                                 NRM
     3000                                 SRM
     2000
     1000
        0
            150,000   180,000   210,000
‘Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia,
  from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and
Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology’
Rhizo-      Total plant Shoot dry   Net photo-        Water         Area (cm2)        Grain
bium test      root      weight/     synthetic      utilization     of flag leaf      yield/
strain       volume/     pot (g)       rate         efficiency                        pot (g)
             pot (cm )
                     3
                                    (μmol-2 s-1)
Ac-ORS571                           16.42 ± 1.39A   3.62 ± 0.17BC   17.64 ± 4.94ABC
            210 ± 36A   63 ± 2A                                                       86 ± 5A


SM-1021     180 ± 26A   67 ± 5A     14.99 ± 1.64B   4.02 ± 0.19AB   20.03 ± 3.92A
                                                                                      86 ± 4A


SM-1002     168 ± 8AB   52 ± 4BC    13.70 ± 0.73B   4.15 ± 0.32A    19.58 ± 4.47AB
                                                                                      61 ± 4   B


R1-2370     175 ± 23A   61 ± 8AB    13.85 ± 0.38B   3.36 ± 0.41C    18.98 ± 4.49AB
                                                                                      64 ± 9   B


Mh-93       193 ± 16A   67 ± 4A     13.86 ± 0.76B   3.18 ± 0.25CD   16.79 ± 3.43BC
                                                                                      77 ± 5A



Control     130 ± 10B   47 ± 6C     10.23 ± 1.03C   2.77 ± 0.69D     15.24 ± 4.0C     51 ± 4C




Feng Chi et al.,Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278
• Check out SRI website:
    http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/

 • Email: ciifad@cornell.edu or
      ntu1@cornell.edu or
• Email: tefysaina.tnr@simicro.mg

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The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) An Agroecological Approach to Agricultural Development and Environmental Conservation

  • 1. The System of Rice Intensification (SRI) – An Agroecological Approach to Agricultural Development and Environmental Conservation AEM 6600 – Agroecosystems, Economic Development and the Environment Prof. Norman Uphoff, CIIFAD
  • 2. Agroecology – a alternative paradigm to the Green Revolution? Inductive approach to agroecology: • Experience in Madagascar • Acquaintance with agroecology • Organization of Bellagio conference, 1999 •Concern with agricultural strategies • Comparison of 20th and 21st century conditions for agricultural development
  • 3. Goals for rice sector in 21st century, acc. to IRRI/DG ( 2004 -- Intl. Year of Rice ) • Increase land productivity-- higher yield • Higher water productivity -- crop per drop • Make technology accessible for the poor • More environmental friendliness • More pest- and disease-resistance • Less susceptibility to climatic stresses • Better grain quality for consumers • Greater profitability for farmers
  • 4. SRI practices, now available, can help us meet all of these needs: • Higher yields -- by 50 to 100%, or more • Water reductions -- by 25 to 50% • Capital expenditure – is not necessary, and neither is use of agrochemical inputs • Resistance to pests and diseases and less vulnerability to drought and lodging • Better grain quality • Lower costs of production = higher income
  • 5. Additional benefits of SRI practice: • Time to maturity -- reduced by 1-2 weeks • Milling outturn (polished rice) ~ 15% higher • Other crops’ performance can also be improved by SRI concepts and practices, e.g., finger millet • Human resource development for farmers, promoted through participatory approaches • Diversification and modernization of smallholder agriculture to improve the economy • Health benefits – less chemicals in food chain; reduced arsenic uptake; mosquito-borne diseases↓
  • 6. System of Finger Millet Intensification on left; regular management of improved variety and of traditional variety on right, picture courtesy of PRADAN, Jharkhand
  • 7. SRI Is NOT a Technology = 6 Core Ideas • Use young seedlings to preserve growth potential – although DIRECT SEEDING is becoming an option • Avoid trauma to the roots -- transplant quickly, shallow, not inverting root tips which halts growth • Give plants wider spacing -– one plant per hill and in square pattern to achieve “edge effect” everywhere • Keep paddy soil moist but unflooded –- soil should be mostly aerobic, not continuously saturated, and • Actively aerate the soil -- as much as possible • Enhance soil organic matter as much as possible First 3 practices stimulate plant growth, while the other practices enhance the growth and
  • 8. Two Paradigms for Agriculture: • GREEN REVOLUTION strategy was to: (a) Change the genetic potential of plants, and (b) Increase the use of external inputs -- more water, more fertilizer and insecticides • SRI (AGROECOLOGY) instead changes the management of plants, soil, water & nutrients: (a) Promoting the growth of root systems, and (b) Increasing the abundance and diversity of soil organisms to better enlist their benefits
  • 9. Takeo province, Cambodia ; Rice plant grown from a single seed
  • 10. Nepal, Morang District: Single rice plant grown with SRI methods
  • 11. Rice field in Madagascar grown with SRI methods
  • 12. Farmer in Timbuktu region of Mali showing difference between regular and SRI plants -- first-year yield of 8.98 t/ha
  • 13. SRI field in Cuba – CFA Camilo Cienfuegos, Bahia Honda, 14 t/ha – Los Palacios 9 cv. -- 2003
  • 14. Farmer in Cuba with two plants of same variety (VN 2084) and same age (52 DAP)
  • 15. As of 2009, SRI benefits have been validated in 35 countries of Asia, Africa, and Latin America SRI benefits have been demonstrated in 34 countries in Asia, Africa, and Latin America Before 1999: Madagascar 2004-05: Senegal, Mali, 1999-2000: China, Indonesia Pakistan, Vietnam 2000-01: Bangladesh, Cuba 2006: Burkina Faso, Bhutan, Cambodia, Gambia, India, Laos, Iran, Iraq, Zambia Myanmar, Nepal, Philippines, 2007: Afghanistan, Brazil Sierra Leone, Sri Lanka, Thailand 2008: Egypt, Rwanda, Congo, 2002-03: Benin, Guinea, Ecuador, Costa Rica Mozambique, Peru > 1 million farmers/acres
  • 16. 300 Ye llow SRI CK leaf and 250 sheath 47.9% 34.7% Panicle Organ dry weight(g/hill) 200 Le af 150 100 Sheath 50 Stem 0 Stage IH H FH MR WR YR IH H FH MR WR YR Non-Flooding Rice Farming Technology in Irrigated Paddy Field Dr. Tao Longxing, China National Rice Research Institute, 2004
  • 17. Lombok Province, Indonesia: Rice plants same variety and same age
  • 18. Indonesia: Results of 9 seasons of on-farm comparative evaluations of SRI by Nippon Koei, 2002-06 • No. of trials: 12,133 • Total area covered: 9,429.1 hectares • Ave. increase in yield: 3.3 t/ha (78%) • Reduction in water requirements: 40% • Reduction in fertilizer use: 50% • Reduction in costs of production: 20% Bali, DS 2006: 24 farmers on 42 hectares:
  • 19. INDONESIA: Rice plants in Nippon Koei office, Jakarta
  • 20. ENVIRONMENTAL BENEFITS • Natural ecosystems benefit from a lower water requirement for rice (WWF) • Water quality better (less NO3) from reductions in application of N fertilizer • Soil quality and water quality are better with less use of agrochemicals • Less methane (major GHG) results from not flooding –still assessing effects on N2O
  • 21. Incidence of Diseases and Pests Vietnam National IPM Program: average of data from trials in 8 provinces, 2005-06: Spring season Summer season SRI Farmer Differ- SRI Farmer Differ- Plots Plots ence Plots Plots ence Sheath blight 6.7% 18.1% 63.0% 5.2% 19.8% 73.7% Leaf blight -- -- -- 8.6% 36.3% 76.5% Small leaf 63.4 107.7 41.1% 61.8 122.3 49.5% folder * Brown plant 542 1,440 62.4% 545 3,214 83.0% hopper * AVERAGE 55.5% 70.7% * Insects/m2
  • 22. Sri Lanka: rice fields same variety, same irrigation system, & same drought -- left, conventional methods; right, SRI
  • 23. Vietnam: FFS farmer in Dông Trù village – after typhoon
  • 24. Measured Differences in Grain Quality Conventional SRI Methods Characteristic Methods (3 spacings) Difference Chalky kernels 39.89 – 41.07 23.62 – 32.47 ↓30.7% (%) General 6.74 – 7.17 1.02 – 4.04 ↓65.7% chalkiness (%) Milled rice 41.54 – 51.46 53.58 – 54.41 ↑16.1% outturn (%) Head milled 38.87 – 39.99 41.81 – 50.84 ↑17.5% rice (%) Paper by Prof. Ma Jun, Sichuan Agricultural University, presented at 10th conference on “Theory and Practice for High-Quality, High-Yielding Rice in China,” Haerbin, 8/2004
  • 25. Use of wooden rake to mark square pattern on field
  • 26. Careful transplanting of single, young seedlings, widely spaced
  • 27. Roller-marker devised by Lakshmana Reddy, East Godavari, AP, India, to save time in transplanting operations
  • 28. Use of roller-marker in Punjab state of India
  • 29. Cono-weeder re-designed by H. M. Premaratna, Sri Lanka, locally manufactured for $10
  • 30. Weeding with rotary hoe in Madagascar
  • 31. Weeder designed by Nong Sovann, Kampong Spreu province, Cambodia; built for $3, gets $20 increase in value of rice
  • 33. Simplest weeder -- made by Govinda Dhakal, Indrapura, in Morang District, Nepal, costing about 25¢ -- 4 persons can weed 1 acre in the time that 10-12 persons can weed an acre by hand
  • 34. SRI direct-seeder designed and built by L. Romero in Cuba; with transplanting he has gotten 14 t/ha; 40x40 cm spacing was too wide; neighbor built 12-row seeder to be ox-drawn
  • 35. Liu Zhibin, Meishan, Sichuan province, China, standing in raised-bed, zero-till SRI field; measured yield 13.4 t/ha; SRI yield of 16 t/ha in 2001 set yield record for Sichuan
  • 36. AFGHANISTAN: SRI field in Baghlan Province, supported by Aga Khan Foundation Natural Resource Management program
  • 37. SRI field at 30 days
  • 38. SRI plant 72 days after Yield calculated transplanting – 133 tillers at 11.56 tons/ha
  • 39. IRAQ: Comparison trials at Al-Mishkhab Rice Research Station, Najaf
  • 40. Head of Agronomy Dept. at Amol research station, Bahman Larijani – plans to include SRI in a new $150 million World Bank project
  • 41. IRAN: SRI roots and normal, flooded rice roots: note difference in color as well as size
  • 42. Miyatty Jannah, Crawak village, East Java, Indonesia
  • 43. 4-day seedling used by Miyatty, West Java, Indonesia
  • 44. Planting 4-day seedlings in West Java, Indonesia
  • 45. Miyatty Jannah, Crawak village, East Java, Indonesia
  • 46. Agroecology – a alternative paradigm to the Green Revolution •Different conditions in 21st century: • Land per capita is reducing • Water becoming less and less reliable • Energy costs continue to rise, along with costs of production •Environmental impacts to be mitigated •Need to address poverty more directly
  • 47. Post-modern agriculture: successor to the Green Revolution? • Differs from ‘post-modernism’ in the humanities and social sciences • Not hostile to science • Draws on the most contemporary scientific work in soil biology, soil ecology, epigenetics • Post-modern agriculture should
  • 48. Factorial trials by CNRRI, 2004 and 2005 using two super-hybrid varieties -- seeking to break ‘plateau’ limiting yields Standard Rice Mgmt New Rice Mgmt (SRI) • 30-day seedlings • 20-day seedlings • 20x20 cm spacing • 30x30 cm spacing • Continuous flooding • Alternate wetting • Fertilization: and drying (AWD) – 100% chemical • Fertilization: – 50% chemical, – 50% organic
  • 49. Average super-rice yields (kg/ha) with new rice management (SRI) vs.standard rice management at different plant densities ha-1 10000 9000 8000 7000 6000 5000 4000 NRM 3000 SRM 2000 1000 0 150,000 180,000 210,000
  • 50. ‘Ascending Migration of Endophytic Rhizobia, from Roots and Leaves, inside Rice Plants and Assessment of Benefits to Rice Growth Physiology’ Rhizo- Total plant Shoot dry Net photo- Water Area (cm2) Grain bium test root weight/ synthetic utilization of flag leaf yield/ strain volume/ pot (g) rate efficiency pot (g) pot (cm ) 3 (μmol-2 s-1) Ac-ORS571 16.42 ± 1.39A 3.62 ± 0.17BC 17.64 ± 4.94ABC 210 ± 36A 63 ± 2A 86 ± 5A SM-1021 180 ± 26A 67 ± 5A 14.99 ± 1.64B 4.02 ± 0.19AB 20.03 ± 3.92A 86 ± 4A SM-1002 168 ± 8AB 52 ± 4BC 13.70 ± 0.73B 4.15 ± 0.32A 19.58 ± 4.47AB 61 ± 4 B R1-2370 175 ± 23A 61 ± 8AB 13.85 ± 0.38B 3.36 ± 0.41C 18.98 ± 4.49AB 64 ± 9 B Mh-93 193 ± 16A 67 ± 4A 13.86 ± 0.76B 3.18 ± 0.25CD 16.79 ± 3.43BC 77 ± 5A Control 130 ± 10B 47 ± 6C 10.23 ± 1.03C 2.77 ± 0.69D 15.24 ± 4.0C 51 ± 4C Feng Chi et al.,Applied and Envir. Microbiology 71 (2005), 7271-7278
  • 51. • Check out SRI website: http://ciifad.cornell.edu/sri/ • Email: ciifad@cornell.edu or ntu1@cornell.edu or • Email: tefysaina.tnr@simicro.mg